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fluoroquinolones

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6321. Fitness cost of fluoroquinolone resistance in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Fitness cost of fluoroquinolone resistance in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. High-level fluoroquinolone (FQ) resistance is still infrequent in salmonellae, compared with other pathogenic enterobacteria. Data provided in this work support the hypothesis that the mechanisms that confer high-level FQ resistance on salmonellae have a prohibitive fitness cost and may thus limit the emergence of highly resistant clones. In vitro mutants that were highly resistant to ciprofloxacin (MIC = 8

2003 Journal of Medical Microbiology

6322. ESBL genotypes in fluoroquinolone-resistant and fluoroquinolone-susceptible ESBL-producing Escherichia coli urinary isolates in Manitoba Full Text available with Trip Pro

ESBL genotypes in fluoroquinolone-resistant and fluoroquinolone-susceptible ESBL-producing Escherichia coli urinary isolates in Manitoba Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli are increasingly common in nosocomial and community settings. Furthermore, fluoroquinolone (FQ) and even multidrug resistance (MDR) appear to be associated with certain ESBL genotypes. The purpose of the present study was to determine which ESBL genotypes are associated with FQ and MDR in E

2007 The Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology

6323. The Incidence of Fluoroquinolone Resistant Infections After Prostate Biopsy-Are Fluoroquinolones Still Effective Prophylaxis? (Abstract)

The Incidence of Fluoroquinolone Resistant Infections After Prostate Biopsy-Are Fluoroquinolones Still Effective Prophylaxis? Fluoroquinolones have been shown to decrease infective complications after prostate biopsy. However, fluoroquinolone resistance is emerging. We quantified contemporary rates of infective complications and the incidence of fluoroquinolone resistant infections after prostate biopsy under fluoroquinolone prophylaxis.We retrospectively evaluated the records of 1,273 patients (...) who underwent prostate biopsy at New York Harbor Veterans Affairs Hospital from January 2004 to December 2006. Patients received levofloxacin or gatifloxacin. Using the Veterans Affairs computerized patient record system we reviewed all patient visits within 1 month after prostate biopsy. Visits were queried for infective symptoms. Positive cultures were evaluated for resistance patterns. The annual and overall incidence of infective complications and fluoroquinolone resistant infections

2008 Journal of Urology

6324. Fluoroquinolone resistance in ophthalmology and the potential role for newer ophthalmic fluoroquinolones. (Abstract)

Fluoroquinolone resistance in ophthalmology and the potential role for newer ophthalmic fluoroquinolones. The three topical ophthalmic fluoroquinolones recently introduced into the U.S. market--levofloxacin, gatifloxacin, and moxifloxacin--offer several advantages over the previously available fluoroquinolones (norfloxacin 0.3%, ciprofloxacin 0.3%, and ofloxacin 0.3%). These include enhanced spectrum and potency for Gram-positive cocci and possibly atypical mycobacterial species, improved (...) penetration into the anterior segment, and reduced propensity to promote the development of resistance. Although published data and clinical experience with these agents is quite limited given their relatively recent entry into the U.S. market, this perspective will attempt to provide an understanding of the potential role of these newer fluorquinolones in addressing the problem of increasing fluoroquinolone resistance amongst bacterial ocular isolates.

2004 Survey of Ophthalmology

6325. Fluoroquinolone-resistant Campylobacter species and the withdrawal of fluoroquinolones from use in poultry: a public health success story. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Fluoroquinolone-resistant Campylobacter species and the withdrawal of fluoroquinolones from use in poultry: a public health success story. Campylobacter species cause 1.4 million infections each year in the United States. Fluoroquinolones (e.g., ciprofloxacin) are commonly used in adults with Campylobacter infection and other infections. Fluoroquinolones (e.g., enrofloxacin) are also used in veterinary medicine. Human infections with fluoroquinolone-resistant Campylobacter species have become (...) increasingly common and are associated with consumption of poultry. These findings, along with other data, prompted the US Food and Drug Administration to propose the withdrawal of fluoroquinolone use in poultry in 2000. A lengthy legal hearing concluded with an order to withdraw enrofloxacin from use in poultry (effective in September 2005). Clinicians are likely to continue to encounter patients with fluoroquinolone-resistant Campylobacter infection and other enteric infection because of the continued

