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181. Association Between the Order of Macrolide and Cephalosporin Treatment and Outcomes of Pneumonia (Full text)

Association Between the Order of Macrolide and Cephalosporin Treatment and Outcomes of Pneumonia Many patients hospitalized with pneumonia are treated with combination macrolide/cephalosporin therapy. Macrolides have immunomodulatory effects and do not directly cause bacterial lysis. These effects suggest the possibility that initial treatment with a macrolide before a cephalosporin could improve patient outcomes by preventing the inflammatory response to rapid bacterial lysis that can (...) be caused by cephalosporin treatment. This study explores whether initial treatment for pneumonia with a macrolide before a cephalosporin is associated with better patient outcomes than treatment with a cephalosporin before a macrolide.This is a retrospective cohort study using a clinically rich database derived from electronic health records of 71 hospitals. We compared outcomes for pneumonia patients who received intravenous treatment with a macrolide at least 1 hour before a cephalosporin, versus

2017 Open forum infectious diseases PubMed abstract

182. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of macrolide resistance among Staphylococcus aureus isolates in Isfahan, Iran (Full text)

Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of macrolide resistance among Staphylococcus aureus isolates in Isfahan, Iran Macrolide, lincosamide and streptogramin B (MLS B) are noteworthy antibiotics for the treatment of Staphylococcus aureus infections. The purpose of this study, was to determine the phenotypic and genotypic characterization of macrolide resistance, among S. aureus, isolated from clinical samples and nasal swabs.Totally, 162 non-duplicate S. aureus isolates were collected from (...) B (iMLS B), macrolide-streptogramin B-resistant (MS B) and lincosamide-streptogramin-A resistance (LS A) phenotype was 32%, 6%, 6% and 2%, respectively. The most common erythromycin resistance genes, in S. aureus isolates were ermC (35.2%), followed by ermA (20.4%) and msrA (17.3%). Meanwhile, msrA was detected in 43.6% of MRSA isolates. The frequency of coexistence of ermA+ermC+msrA, in S. aureus isolates was 7% and it was only detected in MRSA isolates.In the current study, cMLS B phenotype

2017 Iranian journal of microbiology PubMed abstract

183. Macrolide-resistant Mycoplasma pneumoniae prevalence and clinical aspects in adult patients with community-acquired pneumonia in China: a prospective multicenter surveillance study (Full text)

Macrolide-resistant Mycoplasma pneumoniae prevalence and clinical aspects in adult patients with community-acquired pneumonia in China: a prospective multicenter surveillance study Drug resistant Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MP) is a rising issue in the management of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). Epidemiological monitoring is essential for identifying resistant patterns of MP isolates against various antibiotics in adult CAP patients.This is a prospectively designed multicenter study conducted (...) and β-lactams plus quinolones. Macrolide resistance was as high as 80% and 72% against erythromycin (ERY) and azithromycin (AZM) respectively, which were associated with the A2063G transition mutation in domain V of the 23S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene. Six strains with mild to moderate ERY-resistant level were still susceptible to AZM. Tetracycline (TET), minocycline (MIN) and quinolones [moxifloxacin (MOX) and fluoroquinolones] had no signs of resistance.High resistance was observed with macrolides

2017 Journal of thoracic disease PubMed abstract

184. Outpatient Macrolide Antibiotic Prescribing in the United States, 2008–2011 (Full text)

Outpatient Macrolide Antibiotic Prescribing in the United States, 2008–2011 National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey data were used to assess outpatient macrolide prescribing and selection. Conditions for which macrolides are firstline therapy represented 5% of macrolide prescribing. Family practitioners selected macrolides for children more frequently than pediatricians. Macrolides are an important antibiotic stewardship target.

