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1. Adverse events in people taking macrolide antibiotics versus placebo for any indication. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Adverse events in people taking macrolide antibiotics versus placebo for any indication. Macrolide antibiotics (macrolides) are among the most commonly prescribed antibiotics worldwide and are used for a wide range of infections. However, macrolides also expose people to the risk of adverse events. The current understanding of adverse events is mostly derived from observational studies, which are subject to bias because it is hard to distinguish events caused by antibiotics from events caused (...) by the diseases being treated. Because adverse events are treatment-specific, rather than disease-specific, it is possible to increase the number of adverse events available for analysis by combining randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of the same treatment across different diseases.To quantify the incidences of reported adverse events in people taking macrolide antibiotics compared to placebo for any indication.We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), which includes

2019 Cochrane

2. Macrolide antibiotics for bronchiectasis. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Macrolide antibiotics for bronchiectasis. Bronchiectasis is a chronic respiratory disease characterised by abnormal and irreversible dilatation and distortion of the smaller airways. Bacterial colonisation of the damaged airways leads to chronic cough and sputum production, often with breathlessness and further structural damage to the airways. Long-term macrolide antibiotic therapy may suppress bacterial infection and reduce inflammation, leading to fewer exacerbations, fewer symptoms (...) , improved lung function, and improved quality of life. Further evidence is required on the efficacy of macrolides in terms of specific bacterial eradication and the extent of antibiotic resistance.To determine the impact of macrolide antibiotics in the treatment of adults and children with bronchiectasis.We identified trials from the Cochrane Airways Trials Register, which contains studies identified through multiple electronic searches and handsearches of other sources. We also searched trial

2018 Cochrane

3. Macrolides for treatment of Haemophilus ducreyi infection in sexually active adults. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Macrolides for treatment of Haemophilus ducreyi infection in sexually active adults. Chancroid is a genital ulcerative disease caused by Haemophilus ducreyi. This microorganism is endemic in Africa, where it can cause up to 10% of genital ulcers. Macrolides may be an effective alternative to treat chancroid and, based on their oral administration and duration of therapy, could be considered as first line therapy.To assess the effectiveness and safety of macrolides for treatment of H ducreyi (...) infection in sexually active adults.We searched the Cochrane STI Group Specialized Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, LILACS, WHO ICTRP, ClinicalTrials.gov and Web of Science to 30 October 2017. We also handsearched conference proceedings and reference lists of retrieved studies.Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing macrolides in different regimens or with other therapeutic alternatives for chancroid.Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion, extracted data and assessed

2017 Cochrane

4. Mechanism of macrolide-induced inhibition of pneumolysin release involves impairment of autolysin release in macrolide-resistant <i>Streptococcus pneumoniae</i>. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Mechanism of macrolide-induced inhibition of pneumolysin release involves impairment of autolysin release in macrolide-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae. Streptococcus pneumoniae is a leading cause of community-acquired pneumonia. Over the past 2 decades, macrolide resistance among S. pneumoniae organisms has been increasing steadily and has escalated at an alarming rate worldwide. However, the use of macrolides in the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia has been reported (...) to be effective regardless of the antibiotic susceptibility of the causative pneumococci. Although previous studies suggested that sub-MICs of macrolides inhibit the production of the pneumococcal pore-forming toxin pneumolysin by macrolide-resistant S. pneumoniae (MRSP), the underlying mechanisms of the inhibitory effect have not been fully elucidated. Here, we show that the release of pneumococcal autolysin, which promotes cell lysis and the release of pneumolysin, was inhibited by treatment

2018 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

5. Therapeutic Efficacy and Safety of Prolonged Macrolide, Corticosteroid, Doxycycline, and Levofloxacin against Macrolide-Unresponsive Mycoplasma pneumoniae Pneumonia in Children Full Text available with Trip Pro