2007 Clinical Infectious Diseases

6326. Predicting hospital rates of fluoroquinolone-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa from fluoroquinolone use in US hospitals and their surrounding communities. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Predicting hospital rates of fluoroquinolone-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa from fluoroquinolone use in US hospitals and their surrounding communities. Rates of fluoroquinolone resistance among Pseudomonas aeruginosa in hospitals are increasing, but interhospital variability is great. We sought to determine whether this variability correlated to fluoroquinolone use in hospitals and in the surrounding community. Hospital quinolone use in 1999 (24 hospitals) through 2001 (35 hospitals (...) ) was determined from billing records. The number of fluoroquinolone prescriptions within a 10-mile (approximately 16-km) radius of each hospital was determined for 1999 and 2000. Hospital fluoroquinolone use increased from 1999 through 2001, from 137 to 163 defined daily doses (DDD)/1000 patient-days (P=.01). The rate of community fluoroquinolone use also increased, from 2.3 to 2.8 DDD/1000 inhabitant-days (P<.001). Rates of fluoroquinolone-resistant P. aeruginosa increased from 29% in 1999 to 36% in 2001 (P

2004 Clinical Infectious Diseases

6327. Emergence and acquisition of fluoroquinolone-resistant gram-negative bacilli in the intestinal tracts of mice treated with fluoroquinolone antimicrobial agents. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Emergence and acquisition of fluoroquinolone-resistant gram-negative bacilli in the intestinal tracts of mice treated with fluoroquinolone antimicrobial agents. After mice received orogastric administration of a fluoroquinolone-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae strain, subcutaneous treatment with ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, and moxifloxacin promoted persistent low-density colonization in 10% to 40% of the mice, whereas treatment with clindamycin consistently promoted high-density colonization (...) . No emergence of fluoroquinolone-resistant gram-negative bacilli was detected in the mice during or after treatment with the fluoroquinolone antimicrobial agents.

2008 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

6328. Postantibiotic effects and bactericidal activities of simulated topical ophthalmic administration of levofloxacin and gatifloxacin against fluoroquinolone-resistant and fluoroquinolone-sensitive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Postantibiotic effects and bactericidal activities of simulated topical ophthalmic administration of levofloxacin and gatifloxacin against fluoroquinolone-resistant and fluoroquinolone-sensitive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains. The bactericidal activities and postantibiotic effects (PAEs) of levofloxacin and gatifloxacin at concentrations corresponding to those in antibiotic eye drops against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains were determined. Levofloxacin (...) and gatifloxacin at concentrations simulating those in eye drops showed lower bactericidal activities and shorter PAEs against fluoroquinolone-resistant strains than against fluoroquinolone-sensitive strains.

2008 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

6329. Fluoroquinolone resistance in atypical pneumococci and oral streptococci: evidence of horizontal gene transfer of fluoroquinolone resistance determinants from Streptococcus pneumoniae. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Fluoroquinolone resistance in atypical pneumococci and oral streptococci: evidence of horizontal gene transfer of fluoroquinolone resistance determinants from Streptococcus pneumoniae. Atypical strains, presumed to be pneumococcus, with ciprofloxacin MICs of > or =4.0 microg/ml and unique sequence variations within the quinolone resistance-determining regions (QRDRs) of the gyrase and topoisomerase genes in comparison with the Streptococcus pneumoniae R6 strain, were examined. These strains (...) and five of nine strains from the viridans streptococcal group possessed one to three gyrA, gyrB, parC, and parE genes whose QRDR sequences clustered with those of S. pneumoniae, providing evidence of horizontal transfer of the QRDRs of the gyrase and topoisomerase genes from pneumococci into viridans streptococci. These genes also conferred fluoroquinolone resistance to viridans streptococci. In addition, the fluoroquinolone resistance determinants of 32 well-characterized Streptococcus mitis

2007 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

6330. Activities of New Fluoroquinolones against Fluoroquinolone-Resistant Pathogens of the Lower Respiratory Tract Full Text available with Trip Pro

Activities of New Fluoroquinolones against Fluoroquinolone-Resistant Pathogens of the Lower Respiratory Tract The activities of six new fluoroquinolones (moxifloxacin, grepafloxacin, gatifloxacin, trovafloxacin, clinafloxacin, and levofloxacin) compared with those of sparfloxacin and ciprofloxacin with or without reserpine (20 microg/ml) were determined for 19 Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates, 5 Haemophilus sp. isolates, and 10 Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates with decreased susceptibility (...) in the MICs of the other agents. For efflux pump mutant S. pneumoniae the activities of all the newer agents, except for levofloxacin, were reduced. Except for clinafloxacin, all second-step laboratory mutants required at least 2 microg of all fluoroquinolones per ml for inhibition.