2017 Open forum infectious diseases PubMed abstract

185. Dissemination of macrolides, fusidic acid and mupirocin resistance among Staphylococcus aureus clinical isolates (Full text)

Dissemination of macrolides, fusidic acid and mupirocin resistance among Staphylococcus aureus clinical isolates As an increasingly common cause of skin infections worldwide, the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) across China has not been well documented. This literature aims to study the resistance profile to commonly used antibiotics, including macrolides, fusidic acid (FA) and mupirocin, and its relationship to the genetic typing in 34 S. aureus strains (...) , including 6 methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), isolated from a Chinese hospital. The MIC results showed 27 (79.4%), 1 (2.9%) and 6 (17.6%) isolates were resistant to macrolides, FA and mupirocin, respectively. Among 27 macrolide-resistant S. aureus isolates, 5 (18.5%) were also resistant to mupirocin and 1 (3.7%) to FA. A total of 13 available resistant genes were analyzed in 28 antibiotic-resistant strains using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The positive rates of macrolide-resistant ermA, ermB

2017 Oncotarget PubMed abstract

186. French Prospective Clinical Evaluation of the Aptima Mycoplasma genitalium CE-IVD Assay and Macrolide Resistance Detection Using Three Distinct Assays (Full text)

French Prospective Clinical Evaluation of the Aptima Mycoplasma genitalium CE-IVD Assay and Macrolide Resistance Detection Using Three Distinct Assays The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical performance of the Aptima Mycoplasma genitalium transcription-mediated amplification (MG-TMA) CE-marked for in vitro diagnosis (CE-IVD) assay for the detection of Mycoplasma genitalium in male and female clinical samples in comparison with the in-house real-time PCR (in-house PCR) assay routinely (...) used in our laboratory. A total of 1,431 clinical specimens obtained from 1,235 patients were prospectively collected at the Bacteriology Department of Bordeaux University Hospital (France). Additional research-use-only Aptima M. genitalium transcription-mediated amplification (TMA) assays, Alt1-TMA and Alt2-TMA, were performed on discordant specimens to determine M. genitalium infection status. All confirmed M. genitalium-positive specimens were tested for macrolide resistance using three assays

2017 Journal of clinical microbiology PubMed abstract

187. Mycoplasma genitalium Macrolide and Fluoroquinolone Resistance Detection and Clinical Implications in a Selected Cohort in New Zealand (Full text)

Mycoplasma genitalium Macrolide and Fluoroquinolone Resistance Detection and Clinical Implications in a Selected Cohort in New Zealand Mycoplasma genitalium has been associated with infections of the genitourinary tract, and prevalence is secondary to Chlamydia trachomatis The clinical observation of increasing treatment failure indicating antibiotic resistance, especially in cases of recurrent urethritis, has been confirmed by molecular testing. Mutations in the 23S rRNA gene can cause (...) macrolide resistance, and topoisomerase/gyrase mutations can cause fluoroquinolone resistance. In this study, 115 M. genitalium DNA-positive samples were analyzed. Eighty-nine (77.4%) samples had a 23S rRNA mutation present, and 26 (22.6%) were wild type (no resistance mutation). Fluoroquinolone mutation screening was performed on 86 (74.8%) of the 115 samples, of which 20 (23.3%) samples had a mutation or mutations associated with increased resistance. This study shows the increasing antibiotic

2017 Journal of clinical microbiology PubMed abstract

188. The macrolide antibiotic renaissance (Full text)

The macrolide antibiotic renaissance Macrolides represent a large family of protein synthesis inhibitors of great clinical interest due to their applicability to human medicine. Macrolides are composed of a macrocyclic lactone of different ring sizes, to which one or more deoxy-sugar or amino sugar residues are attached. Macrolides act as antibiotics by binding to bacterial 50S ribosomal subunit and interfering with protein synthesis. The high affinity of macrolides for bacterial ribosomes (...) , together with the highly conserved structure of ribosomes across virtually all of the bacterial species, is consistent with their broad-spectrum activity. Since the discovery of the progenitor macrolide, erythromycin, in 1950, many derivatives have been synthesised, leading to compounds with better bioavailability and acid stability and improved pharmacokinetics. These efforts led to the second generation of macrolides, including well-known members such as azithromycin and clarithromycin. Subsequently