Therapeutic Efficacy and Safety of Prolonged Macrolide, Corticosteroid, Doxycycline, and Levofloxacin against Macrolide-Unresponsive Mycoplasma pneumoniae Pneumonia in Children We aimed to compare the therapeutic efficacy of prolonged macrolide (PMC), corticosteroids (CST), doxycycline (DXC), and levofloxacin (LFX) against macrolide-unresponsive Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MP) pneumonia in children and to evaluate the safety of the secondary treatment agents.We retrospectively analyzed the data (...) of patients with MP pneumonia hospitalized between January 2015 and April 2017. Macrolide-unresponsiveness was clinically defined with a persistent fever of ≥ 38.0°C at ≥ 72 hours after macrolide treatment. The cases were divided into four groups: PMC, CST, DXC, and LFX. We compared the time to defervescence (TTD) after secondary treatment and the TTD after initial macrolide treatment in each group with adjustment using propensity score-matching analysis.Among 1,165 cases of MP pneumonia, 190 (16.3%) were

2018 Journal of Korean medical science

6. Evaluation of the Lightmix<sup>®</sup>Mycoplasma macrolide assay for the detection of macrolide resistant Mycoplasma pneumoniae in pneumonia patients. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Evaluation of the Lightmix®Mycoplasma macrolide assay for the detection of macrolide resistant Mycoplasma pneumoniae in pneumonia patients. Rapid detection of macrolide resistance-associated mutations in Mycoplasma pneumoniae is crucial for effective antimicrobial treatment. We evaluated the Lightmix Mycoplasma macrolide assay for the detection of point mutations at nucleotide positions 2063 and 2064 in the 23S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene of M. pneumoniae that confer macrolide (...) ) and a specificity of 100% (95% confidence interval, 97.5-100) as the detected M. pneumoniae genotype (148 wild type and 15 non-wild type) was confirmed by 23S rRNA sequencing in all samples.The Lightmix assay is an easy-to-use and accurate molecular test that allows rapid determination of macrolide resistance in M. pneumoniae.Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

2018 Clinical Microbiology and Infection

7. Prevalence of macrolide resistance in Treponema pallidum is associated with macrolide consumption. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Prevalence of macrolide resistance in Treponema pallidum is associated with macrolide consumption. We hypothesized that the large global variations in the prevalence of macrolide resistance in Treponema pallidum are related to differences in population-level macrolide consumption. The hypothesis was tested by, at a country-level, regressing the peak prevalence of macrolide resistance against the national macrolide consumption in the year prior to this, controlling for the year of the resistance (...) prevalence estimate. A strong association was found between the per capita consumption of macrolides and macrolide resistance (coefficient 0.7, 95 % confidence interval 0.2-0.12, P=0.009).

2018 Journal of Medical Microbiology

8. Therapeutic efficacy of azithromycin, clarithromycin, minocycline and tosufloxacin against macrolide-resistant and macrolide-sensitive Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia in pediatric patients. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Therapeutic efficacy of azithromycin, clarithromycin, minocycline and tosufloxacin against macrolide-resistant and macrolide-sensitive Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia in pediatric patients. To clarify therapeutic effects of azithromycin, clarithromycin, minocycline and tosufloxacin against macrolide-resistant Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MRMP) pneumonia and against macrolide-sensitive Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MSMP) pneumonia in pediatric patients.A prospective, multicenter observational study (...) with MRMP compared to the duration of fever in patients treated with macrolides.

