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fluoroquinolones

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101. Fluoroquinolones and isoniazid-resistant tuberculosis: implications for the 2018 WHO guidance. (Full text)

Fluoroquinolones and isoniazid-resistant tuberculosis: implications for the 2018 WHO guidance. 2018 World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for the treatment of isoniazid (H)-resistant (Hr) tuberculosis recommend a four-drug regimen: rifampicin (R), ethambutol (E), pyrazinamide (Z) and levofloxacin (Lfx), with or without H ([H]RZE-Lfx). This is used once Hr is known, such that patients complete 6 months of Lfx (≥6[H]RZE-6Lfx). This cohort study assessed the impact of fluoroquinolones (Fq

2019 European Respiratory Journal PubMed abstract

102. Fluoroquinolone consumption and Escherichia coli resistance in Japan: an ecological study. (Full text)

Fluoroquinolone consumption and Escherichia coli resistance in Japan: an ecological study. The frequency of antimicrobial resistance has steadily increased worldwide, induced by inappropriate use of antibiotics in a variety of settings. We analyzed the ecological correlation between fluoroquinolone consumption and levofloxacin resistance in Escherichia coli in Japan.We collected information on cases of E. coli resistant to levofloxacin in 2015-2016 in all 47 prefectures from the Japan (...) Nosocomial Infections Surveillance system. Information on fluoroquinolone consumption was obtained from pharmaceutical sales data. To address potential confounding, we also collected information on the number of physicians, nurses, and medical facilities per 100,000 individuals.We identified higher fluoroquinolone consumption and higher resistance in western prefectures, and lower consumption and resistance in eastern prefectures. Multivariate analysis identified a positive correlation between

2019 BMC Public Health PubMed abstract

103. Association Between Peripheral Neuropathy and Exposure to Oral Fluoroquinolone or Amoxicillin-Clavulanate Therapy. (Full text)

Association Between Peripheral Neuropathy and Exposure to Oral Fluoroquinolone or Amoxicillin-Clavulanate Therapy. Peripheral neuropathy has been associated with systemic fluoroquinolone exposure, but risk has been poorly quantified.To calculate relative and absolute risk estimates for the association of fluoroquinolone exposure with peripheral neuropathy and to examine how risk may be affected by timing of fluoroquinolone exposure and by other risk factors.This nested case-control study used (...) anonymized data from all patients routinely registered with general practices in The Health Improvement Network database, a large primary care population database in the United Kingdom, from January 1, 1999, to December 31, 2015. Data analyses were conducted January 8, 2018. The cohort consisted of 1 338 900 adults issued 1 or more prescriptions of fluoroquinolone (34.3%) or amoxicillin-clavulanate (65.7%) antibiotics. Adults with incident peripheral neuropathy were matched (on age, sex, general practice

2019 JAMA neurology PubMed abstract

104. Genomic Analysis of Fluoroquinolone- and Tetracycline-Resistant Campylobacter jejuni Sequence Type 6964 in Humans and Poultry, New Zealand, 2014-2016. (Full text)

Genomic Analysis of Fluoroquinolone- and Tetracycline-Resistant Campylobacter jejuni Sequence Type 6964 in Humans and Poultry, New Zealand, 2014-2016. In 2014, antimicrobial drug-resistant Campylobacter jejuni sequence type 6964 emerged contemporaneously in poultry from 3 supply companies in the North Island of New Zealand and as a major cause of campylobacteriosis in humans in New Zealand. This lineage, not previously identified in New Zealand, was resistant to tetracycline (...) and fluoroquinolones. Genomic analysis revealed divergence into 2 major clades; both clades were associated with human infection, 1 with poultry companies A and B and the other with company C. Accessory genome evolution was associated with a plasmid, phage insertions, and natural transformation. We hypothesize that the tetO gene and a phage were inserted into the chromosome after conjugation, leaving a remnant plasmid that was lost from isolates from company C. The emergence and rapid spread of a resistant clone

