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fluoroquinolones

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161. First Insight Into the Fluoroquinolone and Aminoglycoside Resistance of Multidrug-Resistant <i>Mycobacterium tuberculosis</i> in Saudi Arabia. Full Text available with Trip Pro

First Insight Into the Fluoroquinolone and Aminoglycoside Resistance of Multidrug-Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Saudi Arabia. AbstractIn Saudi Arabia, there were no nationwide screening studies conducted so far to determine the aminoglycoside and fluoroquinolone resistance among multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) isolates. Therefore, as the first attempt in the country, a retrospective analysis has been conducted on a nationwide collection of 2,956 M. tuberculosis (...) clinical isolates screened with phenotypic drug susceptibility testing to define MDR-TB. Enrolled MDR-TB isolates were subjected to second-line drug susceptibility testing, detection of mutations conferring resistance to aminoglycosides and fluoroquinolone, followed by 24-loci mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit-variable number of tandem repeat typing and spoligotyping. Overall, 83 isolates were identified as MDR-TB, and 13 (15.7%) isolates showed resistance to second-line drugs. Moxifloxacin

2017 American Journal of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene

162. Adverse reactions to fluoroquinolones in the Nigerian population: an audit of reports submitted to the National Pharmacovigilance Centre from 2004 to 2016 Full Text available with Trip Pro

Adverse reactions to fluoroquinolones in the Nigerian population: an audit of reports submitted to the National Pharmacovigilance Centre from 2004 to 2016 Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) recorded in national pharmacovigilance databases in developed countries have been analyzed. However, adverse reactions to fluoroquinolones were observed globally despite their wide use and safety concerns. We provided information on the pattern of adverse reactions to fluoroquinolones reported spontaneously (...) to the National Pharmacovigilance Centre (NPC), Nigeria. ADRs to fluoroquinolones reported to the NPC, over a period of 12 years, were analyzed. Evaluation was done for annual reports, age and gender of patients, type of reporter, suspected fluoroquinolones and adverse reactions, onset and outcome of ADRs, and causality. A total of 18527 ADR reports were received by the NPC. Antibiotics accounted for 1371(7.4%) of the total reports and fluoroquinolones accounted for 256 (18.7%) cases. A total of 540 ADRs due

2017 Pharmacology research & perspectives

163. Increasing Resistance to Extended-Spectrum Cephalosporins, Fluoroquinolone, and Carbapenem in Gram-Negative Bacilli and the Emergence of Carbapenem Non-Susceptibility in Klebsiella pneumoniae: Analysis of Korean Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System Full Text available with Trip Pro

Increasing Resistance to Extended-Spectrum Cephalosporins, Fluoroquinolone, and Carbapenem in Gram-Negative Bacilli and the Emergence of Carbapenem Non-Susceptibility in Klebsiella pneumoniae: Analysis of Korean Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System National surveillance of antimicrobial resistance becomes more important for the control of antimicrobial resistance and determination of treatment guidelines. We analyzed Korean Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (KARMS) data collected (...) . The resistance rates of Escherichia coli to cefotaxime and cefepime gradually increased to 35% and 31%, respectively, and fluoroquinolone resistance reached 48% in 2015. The resistance rates of Klebsiella pneumoniae to cefotaxime, cefepime, and carbapenem were 38-41%, 33-41%, and <0.1-2%, respectively, from 2013 to 2015. The carbapenem susceptibility rates of E. coli and K. pneumoniae decreased from 100% and 99.3% in 2011 to 99.0% and 97.0% in 2015, respectively. The resistance rate of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

2017 Annals of laboratory medicine

164. Impact of preoperative screening for rectal colonization with fluoroquinolone-resistant enteric bacteria on the incidence of sepsis following transrectal ultrasound guided prostate biopsy Full Text available with Trip Pro