2017 British journal of pharmacology PubMed abstract

189. New Mandelalides Expand a Macrolide Series of Mitochondrial Inhibitors (Full text)

New Mandelalides Expand a Macrolide Series of Mitochondrial Inhibitors Mandelalides A-D (1-4) are macrocyclic polyketides known to have an unusual bioactivity profile influenced by compound glycosylation and growth phase of cultured cells. The isolation and characterization of additional natural congeners, mandelalides E-L (5-12), and the supply of synthetic compounds 1 and 12, as well as seco-mandelalide A methyl ester (13), have now facilitated mechanism of action and structure-activity (...) relationship studies. Glycosylated mandelalides are effective inhibitors of aerobic respiration in living cells. Macrolides 1 and 2 inhibit mitochondrial function similar to oligomycin A and apoptolidin A, selective inhibitors of the mammalian ATP synthase (complex V). 1 inhibits ATP synthase activity from isolated mitochondria and triggers caspase-dependent apoptosis in HeLa cells, which are more sensitive to inhibition by 1 in the presence of the glycolysis inhibitor 2-deoxyglucose. Thus, mandelalide

2017 Journal of medicinal chemistry PubMed abstract

190. Nonantibiotic macrolides restore airway macrophage phagocytic function with potential anti-inflammatory effects in chronic lung diseases (Full text)

Nonantibiotic macrolides restore airway macrophage phagocytic function with potential anti-inflammatory effects in chronic lung diseases We reported defective efferocytosis associated with cigarette smoking and/or airway inflammation in chronic lung diseases, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, severe asthma, and childhood bronchiectasis. We also showed defects in phagocytosis of nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi), a common colonizer of the lower airway in these diseases (...) . These defects could be substantially overcome with low-dose azithromycin; however, chronic use may induce bacterial resistance. The aim of the present study was therefore to investigate two novel macrolides-2'-desoxy-9-(S)-erythromycylamine (GS-459755) and azithromycin-based 2'-desoxy molecule (GS-560660)-with significantly diminished antibiotic activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumonia, Moraxella catarrhalis, and H. influenzae We tested their effects on efferocytosis, phagocytosis

2017 American Journal of Physiology - Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology PubMed abstract

191. Evaluation of a Commercial Multiplex Quantitative PCR (qPCR) Assay for Simultaneous Detection of Mycoplasma genitalium and Macrolide Resistance-Associated Mutations in Clinical Specimens (Full text)

Evaluation of a Commercial Multiplex Quantitative PCR (qPCR) Assay for Simultaneous Detection of Mycoplasma genitalium and Macrolide Resistance-Associated Mutations in Clinical Specimens 28031435 2018 07 24 2018 11 13 1098-660X 55 3 2017 03 Journal of clinical microbiology J. Clin. Microbiol. Evaluation of a Commercial Multiplex Quantitative PCR (qPCR) Assay for Simultaneous Detection of Mycoplasma genitalium and Macrolide Resistance-Associated Mutations in Clinical Specimens. 978-979 10.1128 (...) , France. eng Evaluation Studies Letter Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't 2016 12 28 United States J Clin Microbiol 7505564 0095-1137 0 Anti-Bacterial Agents 0 Macrolides IM Anti-Bacterial Agents pharmacology Drug Resistance, Bacterial Female Genotyping Techniques methods Humans Macrolides pharmacology Male Microbial Sensitivity Tests methods Molecular Diagnostic Techniques methods Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction methods Mutation Mycoplasma Infections diagnosis microbiology Mycoplasma genitalium

2017 Journal of clinical microbiology PubMed abstract

192. Short-term increase in prevalence of nasopharyngeal carriage of macrolide-resistant Staphylococcus aureus following mass drug administration with azithromycin for trachoma control (Full text)

Short-term increase in prevalence of nasopharyngeal carriage of macrolide-resistant Staphylococcus aureus following mass drug administration with azithromycin for trachoma control Mass drug administration (MDA) with azithromycin is a corner-stone of trachoma control however it may drive the emergence of antimicrobial resistance. In a cluster-randomized trial (Clinical trial gov NCT00792922), we compared the reduction in the prevalence of active trachoma in communities that received three annual (...) rounds of MDA to that in communities that received a single treatment round. We used the framework of this trial to carry out an opportunistic study to investigate if the increased rounds of treatment resulted in increased prevalence of nasopharyngeal carriage of macrolide-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Three cross-sectional surveys were conducted in two villages receiving three annual rounds of MDA (3 × treatment arm). Surveys were conducted immediately before the third round of MDA (CSS-1

