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dispositional optimism

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1. Human resource primacy, dispositional optimism, and chest pain: A prospective, cross-lagged study of work, personality, and health. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Human resource primacy, dispositional optimism, and chest pain: A prospective, cross-lagged study of work, personality, and health. Chest pain (CP) is common, frightening, and often medically unexplained. Occupational psychological factors are associated with somatic pain. Personality may influence both perceived working conditions and somatic health, thereby confounding associations of work with health. Despite this, very few studies have investigated the interplay between work factors (...) , personality and pain. The current study assessed relationships of a relatively novel work factor, human resource primacy (HRP), and a personality factor known to be relevant to health, dispositional optimism (Opt), with CP across two years (N = 6714). A series of structural equation models (SEMs) were fitted, modeling "substantive" and "confounded" relationships of psychological factors with CP. A "common latent factor" (CLF) was included to account for bias by unmeasured factors that may have influenced

2019 PLoS ONE

2. Reduced and optimized trial designs for drugs described by a target mediated drug disposition model Full Text available with Trip Pro

Reduced and optimized trial designs for drugs described by a target mediated drug disposition model Monoclonal antibodies against soluble targets are often rich and include the sampling of multiple analytes over a lengthy period of time. Predictive models built on data obtained in such studies can be useful in all drug development phases. If adequate model predictions can be maintained with a reduced design (e.g. fewer samples or shorter duration) the use of such designs may be advocated (...) . The effect of reducing and optimizing a rich design based on a published study for Omalizumab (OMA) was evaluated as an example. OMA pharmacokinetics were characterized using a target-mediated drug disposition model considering the binding of OMA to free IgE and the subsequent formation of an OMA-IgE complex. The performance of the reduced and optimized designs was evaluated with respect to: efficiency, parameter uncertainty and predictions of free target. It was possible to reduce the number of samples

2018 Journal of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics

3. Integrating situation-specific dysfunctional expectations and dispositional optimism into the cognitive model of depression - A path-analytic approach. (Abstract)

Integrating situation-specific dysfunctional expectations and dispositional optimism into the cognitive model of depression - A path-analytic approach. Dysfunctional expectations are considered to be core features of mental disorders and, in particular, major depression. The aim of the present study was to integrate two important types of expectations into the cognitive model of depression: situation-specific dysfunctional expectations (SDE) and dispositional optimism (DO). It was hypothesized

2018 Journal of Affective Disorders

4. Association of dispositional optimism with Life's Simple 7's Cardiovascular Health Index: results from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL) Sociocultural Ancillary Study (SCAS). Full Text available with Trip Pro

Association of dispositional optimism with Life's Simple 7's Cardiovascular Health Index: results from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL) Sociocultural Ancillary Study (SCAS). Mounting evidence links positive psychological functioning to restorative health processes and favourable medical outcomes. However, very little is known about the relationship between optimism, an indicator of psychological functioning and the American Heart Association (AHA)-defined concept (...) of cardiovascular health (CVH), particularly in Hispanics/Latinos of diverse backgrounds. To address limitations of existing literature, this study investigated the association between dispositional optimism and CVH in a heterogeneous sample of Hispanics/Latinos residing in the USA.Cross-sectional study.Data were analysed from 4919 adults ages 18-75 of the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos parent study and the Sociocultural Ancillary Study.Optimism was assessed using the 6-item Life Orientation

2018 BMJ open

5. Positive mental health and supportive school environments: A population-level longitudinal study of dispositional optimism and school relationships in early adolescence. (Abstract)

Positive mental health and supportive school environments: A population-level longitudinal study of dispositional optimism and school relationships in early adolescence. The present study examined the degree to which early adolescents' relationship experiences in school (i.e., peer group belonging, peer victimization, and supportive relationships with adults)-at the individual level and at the school-level-were associated with their dispositional optimism, concurrently and over time.Self-report (...) and above the absence of negative relationship experiences (i.e., victimization). These findings also suggest that being embedded in a school with a positive social relational climate contributes to students' current and future positive mental health, over and above individual relationships with peers and adults. The present research extends previous research by identifying contextual assets that are linked to dispositional optimism and can be applied in the context of school-based intervention programs