Impact of preoperative screening for rectal colonization with fluoroquinolone-resistant enteric bacteria on the incidence of sepsis following transrectal ultrasound guided prostate biopsy With the universal adoption of antibiotic prophylaxis prior to prostate biopsy, the current risk of post-biopsy infection (including sepsis) is <2%. Preoperative prophylactic antibiotic regimens can vary, and although fluoroquinolones have emerged as the standard of care, there is no universally agreed upon (...) preoperative antibiotic regimen. Recently, an increase in the proportion of postoperative infections caused by fluoroquinolone-resistant Escherichia coli (as well as other Enterobacteriaceae) has led to the exploration of simple, practical, and cost-effective methods to minimize this postoperative infection risk. We performed a prospective, nonrandomized, controlled study of preoperative rectal cultures to screen for rectal colonization with fluoroquinolone-resistant bacteria using ciprofloxacin

2017 Research and reports in urology

165. Impact of Intervention by an Antimicrobial Stewardship Team on Conversion from Intravenous to Oral Fluoroquinolones Full Text available with Trip Pro

Impact of Intervention by an Antimicrobial Stewardship Team on Conversion from Intravenous to Oral Fluoroquinolones Early conversion from intravenous to oral antibiotics plays an important role in lowering the risk of catheter-associated infections, reducing the workload of nurses, decreasing direct and indirect costs, and shortening hospital stays. In August 2015, an antimicrobial stewardship program (ASP) was implemented to facilitate conversion from intravenous to oral administration (...) of fluoroquinolones in our institute. This study evaluated the clinical and economic impact of the intervention.Data were retrospectively collected by reviewing electronic medical records. All hospitalized patients aged 18 and older who met the study inclusion criteria for the conversion were included between August and November 2015. We computed the physicians' adherence rate to the ASP recommendations. We also measured the total use of fluoroquinolones, length of hospital stay, and medication costs.During 4

2017 Infection & chemotherapy

166. Rising fluoroquinolone resistance in Campylobacter isolated from feedlot cattle in the United States Full Text available with Trip Pro

Rising fluoroquinolone resistance in Campylobacter isolated from feedlot cattle in the United States Antibiotic resistance, particularly to fluoroquinolones and macrolides, in the major foodborne pathogen Campylobacter is considered a serious threat to public health. Although ruminant animals serve as a significant reservoir for Campylobacter, limited information is available on antibiotic-resistant Campylobacter of bovine origin. Here, we analyzed the antimicrobial susceptibilities of 320 C (...) . jejuni and 115 C. coli isolates obtained from feedlot cattle farms in multiple states in the U.S. The results indicate that fluoroquinolone resistance reached to 35.4% in C. jejuni and 74.4% in C. coli, which are significantly higher than those previously reported in the U.S. While all fluoroquinolone resistant (FQR) C. coli isolates examined in this study harbored the single Thr-86-Ile mutation in GyrA, FQR C. jejuni isolates had other mutations in GyrA in addition to the Thr-86-Ile change. Notably

2017 Scientific reports

167. Current Status of Fluoroquinolone Use for Treatment of Tuberculosis in a Tertiary Care Hospital in Korea Full Text available with Trip Pro

Current Status of Fluoroquinolone Use for Treatment of Tuberculosis in a Tertiary Care Hospital in Korea Fluoroquinolones are considered important substitutes for the treatment of tuberculosis. This study investigates the current status of fluoroquinolone for the treatment of tuberculosis.In 2009, a retrospective analysis was performed at one tertiary referral center for 953 patients diagnosed with tuberculosis.A total of 226 patients (23.6%), who received fluoroquinolone at any time during (...) treatment for tuberculosis, were enrolled in this study. The most common reasons for fluoroquinolone use were adverse events due to other anti-tuberculosis drugs (52.7%), drug resistance (23.5%), and underlying diseases (16.8%). Moxifloxacin (54.0%, 122/226) was the most commonly administered fluoroquinolone, followed by levofloxacin (36.3%, 82/226) and ofloxacin (9.7%, 22/226). The frequency of total adverse events from fluoroquinolone-containing anti-tuberculosis medication was 22.6%, whereas

2017 Tuberculosis and respiratory diseases

168. Successful treatment of pulmonary nocardiosis with fluoroquinolone in bronchial asthma and bronchiectasis Full Text available with Trip Pro