2017 PLoS ONE

9. Tailored Helicobacter pylori eradication based on prior intake of macrolide antibiotics allows the use of triple therapy with optimal results in an area with high clarithromycin resistance. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Tailored Helicobacter pylori eradication based on prior intake of macrolide antibiotics allows the use of triple therapy with optimal results in an area with high clarithromycin resistance. the previous intake of macrolide antibiotics is associated with a failure to eradicate Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) with clarithromycin-containing regimens. However, the standard triple therapy achieves eradication rates of over 90% in patients without a previous use of macrolides in our health area (...) . The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of an H. pylori eradication strategy based on the intake of macrolides by the patient during the previous years.one hundred and sixty-nine patients with H. pylori infection were prospectively included in the study. The electronic medical record of each patient was reviewed at the time of inclusion. Depending on their previous intake of macrolides, patients were assigned to one of two eradication regimens: group A) patients without a previous intake

2019 Revista espanola de enfermedades digestivas : organo oficial de la Sociedad Espanola de Patologia Digestiva Controlled trial quality: uncertain

10. Macrolides for diffuse panbronchiolitis. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Macrolides for diffuse panbronchiolitis. Diffuse panbronchiolitis (DPB) is a chronic airways disease predominantly affecting East Asians. Macrolides, a class of antibiotics, have been used as the main treatment for DPB, based on evidence from retrospective and non-randomised studies.To assess the efficacy and safety of macrolides for DPB.We searched CENTRAL (2014, Issue 6), MEDLINE (1966 to July week 1, 2014), EMBASE (1974 to July 2014), Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (CBM) (1978 (...) to July 2014), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) (1974 to July 2014), KoreaMed (1997 to July 2014) and Database of Japana Centra Revuo Medicina (1983 to July 2014).Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) or quasi-RCTs assessing the effect of macrolides for DPB.Two review authors independently assessed study quality and subsequent risk of bias according to The Cochrane Collaboration's tool for assessing risk of bias. The primary outcomes were five-year survival rate, lung function and clinical

2015 Cochrane

11. Macrolides for chronic asthma. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Macrolides for chronic asthma. Asthma is a chronic disease in which inflammation of the airways causes symptomatic coughing, wheezing, and difficult breathing. The inflammation may have different underlying causes, including a reaction to infection in the lungs. Macrolides are antibiotics with antimicrobial and antiinflammatory activities that have been used long-term to control asthma symptoms.To assess the effects of macrolides for managing chronic asthma.We searched the Cochrane Airways (...) Group Specialised Register up to April 2015. We also manually searched bibliographies of previously published reviews and conference proceedings and contacted study authors. We included records published in any language in the search.Randomised controlled clinical trials involving both children and adults with chronic asthma treated with macrolides versus placebo for more than four weeks .Two reviewers independently examined all records identified in the searches then reviewed the full text of all

2015 Cochrane

12. A Population-Based Assessment of the Impact of 7- and 13-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccines on Macrolide-Resistant Invasive Pneumococcal Disease: Emergence and Decline of Streptococcus pneumoniae Serotype 19A (CC320) With Dual Macrolide Resistance Mec Full Text available with Trip Pro

A Population-Based Assessment of the Impact of 7- and 13-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccines on Macrolide-Resistant Invasive Pneumococcal Disease: Emergence and Decline of Streptococcus pneumoniae Serotype 19A (CC320) With Dual Macrolide Resistance Mec Macrolide efflux encoded by mef(E)/mel and ribosomal methylation encoded by erm(B) confer most macrolide resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae. Introduction of the heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) in 2000 reduced macrolide (...) -resistant invasive pneumococcal disease (MR-IPD) due to PCV7 serotypes (6B, 9V, 14, 19F, and 23F).In this study, the impact of PCV7 and PCV13 on MR-IPD was prospectively assessed. A 20-year study of IPD performed in metropolitan Atlanta, Georgia, using active, population-based surveillance formed the basis for this study. Genetic determinants of macrolide resistance were evaluated using established techniques.During the decade of PCV7 use (2000-2009), MR-IPD decreased rapidly until 2002 and subsequently