2019 Emerging Infectious Diseases PubMed abstract

105. Clinical impact of rapid drug susceptibility testing to accompany fluoroquinolone-containing universal tuberculosis regimens: a Markov model. (Abstract)

Clinical impact of rapid drug susceptibility testing to accompany fluoroquinolone-containing universal tuberculosis regimens: a Markov model. Many candidate regimens for universal treatment of tuberculosis combine novel and existing, widely-used drugs. Appropriate implementation requires evidence-based, context-specific drug-susceptibility testing (DST) strategies.We created a Markov state-transition model of 100,000 adults with TB receiving a novel, fluoroquinolone (FQ)-containing regimen. We (...) estimated clinical outcomes and resource utilization with no FQ-DST, universal use of FQ-DST, or FQ-DST only in patients with rifampin-resistant TB ('targeted FQ-DST'). We considered scenarios of stronger (South Africa) and weaker (Southeast Asia) correlation of fluoroquinolone resistance with rifampin resistance.Relative to no FQ-DST, targeted FQ-DST increased cure of FQ-resistant TB by 7.5% (interquartile range 6.7-9.2%) in South Africa and 1.7% (0.7 -2.5%) in Southeast Asia. However, rare FQ

2019 Clinical Infectious Diseases

106. Intracellular Pharmacodynamic Modeling Is Predictive of the Clinical Activity of Fluoroquinolones against Tuberculosis. (Full text)

Intracellular Pharmacodynamic Modeling Is Predictive of the Clinical Activity of Fluoroquinolones against Tuberculosis. Clinical studies of new antitubercular drugs are costly and time-consuming. Owing to the extensive tuberculosis (TB) treatment periods, the ability to identify drug candidates based on their predicted clinical efficacy is vital to accelerate the pipeline of new therapies. Recent failures of preclinical models in predicting the activity of fluoroquinolones underline (...) the importance of developing new and more robust predictive tools that will optimize the design of future trials. Here, we used high-content imaging screening and pharmacodynamic intracellular (PDi) modeling to identify and prioritize fluoroquinolones for TB treatment. In a set of studies designed to validate this approach, we show moxifloxacin to be the most effective fluoroquinolone, and PDi modeling-based Monte Carlo simulations accurately predict negative culture conversion (sputum sterilization) rates

2019 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy PubMed abstract

107. DAV131A Protects Hamsters from Lethal <i>Clostridioides difficile</i> Infection Induced by Fluoroquinolones. (Full text)

DAV131A Protects Hamsters from Lethal Clostridioides difficile Infection Induced by Fluoroquinolones. Fluoroquinolone treatments induce dysbiosis of the intestinal microbiota, resulting in loss of resistance to colonization by exogenous bacteria such as Clostridioides difficile that may cause severe diarrhea in humans and lethal infection in hamsters. We show here that DAV131A, a charcoal-based adsorbent, decreases the intestinal levels of the fluoroquinolone antibiotics levofloxacin

2019 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy PubMed abstract

108. Bacterial antibiotic resistance development and mutagenesis following exposure to subminimal inhibitory concentrations of fluoroquinolones in vitro: a systematic literature review protocol. (Full text)

Bacterial antibiotic resistance development and mutagenesis following exposure to subminimal inhibitory concentrations of fluoroquinolones in vitro: a systematic literature review protocol. Antibiotic resistance (AR) is among the most pressing global health challenges. Fluoroquinolones are a clinically important group of antibiotics that have wide applicability in both humans and animals. While many drivers of AR are known, the impact of medicine quality on AR remains largely unknown. The aim (...) of this review is to systematically evaluate the evidence of the impact of in vitro subinhibitory antibiotic exposure, a major tenet of substandard antibiotics, on the development of AR and mutagenesis, using fluoroquinolones as a case study.EMBASE, Web of Science and PubMed will be systematically searched for primary experimental in vitro studies, from earliest available dates within each database (1947, 1965 and 1966, respectively) through 2018, related to subinhibitory fluoroquinolone exposure and AR