2018 Social Science & Medicine

6. The association between resting functional connectivity and dispositional optimism. Full Text available with Trip Pro

The association between resting functional connectivity and dispositional optimism. Dispositional optimism is an individual characteristic that plays an important role in human experience. Optimists are people who tend to hold positive expectations for their future. Previous studies have focused on the neural basis of optimism, such as task response neural activity and brain structure volume. However, the functional connectivity between brain regions of the dispositional optimists are poorly (...) understood. Previous study suggested that the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) are associated with individual differences in dispositional optimism, but it is unclear whether there are other brain regions that combine with the vmPFC to contribute to dispositional optimism. Thus, the present study used the resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) approach and set the vmPFC as the seed region to examine if differences in functional brain connectivity between the vmPFC and other brain regions

2017 PLoS ONE

7. Measuring dispositional optimism in patients with chronic heart failure and their healthcare providers: the validity of the Life Orientation Test-Revised Full Text available with Trip Pro

Measuring dispositional optimism in patients with chronic heart failure and their healthcare providers: the validity of the Life Orientation Test-Revised The Life Orientation Test-Revised (LOT-R) measures dispositional optimism (DO) - an individual difference promoting physical and psychological well-being in healthy adults (HAs) as well as in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) and healthcare providers (HPs). Controversy has arisen regarding the dimensionality of the LOT-R. Whereas DO

2017 Patient preference and adherence

8. Nanotracing and cavity-ring down spectroscopy: A new ultrasensitive approach in large molecule drug disposition studies. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Nanotracing and cavity-ring down spectroscopy: A new ultrasensitive approach in large molecule drug disposition studies. New therapeutic biological entities such as bispecific antibodies targeting tissue or specific cell populations form an increasingly important part of the drug development portfolio. However, these biopharmaceutical agents bear the risk of extensive target-mediated drug disposition or atypical pharmacokinetic properties as compared to canonical antibodies. Pharmacokinetics (...) and bio-distribution studies become therefore more and more important during lead optimization. Biologics present, however, greater analytical challenges than small molecule drugs due to the mass and selectivity limitation of mass spectrometry and ligand-binding assay, respectively. Radiocarbon (14C) and its detection methods, such as the emerging 14C cavity ring down spectroscopy (CRDS), thus can play an important role in the large molecule quantitation where a 14C-tag is covalently bound through

2018 PLoS ONE

9. Dispositional optimism and sleep quality: a test of mediating pathways Full Text available with Trip Pro

Dispositional optimism and sleep quality: a test of mediating pathways Dispositional optimism has been related to beneficial influences on physical health outcomes. However, its links to global sleep quality and the psychological mediators responsible for such associations are less studied. This study thus examined if trait optimism predicted global sleep quality, and if measures of subjective well-being were statistical mediators of such links. A community sample of 175 participants (93 men (...) , 82 women) completed measures of trait optimism, depression, and life satisfaction. Global sleep quality was assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Results indicated that trait optimism was a strong predictor of better PSQI global sleep quality. Moreover, this association was mediated by depression and life satisfaction in both single and multiple mediator models. These results highlight the importance of optimism for the restorative process of sleep, as well as the utility of multiple

2016 Journal of behavioral medicine

10. Optimizing Clinical Decision Support in the Electronic Health Record: Clinical Characteristics Associated with the Use of a Decision Tool for Disposition of ED Patients with Pulmonary Embolism Full Text available with Trip Pro

Optimizing Clinical Decision Support in the Electronic Health Record: Clinical Characteristics Associated with the Use of a Decision Tool for Disposition of ED Patients with Pulmonary Embolism Adoption of clinical decision support (CDS) tools by clinicians is often limited by workflow barriers. We sought to assess characteristics associated with clinician use of an electronic health record-embedded clinical decision support system (CDSS).In a prospective study on emergency department (ED (...) activation.Performing on-site tool promotion significantly increased odds of CDSS activation. Optimizing CDSS adoption requires active education.

2016 Applied clinical informatics

11. Dispositional Optimism and Incidence of Cognitive Impairment in Older Adults. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Dispositional Optimism and Incidence of Cognitive Impairment in Older Adults. Higher levels of optimism have been linked with positive health behaviors, biological processes, and health conditions that are potentially protective against cognitive impairment in older adults. However, the association between optimism and cognitive impairment has not been directly investigated. We examined whether optimism is associated with incident cognitive impairment in older adults.Data are from the Health (...) and Retirement Study. Optimism was measured by using the Life Orientation Test-R and cognitive impairment with a modified version of the Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status derived from the Mini-Mental State Examination. Using multiple logistic regression models, we prospectively assessed whether optimism was associated with incident cognitive impairment in 4624 adults 65 years and older during a 4-year period.Among participants, 312 women and 190 men developed cognitive impairment during the 4-year