Successful treatment of pulmonary nocardiosis with fluoroquinolone in bronchial asthma and bronchiectasis A 72-year-old Japanese woman was admitted at Saga University Hospital for fever, malaise, and productive cough. Six years ago, she had been diagnosed with bronchial asthma and was treated with inhaled corticosteroids. Chest radiograph and computed tomography on admission showed infiltrates in the right middle lobe, a mass lesion in the left lower lobe, and bronchiectasis in both lower lobes (...) . Sputum examination showed Gram-positive rods with phagocytosis by neutrophils. These bacilli were identified as Nocardia otitidiscaviarum by 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing. Therefore, she was diagnosed with pulmonary nocardiosis and was treated with trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) and minocycline (MINO). However, she had to discontinue these antibiotics because of severe nausea and anorexia and instead was treated with fluoroquinolone for 6 months. There was resolution of the disease thereafter

2017 Respirology case reports

169. Early Infectious Outcomes Following Addition of Fluoroquinolone or Aminoglycoside to Post-Trauma Antibiotic Prophylaxis in Combat-Related Open Fracture Injuries Full Text available with Trip Pro

Early Infectious Outcomes Following Addition of Fluoroquinolone or Aminoglycoside to Post-Trauma Antibiotic Prophylaxis in Combat-Related Open Fracture Injuries We examined combat-related open extremity fracture infections as a function of whether posttrauma antimicrobial prophylaxis included expanded Gram-negative (EGN) coverage.Military personnel with open extremity fractures sustained in Iraq and Afghanistan (2009-2014) who transferred to participating hospitals in the United States were (...) assessed. The analysis was restricted to patients with a U.S. hospitalization period of ≥7 days. Prophylaxis was classified as narrow (e.g., IV cefazolin, clindamycin, and/or amoxicillin-clavulanate) or EGN, if the prophylactic regimen included fluoroquinolones and/or aminoglycosides.The study population included 1,044 patients, of which 585 (56%) and 459 (44%) received narrow and EGN coverage, respectively (p < 0.001). Skin and soft-tissue infections (SSTIs) were more common among patients who

2017 The journal of trauma and acute care surgery

170. Fluoroquinolones as Imaging Agents for Bacterial Infection Full Text available with Trip Pro

Fluoroquinolones as Imaging Agents for Bacterial Infection Diagnosis of deep-seated bacterial infection is difficult, as neither standard anatomical imaging nor radiolabeled, autologous leukocytes distinguish sterile inflammation from infection. Two recent imaging efforts are receiving attention: (1) radioactive derivatives of sorbitol show good specificity with Gram-negative bacterial infections, and (2) success in combining anatomical and functional imaging for cancer diagnosis has rekindled (...) interest in 99mTc-fluoroquinolone-based imaging. With the latter, computed tomography (CT) would be combined with single-photon-emission-computed tomography (SPECT) to detect 99mTc-fluoroquinolone-bacterial interactions. The present minireview provides a framework for advancing fluoroquinolone-based imaging by identifying gaps in our understanding of the process. One issue is the reliance of 99mTc labeling on the reduction of sodium pertechnetate, which can lead to colloid formation and loss

2017 Dalton transactions (Cambridge, England : 2003)

171. Draft Genome Sequence of a Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi Strain Resistant to Fourth-Generation Cephalosporin and Fluoroquinolone Antibiotics Full Text available with Trip Pro

Draft Genome Sequence of a Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi Strain Resistant to Fourth-Generation Cephalosporin and Fluoroquinolone Antibiotics Typhoid is endemic in developing countries. We report here the first draft genome sequence of a Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi clinical isolate from Pakistan exhibiting resistance to cefepime (a fourth-generation cephalosporin) and fluoroquinolone antibiotics, two of the last-generation therapies against this pathogen. The genome is ~4.8 Mb

2017 Genome Announcements

172. Mycoplasma genitalium Macrolide and Fluoroquinolone Resistance Detection and Clinical Implications in a Selected Cohort in New Zealand Full Text available with Trip Pro