1998 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

6331. Fluoroquinolone resistance : Overuse of fluoroquinolones in human and veterinary medicine can breed resistance  Full Text available with Trip Pro

Fluoroquinolone resistance : Overuse of fluoroquinolones in human and veterinary medicine can breed resistance  9774285 1998 11 16 2018 11 13 0959-8138 317 7165 1998 Oct 17 BMJ (Clinical research ed.) BMJ Fluoroquinolone resistance: overuse of fluoroquinolones in human and veterinary medicine can breed resistance. 1029-30 Piddock L J LJ eng Editorial England BMJ 8900488 0959-8138 0 Anti-Infective Agents 0 Fluoroquinolones AIM IM BMJ. 1999 Apr 3;318(7188):943-4 10102879 Animals Anti-Infective (...) Agents therapeutic use Bacterial Infections drug therapy veterinary Drug Resistance, Microbial Fluoroquinolones Health Services Misuse Humans 1998 10 17 1998 10 17 0 1 1998 10 17 0 0 ppublish 9774285 PMC1114060 Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1993 May;37(5):1086-94 8517696 J Bacteriol. 1993 Nov;175(22):7363-72 8226684 Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1994 Apr;38(4):773-80 8031045 J Antimicrob Chemother. 1994 Jun;33(6):1173-89 7928811 J Antimicrob Chemother. 1996 Apr;37(4):747-57 8722540 J Bacteriol. 1996

1998 BMJ : British Medical Journal

6332. Type II Topoisomerase Mutations in Fluoroquinolone-Resistant Clinical Strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolated in 1998 and 1999: Role of Target Enzyme in Mechanism of Fluoroquinolone Resistance Full Text available with Trip Pro

Type II Topoisomerase Mutations in Fluoroquinolone-Resistant Clinical Strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolated in 1998 and 1999: Role of Target Enzyme in Mechanism of Fluoroquinolone Resistance The major mechanism of resistance to fluoroquinolones for Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the modification of type II topoisomerases (DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV). We examined the mutations in quinolone-resistance-determining regions (QRDR) of gyrA, gyrB, parC, and parE genes of recent clinical isolates (...) changes, being detected in 48 strains. These replacements were obviously associated with reduced susceptibilities to levofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, and sparfloxacin; however, sitafloxacin showed high activity against isolates with these replacements. We purified GyrA (The-83 to Ile) and ParC (Ser-87 to Leu) by site-directed mutagenesis and compared the inhibitory activities of the fluoroquinolones. Sitafloxacin showed the most potent inhibitory activities against both altered topoisomerases among

2001 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

6333. Characterization of fluoroquinolone-induced Achilles tendon toxicity in rats: comparison of toxicities of 10 fluoroquinolones and effects of anti-inflammatory compounds. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Characterization of fluoroquinolone-induced Achilles tendon toxicity in rats: comparison of toxicities of 10 fluoroquinolones and effects of anti-inflammatory compounds. Fluoroquinolone antibacterial agents have been reported to induce tendon lesions in juvenile rats. In the present study, we characterized fluoroquinolone-induced Achilles tendon lesions by comparing the effects of 10 fluoroquinolones and examining the potential of one of these antimicrobial agents, pefloxacin, to induce tendon (...) lesions when coadministered with one of nine anti-inflammatory compounds. Among the 10 fluoroquinolones tested, fleroxacin and pefloxacin were the most toxic, inducing lesions at a dose of 100 mg/kg of body weight or more, while lomefloxacin, levofloxacin, and ofloxacin or sparfloxacin and enoxacin induced lesions at 300 mg/kg or more and 900 mg/kg, respectively. In contrast, norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, and tosufloxacin had no effect even at the high dose of 900 mg/kg. The severity of the Achilles

1997 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

6334. Single-dose fluoroquinolone therapy of acute uncomplicated urinary tract infection in women: results from a randomized, double-blind, multicenter trial comparing single-dose to 3-day fluoroquinolone regimens. (Abstract)

Single-dose fluoroquinolone therapy of acute uncomplicated urinary tract infection in women: results from a randomized, double-blind, multicenter trial comparing single-dose to 3-day fluoroquinolone regimens. To compare the efficacy and safety of single-dose and 3-day fluoroquinolone treatment of uncomplicated urinary tract infection (UTI).Adult women with acute uncomplicated UTI were randomized to receive either a single dose of gatifloxacin (400 mg), 3 days of gatifloxacin (200 mg daily (...) efficacy.Single-dose and 3-day gatifloxacin were microbiologically and clinically equivalent to 3-day ciprofloxacin for the treatment of acute UTI among women. Single-dose gatifloxacin may offer advantages over 3-day fluoroquinolone therapy for uncomplicated UTI by decreasing secondary use of medical resources and improving patient compliance.