2016 Psychosomatic Medicine

12. Trauma Bay Disposition of Infants and Young Children With Mild Traumatic Brain Injury and Positive Head Imaging. Full Text available with Trip Pro

monitored in the ICU (with disposition mostly explained by trauma bay imaging, rather than clinical findings); however, less than 10% required ICU-specific interventions. Although ICU could be used for close neuromonitoring to prevent further neurologic injury, additional research should explore if less conservative approaches may preserve patient safety while optimizing healthcare resource utilization. (...) Trauma Bay Disposition of Infants and Young Children With Mild Traumatic Brain Injury and Positive Head Imaging. To describe the disposition of infants and young children with isolated mild traumatic brain injury and neuroimaging findings evaluated at a level 1 pediatric trauma center, and identify factors associated with their need for ICU admission.Retrospective cohort.Single center.Children less than or equal to 4 years old with mild traumatic brain injury (Glasgow Coma Scale 13-15

2019 Pediatric Critical Care Medicine

13. Antimicrobial Disposition During Pediatric Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy Using an Ex Vivo Model. (Abstract)

Antimicrobial Disposition During Pediatric Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy Using an Ex Vivo Model. Little is known on the impact of continuous renal replacement therapy on antimicrobial dose requirements in children. In this study, we evaluated the pharmacokinetics of commonly administered antimicrobials in an ex vivo continuous renal replacement therapy model.An ex vivo continuous renal replacement therapy circuit was used to evaluate drug-circuit interactions and determine (...) the disposition of five commonly used antimicrobials (meropenem, piperacillin, liposomal amphotericin B, caspofungin, and voriconazole).University research laboratory.None.Antimicrobials were administered into a reservoir containing whole human blood. The reservoir was connected to a pediatric continuous renal replacement therapy circuit programmed for a 10 kg child. Continuous renal replacement therapy was performed in the hemodiafiltration mode and in three phases correlating with three different continuous

2019 Critical Care Medicine

14. Long-lasting effects of affective disorders and childhood trauma on dispositional optimism. (Abstract)

Long-lasting effects of affective disorders and childhood trauma on dispositional optimism. Dispositional optimism, a personality trait characterized by generalized positive expectations towards the future, is thought to remain rather stable over time. It is however largely unknown to what extent affective disorders and its risk factors affect dispositional optimism.We examined the association between (lifetime) affective disorders and childhood trauma with dispositional optimism in a sample (...) of 2104 subjects (aged 18-65 years) from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA). Dispositional optimism was measured with the Life Orientation Test Revised (LOT-R). Diagnoses of depressive and anxiety disorders were based on the Composite Interview diagnostic Instrument (CIDI).Childhood trauma was assessed using the Childhood Trauma Interview (CTI) and life-events with the List of Threatening Events Questionnaire (LTQ).The 2104 participants were on average 46.0 (SD 13.1) years old

2015 Journal of Affective Disorders

15. Dispositional and comparative optimism interact to predict avoidance of a looming health threat. (Abstract)

Dispositional and comparative optimism interact to predict avoidance of a looming health threat. Research indicates that when confronted with a health threat, individuals high in both dispositional and comparative optimism employ a more avoidant style of coping than individuals high in dispositional but low in comparative optimism. We examined the hypothesis that threat distance moderates this interactive optimism association. In two studies, participants were randomly assigned to a looming (...) or distant threat condition. Study 1 revealed that in the looming threat condition, participants high in both forms of optimism were more likely to minimise the threat and less inclined to seek additional health information relative to participants high in dispositional but low in comparative optimism. In Study 2, the same interaction pattern emerged on a measure of psychological abstraction suggesting these variables combine to alter broad information processing strategies. Implications for considering

2015 Psychology & health Controlled trial quality: uncertain

16. Disposition of levetiracetam in healthy adult horses. (Abstract)

Disposition of levetiracetam in healthy adult horses. Nine horses received 20 mg/kg of intravenous (LEVIV ); 30 mg/kg of intragastric, crushed immediate release (LEVCIR ); and 30 mg/kg of intragastric, crushed extended release (LEVCER ) levetiracetam, in a three-way randomized crossover design. Crushed tablets were dissolved in water and administered by nasogastric tube. Serum samples were collected over 48 hr, and levetiracetam concentrations were determined by immunoassay. Mean ± SD peak (...) of Levetiracetam (LEV) was well tolerated. Based on this study, a recommended dosing regimen of intravenous or oral LEV of 32 mg/kg every 12 hr is likely to achieve and maintain plasma concentrations within the therapeutic range suggested for humans, with optimal kinetics throughout the dosing interval in healthy adult horses. Repeated dosing and pharmacodynamic studies are warranted.© 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