Mycoplasma genitalium Macrolide and Fluoroquinolone Resistance Detection and Clinical Implications in a Selected Cohort in New Zealand Mycoplasma genitalium has been associated with infections of the genitourinary tract, and prevalence is secondary to Chlamydia trachomatis The clinical observation of increasing treatment failure indicating antibiotic resistance, especially in cases of recurrent urethritis, has been confirmed by molecular testing. Mutations in the 23S rRNA gene can cause (...) macrolide resistance, and topoisomerase/gyrase mutations can cause fluoroquinolone resistance. In this study, 115 M. genitalium DNA-positive samples were analyzed. Eighty-nine (77.4%) samples had a 23S rRNA mutation present, and 26 (22.6%) were wild type (no resistance mutation). Fluoroquinolone mutation screening was performed on 86 (74.8%) of the 115 samples, of which 20 (23.3%) samples had a mutation or mutations associated with increased resistance. This study shows the increasing antibiotic

2017 Journal of clinical microbiology

173. Upregulation of the PatAB Transporter Confers Fluoroquinolone Resistance to Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae Full Text available with Trip Pro

Upregulation of the PatAB Transporter Confers Fluoroquinolone Resistance to Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae We characterized the mechanism of fluoroquinolone-resistance in two isolates of Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae having fluoroquinolone-efflux as unique mechanism of resistance. Whole genome sequencing and genetic transformation experiments were performed together with phenotypic determinations of the efflux mechanism. The PatAB pump was identified as responsible for efflux of ciprofloxacin (...) (-13.81 and -8.58) than for R6 (-15.32 kcal/mol), which may ease transcription. The presence of these regulatory variations in commensal S. pseudopneumoniae isolates, and the possibility of its transfer to Streptococcus pneumoniae by genetic transformation, could increase fluoroquinolone resistance in this important pathogen.

2017 Frontiers in microbiology

174. Enteric Fever Caused by Salmonella enterica Serovars with Reduced Susceptibility of Fluoroquinolones at a Community Based Teaching Hospital of Nepal Full Text available with Trip Pro

Enteric Fever Caused by Salmonella enterica Serovars with Reduced Susceptibility of Fluoroquinolones at a Community Based Teaching Hospital of Nepal Enteric fever continues to be an important public health problem especially in developing countries of the tropical region including Nepal. In this study, we aimed to investigate the incidence of enteric fever associated with Salmonella enterica and determine its antimicrobial susceptibilities to therapeutic antimicrobials in a community based (...) %), respectively. Two hundred twenty-six (92.2%) of Salmonella isolates were nalidixic acid resistant with reduced susceptibility to ciprofloxacin (36.7%) and ofloxacin (54.8%), respectively. Although the rate of MDR Salmonella strains was very low (<5%), their reduced susceptibility to fluoroquinolones has restricted their routine empirical use. Third generation cephalosporins are the safest choice for empirical use but ampicillin, cotrimoxazole, azithromycin, and chloramphenicol can be effective alternatives.

2017 International journal of microbiology

175. Internal Extractive Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry for Quantitative Determination of Fluoroquinolones Captured by Magnetic Molecularly Imprinted Polymers from Raw Milk Full Text available with Trip Pro

Internal Extractive Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry for Quantitative Determination of Fluoroquinolones Captured by Magnetic Molecularly Imprinted Polymers from Raw Milk Antibiotics contamination in food products is of increasing concern due to their potential threat on human health. Herein solid-phase extraction based on magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers coupled with internal extractive electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (MMIPs-SPE-iEESI-MS) was designed (...) for the quantitative analysis of trace fluoroquinolones (FQs) in raw milk samples. FQs in the raw milk sample (2 mL) were selectively captured by the easily-lab-made magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers (MMIPs), and then directly eluted by 100 µL electrospraying solvent biased with +3.0 kV to produce protonated FQs ions for mass spectrometric characterization. Satisfactory analytical performance was obtained in the quantitative analysis of three kinds of FQs (i.e., norfloxacin, enoxacin, and fleroxacin

2017 Scientific reports

176. Emergence of Resistance Mutations in Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi Against Fluoroquinolones Full Text available with Trip Pro