2017 BMC microbiology PubMed abstract

193. A Review Study on Macrolides Isolated from Cyanobacteria (Full text)

A Review Study on Macrolides Isolated from Cyanobacteria Cyanobacteria are rich sources of structurally-diverse molecules with promising pharmacological activities. Marine cyanobacteria have been proven to be true producers of some significant bioactive metabolites from marine invertebrates. Macrolides are a class of bioactive compounds isolated from marine organisms, including marine microorganisms in particular. The structural characteristics of macrolides from cyanobacteria mainly manifest (...) in the diversity of carbon skeletons, complexes of chlorinated thiazole-containing molecules and complex spatial configuration. In the present work, we systematically reviewed the structures and pharmacological activities of macrolides from cyanobacteria. Our data would help establish an effective support system for the discovery and development of cyanobacterium-derived macrolides.

2017 Marine drugs PubMed abstract

194. Examining the role of macrolides and host immunity in combatting filarial parasites (Full text)

Examining the role of macrolides and host immunity in combatting filarial parasites Macrocyclic lactones (MLs), specifically the avermectins and milbemycins, are known for their effectiveness against a broad spectrum of disease-causing nematodes and arthropods in humans and animals. In most nematodes, drugs in this class induce paralysis, resulting in starvation, impaired ability to remain associated with their anatomical environment, and death of all life stages. Initially, this was also

2017 Parasites & vectors PubMed abstract

195. PharmGKB summary: macrolide antibiotic pathway, pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics (Full text)

PharmGKB summary: macrolide antibiotic pathway, pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics 28146011 2018 07 09 2018 11 13 1744-6880 27 4 2017 04 Pharmacogenetics and genomics Pharmacogenet. Genomics PharmGKB summary: Macrolide antibiotic pathway, pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics. 164-167 10.1097/FPC.0000000000000270 Fohner Alison E AE Departments of aGenetics bBioengineering, School of Medicine, Stanford University, Stanford, California cDivision of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmacy and Comprehensive (...) Cancer Center, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, USA. Sparreboom Alex A Altman Russ B RB Klein Teri E TE eng R24 GM061374 GM NIGMS NIH HHS United States Journal Article Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural United States Pharmacogenet Genomics 101231005 1744-6872 0 Anti-Bacterial Agents 0 Macrolides 63937KV33D Erythromycin 83905-01-5 Azithromycin H1250JIK0A Clarithromycin IM Anti-Bacterial Agents chemistry therapeutic use Azithromycin therapeutic use Bacteria drug effects pathogenicity

2017 Pharmacogenetics and genomics PubMed abstract

196. Prospective Evaluation of ResistancePlus MG, a New Multiplex Quantitative PCR Assay for Detection of Mycoplasma genitalium and Macrolide Resistance (Full text)

Prospective Evaluation of ResistancePlus MG, a New Multiplex Quantitative PCR Assay for Detection of Mycoplasma genitalium and Macrolide Resistance Mycoplasma genitalium is a significant pathogen for which first-line treatment is becoming less effective due to increased resistance to macrolides. As conventional culture and antimicrobial susceptibility testing is not feasible for routine detection of this pathogen, molecular markers such as detection of mutations in the 23S rRNA gene have been (...) described to predict resistance. Recently, a novel multiplex quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay, ResistancePlus MG, has been described for the simultaneous detection of Mycoplasma genitalium and macrolide resistance. In the current study, the clinical performance of the assay was evaluated on 1,089 consecutive urine and anogenital swab samples in symptomatic and asymptomatic male and female patients. Overall, 6.0% were positive for M. genitalium, with 63.1% having macrolide resistance-associated mutations