2017 Clinical Infectious Diseases

13. Development of macrolide resistance-associated mutations after macrolide treatment in children infected with Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Development of macrolide resistance-associated mutations after macrolide treatment in children infected with Mycoplasma pneumoniae. To determine the timing of the emergence of macrolide-resistant mutations after macrolide treatment in individuals with Mycoplasma pneumoniae infections.Between October 2011 and December 2013, serial pharyngeal swab specimens were collected before and after macrolide treatment from 21 otherwise healthy children infected with M. pneumoniae without macrolide (...) -resistant mutations. The copy numbers of a M. pneumoniae gene and the proportion of clones showing macrolide-resistance mutations were determined for each specimen.After macrolide treatment (10-15 mg kg-1 day-1 clarithromycin for 5-10 days or 10 mg kg-1 day-1 azithromycin for 3 days), fever resolved in 19 (90 %) of 21 children within 1 to 2 days, and the M. pneumoniae gene copy number decreased in all but one specimen in the second set of specimens relative to the number in the corresponding initial

2017 Journal of Medical Microbiology

14. Associations between use of macrolide antibiotics during pregnancy and adverse child outcomes: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Associations between use of macrolide antibiotics during pregnancy and adverse child outcomes: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Evidence on adverse effects of maternal macrolide use during pregnancy is inconsistent. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate the association between macrolide use during pregnancy and adverse fetal and child outcomes.We included observational studies and randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that recorded macrolide use during pregnancy (...) and child outcomes. We prioritized comparisons of macrolides with alternative antibiotics (mainly penicillins or cephalosporins) for comparability of indication and effect. Random effects meta-analysis was used to derive pooled odds ratios (OR) for each outcome. Subgroup analyses were performed according to specific types (generic forms) of macrolide. Of 11,186 citations identified, 19 (10 observational, 9 RCTs) studies were included (21 articles including 228,556 participants). Macrolide prescribing

2019 PLoS ONE

15. Genetic characterization of Mycoplasma pneumoniae isolated in Osaka between 2011 and 2017: Decreased detection rate of macrolide-resistance and increase of p1 gene type 2 lineage strains. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Genetic characterization of Mycoplasma pneumoniae isolated in Osaka between 2011 and 2017: Decreased detection rate of macrolide-resistance and increase of p1 gene type 2 lineage strains. We characterized 419 Mycoplasma pneumoniae isolates collected between 2011 and 2017 in Osaka prefecture of Japan. This analysis revealed high prevalence of macrolide-resistant M. pneumoniae (MRMP) in Osaka during 2011 and 2014 with annual detection rates of MRMP strains between 71.4% and 81.8%. However (...) , in 2015 and after, the detection rate of MRMP decreased significantly and did not exceed 50%. Genotyping of the p1 gene of these isolates showed that most of MRMP strains harbored type 1 p1 gene. In contrast, strains expressing p1 gene type 2 or its variant were largely macrolide-susceptible M. pneumoniae (MSMP) strains. There was a strong correlation between p1 gene genotype and the presence of mutations conferring macrolide resistance in M. pneumoniae isolated in Osaka. These results indicate

2019 PLoS ONE

16. The timing of azithromycin treatment is not associated with the clinical prognosis of childhood Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia in high macrolide-resistant prevalence settings. Full Text available with Trip Pro

The timing of azithromycin treatment is not associated with the clinical prognosis of childhood Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia in high macrolide-resistant prevalence settings. Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection is a major cause of community-acquired pneumonia in children. We performed a retrospective study to evaluate the clinical impact of the timing of azithromycin treatment in children with Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia in high macrolide-resistant prevalence settings.A total of 623 patients (...) is not associated with the clinical prognosis of Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia in children in high macrolide-resistant Mycoplasma pneumoniae prevalence settings.