2019 BMJ open PubMed abstract

109. Impact of co-existence of PMQR genes and QRDR mutations on fluoroquinolones resistance in Enterobacteriaceae strains isolated from community and hospital acquired UTIs. (Full text)

Impact of co-existence of PMQR genes and QRDR mutations on fluoroquinolones resistance in Enterobacteriaceae strains isolated from community and hospital acquired UTIs. Fluoroquinolones are commonly recommended as treatment for urinary tract infections (UTIs). The development of resistance to these agents, particularly in gram-negative microorganisms complicates treatment of infections caused by these organisms. This study aimed to investigate antimicrobial resistance of different (...) Enterobacteriaceae species isolated from hospital- acquired and community-acquired UTIs against fluoroquinolones and correlate its levels with the existing genetic mechanisms of resistance.A total of 440 Enterobacteriaceae isolates recovered from UTIs were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility. Plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes and mutations in the quinolone resistance-determining regions (QRDRs) of gyrA and parC genes were examined in quinolone-resistant strains.About (32.5%) of isolates were

2019 BMC Infectious Diseases PubMed abstract

110. Chromosomal and plasmid-mediated fluoroquinolone resistance in human Salmonella enterica infection in Ghana. (Full text)

Chromosomal and plasmid-mediated fluoroquinolone resistance in human Salmonella enterica infection in Ghana. Salmonella infection poses significant public health threat globally, especially in resource-limited countries. Emergence and spread of antibiotic resistant strains to fluoroquinolones have led to treatment failures and increased mortality in Salmonella infection. However, there is dearth of information regarding mechanisms of resistance to fluoroquinolones in Ghana. This study therefore (...) sought to identify chromosomal mutations and plasmid-mediated resistance as possible mechanisms of fluoroquinolone resistance from clinical isolates in Ghana.This was a retrospective study of archived isolates biobanked at Kumasi Centre for Collaborative Research in Tropical Medicine, Ghana. Isolates were obtained from blood, stool and oropharynx samples at two hospitals, between May, 2016 and January, 2018. Salmonella identification was done using standard microbiological protocols and antibiotic

2019 BMC Infectious Diseases PubMed abstract

111. Fluoroquinolone-based versus β-lactam-based regimens for complicated intra-abdominal infections: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. (Abstract)

Fluoroquinolone-based versus β-lactam-based regimens for complicated intra-abdominal infections: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Complicated intra-abdominal infections (cIAIs) are common and confer significant morbidity, mortality and costs. In this era of evolving antimicrobial resistance, selection of appropriate empirical antimicrobials is paramount. This systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials compared the effectiveness and safety (...) of fluoroquinolone (FQ)-based versus β-lactam (BL)-based regimens for the treatment of patients with cIAIs. Primary outcomes were treatment success in the clinically evaluable (CE) population and all-cause mortality in the intention-to-treat (ITT) population. Subgroup analyses were performed based on specific antimicrobials, infection source and isolated pathogens. Seven trials (4125 patients) were included. FQ-based regimens included moxifloxacin (four studies) or ciprofloxacin/metronidazole (three studies); BL

2019 International journal of antimicrobial agents

112. Re: Comparison of Fosfomycin against Fluoroquinolones for Transrectal Prostate Biopsy Prophylaxis: An Individual Patient-Data Meta-Analysis. (Abstract)