Emergence of Resistance Mutations in Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi Against Fluoroquinolones Little is known about the evolutionary process and emergence time of resistance mutations to fluoroquinolone in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi.We analyzed S. Typhi isolates collected from returned travelers between 2001 and 2016. Based on ciprofloxacin susceptibility, isolates were categorized as highly resistant (minimum inhibitory concentration [MIC] ≥ 4 μg/mL [CIPHR]), resistant (MIC = 1-2 μg (...) (encoding Ser83Phe and Asp87Asn) and a third in parC (encoding Ser80Ile). CIPHR shared a common ancestor with CIPR and CIPI isolates harboring a single mutation in gyrA encoding Ser83Phe, suggesting that CIPHR emerged 16 to 23 years ago.Three SNPs-2 in gyrA and 1 in parC-are present in S. Typhi strains highly resistant to fluoroquinolone, which were found to have evolved in 1993-2000, approximately 10 years after the beginning of the ciprofloxacin era. Highly resistant strains with survival advantages

2017 Open forum infectious diseases

177. Ubiquitous Nature of Fluoroquinolones: The Oscillation between Antibacterial and Anticancer Activities Full Text available with Trip Pro

Ubiquitous Nature of Fluoroquinolones: The Oscillation between Antibacterial and Anticancer Activities Fluoroquinolones are synthetic antibacterial agents that stabilize the ternary complex of prokaryotic topoisomerase II enzymes (gyrase and Topo IV), leading to extensive DNA fragmentation and bacteria death. Despite the similar structural folds within the critical regions of prokaryotic and eukaryotic topoisomerases, clinically relevant fluoroquinolones display a remarkable selectivity (...) for prokaryotic topoisomerase II, with excellent safety records in humans. Typical agents that target human topoisomerases (such as etoposide, doxorubicin and mitoxantrone) are associated with significant toxicities and secondary malignancies, whereas clinically relevant fluoroquinolones are not known to exhibit such propensities. Although many fluoroquinolones have been shown to display topoisomerase-independent antiproliferative effects against various human cancer cells, those that are significantly active

2017 Antibiotics

178. National antimicrobial stewardship and fluoroquinolone-resistant Clostridium difficile in China Full Text available with Trip Pro

National antimicrobial stewardship and fluoroquinolone-resistant Clostridium difficile in China 29075130 2018 11 13 1178-6973 10 2017 Infection and drug resistance Infect Drug Resist National antimicrobial stewardship and fluoroquinolone-resistant Clostridium difficile in China. 329-331 10.2147/IDR.S149293 Xiao Meng M Department of Clinical Laboratory, Peking Union Medical College Hospital. Cheng Jing-Wei JW Department of Clinical Laboratory, Peking Union Medical College Hospital. Faculty

2017 Infection and drug resistance

179. Double-Serine Fluoroquinolone Resistance Mutations Advance Major International Clones and Lineages of Various Multi-Drug Resistant Bacteria Full Text available with Trip Pro

Double-Serine Fluoroquinolone Resistance Mutations Advance Major International Clones and Lineages of Various Multi-Drug Resistant Bacteria The major international sequence types/lineages of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae and ESBL-producing E. coli were demonstrated to have been advanced by favorable fitness balance associated with high-level resistance to fluoroquinolones. The paper shows that favorable (...) fitness in the major STs/lineages of these pathogens was principally attained by the capacity of evolving mutations in the fluoroquinolone-binding serine residues of both the DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV enzymes. The available information on fitness balance incurred by individual and various combinations of mutations in the enzymes is reviewed in multiple species. Moreover, strong circumstantial evidence is presented that major STs/lineages of other multi-drug resistant bacteria, primarily

2017 Frontiers in microbiology

180. Fluoroquinolone structure and translocation flux across bacterial membrane Full Text available with Trip Pro

Fluoroquinolone structure and translocation flux across bacterial membrane Bacterial multidrug resistance is a worrying health issue. In Gram-negative antibacterial research, the challenge is to define the antibiotic permeation across the membranes. Passing through the membrane barrier to reach the inhibitory concentration inside the bacterium is a pivotal step for antibacterial molecules. A spectrofluorimetric methodology has been developed to detect fluoroquinolones in bacterial population (...) and inside individual Gram-negative bacterial cells. In this work, we studied the antibiotic accumulation in cells expressing various levels of efflux pumps. The assays allow us to determine the intracellular concentration of the fluoroquinolones to study the relationships between the level of efflux activity and the antibiotic accumulation, and finally to evaluate the impact of fluoroquinolone structures in this process. This represents the first protocol to identify some structural parameters involved

2017 Scientific reports

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