2018 PLoS ONE

17. Macrolides for diffuse panbronchiolitis. (Abstract)

Macrolides for diffuse panbronchiolitis. Diffuse panbronchiolitis (DPB) is a chronic airways disease predominantly affecting East Asians. Macrolides, a class of antibiotics, have been used as the main treatment for DPB, based on evidence from retrospective and non-randomised studies.To assess the efficacy and safety of macrolides for DPB.We searched CENTRAL 2012, Issue 7, MEDLINE (1966 to July week 2, 2012), EMBASE (1974 to July 2012), Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (CBM) (1978 to July (...) 2012), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) (1974 to July 2012), KoreaMed (1997 to July 2012) and Database of Japana Centra Revuo Medicina (1983 to July 2012).Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) or quasi-RCTs assessing the effect of macrolides for DPB.Two review authors independently assessed study quality and subsequent risk of bias according to the Cochrane Collaboration's tool for assessing risk of bias. The primary outcomes were five-year survival rate, lung function and clinical

2013 Cochrane

18. Antimicrobial susceptibility and impact of macrolide antibiotics on Moraxella catarrhalis in the upper and lower airways of children with chronic endobronchial suppuration. (Abstract)

Antimicrobial susceptibility and impact of macrolide antibiotics on Moraxella catarrhalis in the upper and lower airways of children with chronic endobronchial suppuration. Moraxella catarrhalis is an important but insufficiently studied respiratory pathogen.To determine antibiotic susceptibility and impact of recent antibiotics on M. catarrhalis from children with chronic endobronchial suppuration.We cultured nasopharyngeal (NP) swabs and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluids collected from (...) children who were prospectively enrolled in studies of chronic cough and had flexible bronchoscopy performed. Recent β-lactam or macrolide antibiotic use was recorded. M. catarrhalis isolates stored at -80 °C were re-cultured and susceptibility determined to a range of antibiotics including the macrolide antibiotic erythromycin.Data from concurrently collected NP and BAL specimens were available from 547 children (median age 2.4 years) enrolled from 2007 to 2016. M. catarrhalis NP carriage was detected

2019 Journal of Medical Microbiology

19. Meta-analysis of macrolide maintenance therapy for prevention of disease exacerbations in patients with noncystic fibrosis bronchiectasis. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Meta-analysis of macrolide maintenance therapy for prevention of disease exacerbations in patients with noncystic fibrosis bronchiectasis. Macrolide maintenance treatment remains controversial for patients with noncystic fibrosis (non-CF) bronchiectasis, we performed a meta-analysis to estimate the benefits and safety of macrolides therapy in adults and children with non-CF bronchiectasis.PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library, and Web of Science databases were searched for all the randomized (...) controlled trials of macrolides for treating non-CF bronchiectasis. The primary outcome was improvement of bronchiectasis exacerbations. Secondary outcomes included adverse events and macrolide resistance.A total of 10 studies involving 602 patients were included in the analysis. Pooled results showed that macrolide therapy significantly reduced the number of patients who suffered from exacerbations (RR = 1.56, 95% CI = 1.14-2.14, P = .006, I = 72%), number of patients who experienced at least 3

2019 Medicine

20. Emerging <i>erm</i>(B)-Mediated Macrolide Resistance Associated with Novel Multidrug Resistance Genomic Islands in <i>Campylobacter</i>. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Emerging erm(B)-Mediated Macrolide Resistance Associated with Novel Multidrug Resistance Genomic Islands in Campylobacter. The rapid dissemination of the macrolide resistance gene erm(B) will likely compromise the efficacy of macrolides as the treatment of choice for campylobacteriosis. More importantly, erm(B) is always associated with several multidrug resistance genomic islands (MDRGIs), which confer resistance to multiple other antimicrobials. Continuous monitoring (...) of the emergence of erm(B) and analysis of its associated genetic environments are crucial for our understanding of macrolide resistance in Campylobacter In this study, 290 Campylobacter isolates (216 Campylobacter coli isolates and 74 Campylobacter jejuni isolates) were obtained from 1,039 fecal samples collected in 2016 from pigs and chickens from three regions of China (344 samples from Guangdong, 335 samples from Shanghai, and 360 samples from Shandong). Overall, 74 isolates (72 C. coli isolates and 2 C

2019 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

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