Re: Comparison of Fosfomycin against Fluoroquinolones for Transrectal Prostate Biopsy Prophylaxis: An Individual Patient-Data Meta-Analysis. 30747893 2019 05 10 2019 05 10 1527-3792 201 5 2019 05 The Journal of urology J. Urol. Re: Comparison of Fosfomycin against Fluoroquinolones for Transrectal Prostate Biopsy Prophylaxis: An Individual Patient-Data Meta-Analysis. 839-840 10.1097/JU.0000000000000164 Schaeffer Edward M EM eng Journal Article Comment United States J Urol 0376374 0022-5347 0 (...) Fluoroquinolones 2N81MY12TE Fosfomycin AIM IM World J Urol. 2018 Mar;36(3):323-330 29288398 Antibiotic Prophylaxis Biopsy Fluoroquinolones Fosfomycin Humans Male Prostate 2019 2 13 6 0 2019 5 11 6 0 2019 2 13 6 0 ppublish 30747893 10.1097/JU.0000000000000164

2019 The Journal of urology

113. Pregnancy outcomes following quinolone and fluoroquinolone exposure during pregnancy: A systematic review and meta-analysis. (Abstract)

Pregnancy outcomes following quinolone and fluoroquinolone exposure during pregnancy: A systematic review and meta-analysis. To investigate whether maternal exposure to quinolones, fluoroquinolones and specifically ciprofloxacin is associated with major malformations and other adverse pregnancy outcomes.MEDLINE/PubMed, Embase and Reprotox® databases were searched. Observational studies with an exposed and control group were included.Analysis of 8 cohort and 2 case-control studies showed (...) no significant increases in rates of major malformations for quinolone (OR, 1.04; 95% CI 0.89-1.21), fluoroquinolone (RR, 0.89; 95% CI 0.70-1.14) and ciprofloxacin exposure (RR, 0.72; 95% CI 0.43-1.19). For fluoroquinolones, live birth rate was significantly decreased (RD, -0.04; 95% CI -0.08 to -0.01) whereas elective termination rate (RD, 0.04; 95% CI 0.02-0.05) was significantly increased.Quinolone, fluoroquinolone and ciprofloxacin exposure were not associated with a significant increase in major

2019 Reproductive toxicology (Elmsford, N.Y.)

114. Impact of fluoroquinolone treatment on delay of tuberculosis diagnosis: A systematic review and meta-analysis. (Full text)

Impact of fluoroquinolone treatment on delay of tuberculosis diagnosis: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Fluoroquinolones are among the most commonly used antibiotics for the treatment of respiratory infections. Because fluoroquinolones show bactericidal activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, there is concern that their use can delay the diagnosis of tuberculosis. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess whether empiric treatment with fluoroquinolones delays (...) the diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis in patients with respiratory tract infections.The primary objective was to assess the delay in days in the diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis, among patients who received quinolones, compared to those who received non-fluoroquinolone antibiotics.We included studies of adult patients treated with fluoroquinolones prior to a confirmed diagnosis of tuberculosis. We performed a literature search of 7 databases (including PubMed, Embase and Cochrane Library

2019 Journal of clinical tuberculosis and other mycobacterial diseases PubMed abstract

115. Oral fluoroquinolones and risk of secondary pseudotumor cerebri syndrome: Nested case-control study (Abstract)

Oral fluoroquinolones and risk of secondary pseudotumor cerebri syndrome: Nested case-control study To quantify the risk of secondary pseudotumor cerebri syndrome (PTCS) with fluoroquinolones.A case-control study of people 15-60 years of age from the LifeLink Database (QuintilesIMS, Parsippany, NJ) was conducted. Cases had the first ICD-9-CM code for benign intracranial hypertension (BIH) as well as having received a procedure code for an MRI or CT scan and a lumbar puncture within 15 days (...) or 30 days of the BIH code. For each case, 10 controls were selected using density-based sampling. Current users of fluoroquinolones received a prescription within 15 days or 30 days of the date of the diagnosis. For the sensitivity analysis, risk periods for 30 and 60 days were also examined. Adjusted rate ratios (RRs) were computed from a conditional logistic regression model.From a cohort of 6,110,723 people, there were 339 cases of PTCS and 3,390 corresponding controls. In the primary analysis