2018 Journal of veterinary pharmacology and therapeutics Controlled trial quality: uncertain

17. Implementation of a Total Hip Arthroplasty Care Pathway at a High-Volume Health System: Effect on Length of Stay, Discharge Disposition, and 90-Day Complications. (Abstract)

Implementation of a Total Hip Arthroplasty Care Pathway at a High-Volume Health System: Effect on Length of Stay, Discharge Disposition, and 90-Day Complications. Standardized care pathways are evidence-based algorithms for optimizing an episode of care. Despite the theoretical promise of care pathways, there is an inconsistent literature demonstrating improvements in patient care. The authors hypothesized that implementing a care pathway, across 11 hospitals, would decrease hospital length (...) disposition. Cost savings were estimated using previously published postarthroplasty episode and per diem hospital costs.A total of 6090 primary THAs were conducted during the study period. After adjusting for the covariates, the full protocol implementation was associated with a decrease in LOS (mean ratio, 0.747; 95% confidence interval [CI; 0.727, 0.767]) and an increase in discharges to home (odds ratio, 2.079; 95% CI [1.762, 2.456]). The full protocol implementation was not associated with a change

2018 Journal of Arthroplasty

18. Utility of community-acquired pneumonia severity scores in guiding disposition from the emergency department: Intensive care or short-stay unit? (Abstract)

Utility of community-acquired pneumonia severity scores in guiding disposition from the emergency department: Intensive care or short-stay unit? To assess community-acquired pneumonia severity scores from two perspectives: (i) prediction of ICU admission or mortality; and (ii) utility of low scores for prediction of discharge within 48 h, potentially indicating suitability for short-stay unit admission.Patients with community-acquired pneumonia were identified from a prospective database (...) for invasive therapies, 75 (12.1%) were admitted to ICU or deceased at 30 days, and 87 (14.1%) were discharged within 48 h. All scores effectively stratified patients into categories of risk. For prediction of severe pneumonia, SMARTCOP, CURXO and IDSA/ATS discriminated well (AUROC 0.84-0.87). SMARTCOP and CURXO showed optimal sensitivity (85% [95% confidence interval (CI) 75-92]), while specificity was highest for CORB and CURB-65 (93% and 94%, respectively). Using lowest risk categories for prediction

2018 Emergency medicine Australasia

19. Route and Type of Formulation Administered Influences the Absorption and Disposition of Vitamin B12 Levels in Serum Full Text available with Trip Pro

Route and Type of Formulation Administered Influences the Absorption and Disposition of Vitamin B12 Levels in Serum The administration of biological compounds that optimize health benefits is an ever-evolving therapeutic goal. Pharmaceutical and other adjunctive biological compounds have been administered via many different routes in order to produce a systemic pharmacological effect. The article summarizes the findings from an Australian comparative study in adults administered vitamin B12

2018 Journal of functional biomaterials

20. Clinical practice guideline for the rehabilitation of adults with moderate to severe TBI - section 1: components of the optimal TBI rehabilitation system

, DRS, MPAI4, CRS-R) · Discharge disposition (return to home, level of services required, etc.) · School/work orientation on discharge · Satisfaction and quality of life (INESSS-ONF, 2015) A2 – Coordinating Management of Comorbid Conditions A 2.1 Collaboration and continuity mechanisms should be established with mental health services and programs in order to develop optimal management strategies for individuals with comorbid traumatic brain injury (TBI) and mental health issues. The collaboration (...) Clinical practice guideline for the rehabilitation of adults with moderate to severe TBI - section 1: components of the optimal TBI rehabilitation system A1 – Principles for Organizing Rehabilitation Services A 1.1 Every individual with traumatic brain injury should have timely, specialized interdisciplinary rehabilitation services. (Adapted from ABIKUS 2007, G2, p. 16) A 1.2 Rehabilitation interventions should be initiated as soon as the condition of the person with traumatic brain injury

2016 CPG Infobase

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