2017 Journal of clinical microbiology PubMed abstract

197. Borrelidins C–E: New Antibacterial Macrolides from a Saltern-Derived Halophilic Nocardiopsis sp. (Full text)

Borrelidins C–E: New Antibacterial Macrolides from a Saltern-Derived Halophilic Nocardiopsis sp. Chemical investigation of a halophilic actinomycete strain belonging to the genus Nocardiopsis inhabiting a hypersaline saltern led to the discovery of new 18-membered macrolides with nitrile functionality, borrelidins C-E (1-3), along with a previously reported borrelidin (4). The planar structures of borrelidins C-E, which are new members of the rare borrelidin class of antibiotics, were

2017 Marine drugs PubMed abstract

198. Macrolides selectively inhibit mutant KCNJ5 potassium channels that cause aldosterone-producing adenoma (Full text)

Macrolides selectively inhibit mutant KCNJ5 potassium channels that cause aldosterone-producing adenoma Aldosterone-producing adenomas (APAs) are benign tumors of the adrenal gland that constitutively produce the salt-retaining steroid hormone aldosterone and cause millions of cases of severe hypertension worldwide. Either of 2 somatic mutations in the potassium channel KCNJ5 (G151R and L168R, hereafter referred to as KCNJ5MUT) in adrenocortical cells account for half of APAs worldwide (...) of macrolide antibiotics, including roxithromycin, that potently inhibit KCNJ5MUT, but not KCNJ5WT. Electrophysiology demonstrated direct KCNJ5MUT inhibition. In human aldosterone-producing adrenocortical cancer cell lines, roxithromycin inhibited KCNJ5MUT-induced induction of CYP11B2 (encoding aldosterone synthase) expression and aldosterone production. Further exploration of macrolides showed that KCNJ5MUT was similarly selectively inhibited by idremcinal, a macrolide motilin receptor agonist

2017 The Journal of clinical investigation PubMed abstract

199. Rare Polyene-polyol Macrolides from Mangrove-derived Streptomyces sp. ZQ4BG (Full text)

Rare Polyene-polyol Macrolides from Mangrove-derived Streptomyces sp. ZQ4BG Bioactive natural products from mangrove-derived actinomycetes are important sources for discovery of drug lead compounds. In this study, an extract prepared from culture of an actinomycete Streptomyces sp. ZQ4BG isolated from mangrove soils was found to have activity in inhibiting proliferation of glioma cells. Large culture of this mangrove actinomycete in Gause's liquid medium resulted in isolation of seven novel (...) polyene-polyol macrolides, named as flavofungins III-IX (3-9), together with known flavofungins I (1) and II (2) and spectinabilin (10). Structures of these isolated compounds were elucidated by extensive NMR analyses and HRESIMS data. The stereochemical assignments were achieved by a combination of NOE information, universal NMR database, and chemical reactions including preparation of acetonide derivatives and Mosher esters. Flavofungins IV-VIII (4-8) are rare 32-membered polyene-polyol macrolides

2017 Scientific reports PubMed abstract

200. The Current State of Macrolide Resistance in Campylobacter spp.: Trends and Impacts of Resistance Mechanisms (Full text)

The Current State of Macrolide Resistance in Campylobacter spp.: Trends and Impacts of Resistance Mechanisms Campylobacter spp., especially Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli, are leading bacterial foodborne pathogens worldwide. In the United States, an estimated 0.8 million cases of campylobacteriosis occur annually, mostly involving C. jejuni Campylobacteriosis is generally self-limiting, but in severe cases, treatment with antibiotics may be mandated. The increasing incidence (...) of fluoroquinolone resistance in Campylobacter has rendered macrolides such as erythromycin and azithromycin the drugs of choice for human campylobacteriosis. The prevalence of macrolide resistance in C. jejuni remains low, but macrolide resistance can be common in C. coli Substitutions in the 23S rRNA gene, specifically A2075G, and less frequently A2074C/G, remain the most common mechanism for high-level resistance to macrolides. In C. jejuni, resistance mediated by such substitutions is accompanied

2017 Applied and environmental microbiology PubMed abstract

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