2017 EvidenceUpdates

116. Cardiac events after macrolides or fluoroquinolones in patients hospitalized for community-acquired pneumonia: post-hoc analysis of a cluster-randomized trial. (Full text)

Cardiac events after macrolides or fluoroquinolones in patients hospitalized for community-acquired pneumonia: post-hoc analysis of a cluster-randomized trial. Guidelines recommend macrolides and fluoroquinolones in patients hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), but their use has been associated with cardiac events. We quantified associations between macrolide and fluoroquinolone use and cardiac events in patients hospitalized with CAP in non-ICU wards.This was a post-hoc (...) analysis of a cluster-randomized trial as a cohort study; including patients with a working diagnosis of CAP admitted to non-ICU wards without a cardiac event on admission. We calculated cause-specific hazard ratio's (HR's) for effects of time-dependent macrolide and fluoroquinolone exposure as compared to beta-lactam monotherapy on cardiac events, defined as new or worsening heart failure, arrhythmia, or myocardial ischemia during hospitalization.Cardiac events occurred in 146 (6.9%) of 2107 patients

2019 BMC Infectious Diseases Controlled trial quality: uncertain PubMed abstract

117. Investigation of fluoroquinolone resistance mechanism in Mycoplasma hominis isolated from urogenital samples in a Chinese hospital. (Full text)

Investigation of fluoroquinolone resistance mechanism in Mycoplasma hominis isolated from urogenital samples in a Chinese hospital. Mycoplasma hominis is considered among the causes of urogenital infections and shows increasing resistance to fluoroquinolones. However, data regarding the fluoroquinolone resistance mechanism of M. hominis in Southwest China are limited. This study aimed to investigate gene mutations of quinolone resistance-determining regions (QRDRs) of M. hominis isolated from (...) clinical urogenital samples in a Chinese hospital.Strains of M. hominis were identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of fluoroquinolones were determined by the broth microdilution method, following CLSI guidelines. PCR was used to amplify the QRDRs of the genes gyrA, gyrB, parC and parE. Positive products were sequenced, and gene mutations and amino acid substitutions were analysed by DNAMAN software and BLAST.The resistance rates of M. hominis

2019 Journal of Medical Microbiology PubMed abstract

118. Effectiveness of rifaximin and fluoroquinolones in preventing travelers' diarrhea (TD): a systematic review and meta-analysis

Effectiveness of rifaximin and fluoroquinolones in preventing travelers' diarrhea (TD): a systematic review and meta-analysis Untitled Document The CRD Databases will not be available from 08:00 BST on Friday 4th October until 08:00 BST on Monday 7th October for essential maintenance. We apologise for any inconvenience.

2012 DARE.

119. Fluoroquinolones in children with fever and neutropenia: a systematic review of prospective trials

Fluoroquinolones in children with fever and neutropenia: a systematic review of prospective trials Untitled Document The CRD Databases will not be available from 08:00 BST on Friday 4th October until 08:00 BST on Monday 7th October for essential maintenance. We apologise for any inconvenience.

2012 DARE.

120. Delafloxacin: an improved fluoroquinolone developed through advanced molecular engineering. (Abstract)

Delafloxacin: an improved fluoroquinolone developed through advanced molecular engineering. The emergence of antimicrobial resistance threatens current clinical practice across a range of infection types. Delafloxacin, a non-zwitterionic fluoroquinolone recently approved by the US FDA for the treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections, has been developed to address some of these challenges. Uniquely delafloxacin has increased intracellular penetration and enhanced (...) antibacterial activity under acidic conditions, an environment seen in many infection sites including abscesses. Delafloxacin is active against a wide range of Gram-positive and -negative species including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and many fluoroquinolone-resistant strains. Additionally, according to preclinical and clinical trial data, well-known adverse events related to fluoroquinolone class do not appear to occur with this new molecule. Delafloxacin has been studied in acute bacterial

2018 Future microbiology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

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