2002 Urology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

6335. Influence of fluoroquinolone susceptibility on the therapeutic response of fluoroquinolone-treated bacterial keratitis. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Influence of fluoroquinolone susceptibility on the therapeutic response of fluoroquinolone-treated bacterial keratitis. To estimate how a corneal isolate's minimal inhibitory concentration for a fluoroquinolone agent affects the rate of clinical response of bacterial keratitis to fluoroquinolone therapy.Prospective cohort study.Six hundred sixty-three individuals with suspected bacterial keratitis underwent diagnostic corneal scraping and were treated with topical 0.3% ciprofloxacin solution (...) limits, 0%, 49%) among corneal infections having a ciprofloxacin minimal inhibitory concentration above 1.0 micro g/mL compared with those with more sensitive isolates.Corneal infection by relatively ciprofloxacin-resistant bacteria responds more slowly to ciprofloxacin therapy. Antibacterial susceptibility testing of corneal cultures may predict the fluoroquinolone therapeutic response rate of bacterial keratitis.

2003 Archives of ophthalmology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

6336. Susceptibilities of Fluoroquinolone-Resistant Haemophilus parainfluenzae Isolates from Japanese Patients with Respiratory Infections to Five Fluoroquinolones and Other Antimicrobial Agents Full Text available with Trip Pro

Susceptibilities of Fluoroquinolone-Resistant Haemophilus parainfluenzae Isolates from Japanese Patients with Respiratory Infections to Five Fluoroquinolones and Other Antimicrobial Agents 14638520 2004 01 13 2018 11 13 0066-4804 47 12 2003 Dec Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. Susceptibilities of fluoroquinolone-resistant Haemophilus parainfluenzae isolates from Japanese patients with respiratory infections to five fluoroquinolones and other antimicrobial

2003 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

6337. Relationship between fluoroquinolone use and changes in susceptibility to fluoroquinolones of selected pathogens in 10 United States teaching hospitals, 1991-2000. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Relationship between fluoroquinolone use and changes in susceptibility to fluoroquinolones of selected pathogens in 10 United States teaching hospitals, 1991-2000. We retrospectively examined the relationship between fluoroquinolone use and the susceptibilities of 11 bacterial pathogens to fluoroquinolones in 10 US teaching hospitals from 1991 through 2000. Statistical significance was determined by 2-way analysis of variance, with the number of isolates tested each year as a weighting factor (...) . The analysis of baseline-to-end point change in the percentage of susceptibility and the slope of the regression line (trend line) for logit percentage of susceptibility showed that the overall percentage of susceptibility to fluoroquinolones decreased significantly during the study period (P<.05) and that change in percentage of susceptibility was significantly related to change in fluoroquinolone use (P<.05). Particularly notable were the decreases in the susceptibilities of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

2003 Clinical Infectious Diseases

6338. Comparison of the in vitro activities of several new fluoroquinolones against respiratory pathogens and their abilities to select fluoroquinolone resistance. (Abstract)

Comparison of the in vitro activities of several new fluoroquinolones against respiratory pathogens and their abilities to select fluoroquinolone resistance. In this study the in vitro activities and pharmacodynamic properties of moxifloxacin, levofloxacin, gatifloxacin and gemifloxacin were compared on recently isolated respiratory pathogens and strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae with known mechanisms of fluoroquinolone resistance. In addition, the resistance selection frequencies (...) of moxifloxacin and levofloxacin on three recently isolated respiratory pathogens and four strains of S. pneumoniae with known mechanisms of fluoroquinolone resistance were investigated. The four fluoroquinolones had similar activities against both Moraxella catarrhalis (MIC(90)s 0.015-0.06 mg/L) and Haemophilus influenzae (MIC(90)s 0.008-0.03 mg/L). More marked differences in activity were noted with S. pneumoniae, with MIC(90)s of 0.25, 1, 0.5 and 0.03 mg/L for moxifloxacin, levofloxacin, gatifloxacin

2002 Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy

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