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chloroquine coronavirus

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1. Surviving Sepsis Campaign: Guidelines on the Management of Critically Ill Adults with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)

Surviving Sepsis Campaign: Guidelines on the Management of Critically Ill Adults with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Intensive Care Medicine GUIDELINES Un-edited accepted proof* © European Society of Intensive Care Medicine and the Society of Critical Care Medicine 2020 1 Surviving Sepsis Campaign: Guidelines on the Management of Critically Ill Adults with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Authors Waleed Alhazzani 1,2 , Morten Hylander Møller 3,4 , Yaseen M. Arabi 5 , Mark Loeb 1,2 (...) (CCM). This is not yet the definitive version of the manuscript as it will undergo copyediting and typesetting before it is published in its final form with a DOI. We anticipate that the DOI of the final version of these guidelines will be DOI: 10.1007/s00134-020-06022-5Intensive Care Medicine GUIDELINES Un-edited accepted proof* © European Society of Intensive Care Medicine and the Society of Critical Care Medicine 2020 3 Abstract Background The novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus

2020 Covid-19 Ad hoc guidelines

2. Potential Interventions for Novel Coronavirus in China: A Systematic Review Full Text available with Trip Pro

immune responses. Targeting 3C‐like protease (3 CLpro) and papain‐like protease (PLpro) are more attractive for the treatment of coronavirus. Table 2. Coronavirus‐specific treatments 3.1. Coronavirus protease inhibitors 3.1.1. Chymotrypsin‐like (3C‐like) inhibitors 3.1.1.1. Cinanserin 3.1.1.2. Flavonoids 3.1.2. Papain‐like protease (PLP) inhibitors 3.1.2.1. Diarylheptanoids 3.2. Spike (S) protein‐angiotensin‐converting enzyme‐2 (ACE2) blockers 3.2.1. Human monoclonal antibody (mAb) 3.2.2. Chloroquine (...) . Moreover, chloroquine was also found to be a potent inhibitor of SARS coronavirus infection through interfering with ACE2, one of cell surface binding sites for S protein of SARS‐CoV. 3.2.3 Emodin Emodin is an anthraquinone compound derived from genus Rheum and Polygonum and it is also a virucidal agent. Emodin could significantly block the interaction between the S protein of SARS‐CoV and ACE2. Therefore, emodin might abolish SARS‐CoV infection by competing for the binding site of S protein with ACE2

2020 Covid-19 Ad hoc papers

3. Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine: Current evidence for their effectiveness in treating COVID-19

We searched Pubmed and Google Scholar on 21st March 2020 using the search terms *chloroquine, coronavirus, SARS-Cov-2, 2019-NCov, and COVID-19. We screened titles and abstracts and included in vitro and in vivo studies of CQ/HCQ for the treatment of SARS-CoV-2. In addition, we included reviews of the existing literature on this topic. We provide a narrative summary of the current literature. References 1) Yao, X., Ye, F., Zhang, M., Cui, C., Huang, B., Niu, P., Liu, X., Zhao, L., Dong, E., Song (...) trial. International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents, p.105949. 3) Sahraei, Z., Shabani, M., Shokouhi, S. and Saffaei, A., 2020. Aminoquinolines Against Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19): Chloroquine or Hydroxychloroquine. International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents, p.105945. 4) Chauhan, A. and Tikoo, A., 2015. The enigma of the clandestine association between chloroquine and HIV‐1 infection. HIV medicine, 16(10), pp.585-590. 5) Keyaerts, E., Li, S., Vijgen, L., Rysman, E., Verbeeck, J., Van

2020 Oxford COVID-19 Evidence Service

4. Targeting endosomal acidification by chloroquine analogs as a promising strategy for the treatment of emerging viral diseases Full Text available with Trip Pro

Targeting endosomal acidification by chloroquine analogs as a promising strategy for the treatment of emerging viral diseases Emerging viruses such as HIV, dengue, influenza A, SARS coronavirus, Ebola, and other viruses pose a significant threat to human health. Majority of these viruses are responsible for the outbreaks of pathogenic lethal infections. To date, there are no effective therapeutic strategies available for the prophylaxis and treatment of these infections. Chloroquine analogs (...) have been used for decades as the primary and most successful drugs against malaria. Concomitant with the emergence of chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium strains and a subsequent decrease in the use as antimalarial drugs, other applications of the analogs have been investigated. Since the analogs have interesting biochemical properties, these drugs are found to be effective against a wide variety of viral infections. As antiviral action, the analogs have been shown to inhibit acidification

2017 Pharmacology research & perspectives

5. A Safe and Sensitive Antiviral Screening Platform Based on Recombinant Human Coronavirus OC43 Expressing the Luciferase Reporter Gene. Full Text available with Trip Pro

A Safe and Sensitive Antiviral Screening Platform Based on Recombinant Human Coronavirus OC43 Expressing the Luciferase Reporter Gene. Human coronaviruses (HCoVs) cause 15 to 30% of mild upper respiratory tract infections. However, no specific antiviral drugs are available to prevent or treat HCoV infections to date. Here, we developed four infectious recombinant HCoVs-OC43 (rHCoVs-OC43) which express the Renilla luciferase (Rluc) reporter gene. Among these four rHCoVs-OC43, rOC43-ns2DelRluc (...) (generated by replacing ns2 with the Rluc gene) showed robust luciferase activity with only a slight impact on its growth characteristics. Additionally, this recombinant virus remained stable for at least 10 passages in BHK-21 cells. rOC43-ns2DelRluc was comparable to its parental wild-type virus (HCoV-OC43-WT) with respect to the quantity of the antiviral activity of chloroquine and ribavirin. We showed that chloroquine strongly inhibited HCoV-OC43 replication in vitro, with a 50% inhibitory

2016 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

6. Screening of an FDA-approved compound library identifies four small-molecule inhibitors of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus replication in cell culture. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Screening of an FDA-approved compound library identifies four small-molecule inhibitors of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus replication in cell culture. Coronaviruses can cause respiratory and enteric disease in a wide variety of human and animal hosts. The 2003 outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) first demonstrated the potentially lethal consequences of zoonotic coronavirus infections in humans. In 2012, a similar previously unknown coronavirus emerged, Middle East (...) respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), thus far causing over 650 laboratory-confirmed infections, with an unexplained steep rise in the number of cases being recorded over recent months. The human MERS fatality rate of ∼ 30% is alarmingly high, even though many deaths were associated with underlying medical conditions. Registered therapeutics for the treatment of coronavirus infections are not available. Moreover, the pace of drug development and registration for human use is generally incompatible

2014 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

7. Richard Lehman’s Covid-19 reviews, 23rd March

activity against other viruses. We have reasonable starting knowledge about their safety, so people enrolled in trials have at least some information to guide their choice. Don’t try to keep up with the trials unless you have a team to help you and you don’t need any sleep. Fortunately there seem to be many good people of that description who are doing the work for us. From France comes in which the chief contenders are stem cell therapy (n=23 trials), lopinavir/ritonavir (n=15), chloroquine (n=11 (...) with meaningful arrows and a certain linguistic splendour. These are seen to best advantage in Tomas Pueyo’s chart 6 depicting what he interprets as inevitable mutation of SARS-CoV-2, which he fears will ensure its persistent virulence in the human population. Or else the virus may just fizzle and become lung junk, like other human coronaviruses. There will be a huge literature on coronavirus metamorphosis for teachers of the future to call on: are appearing every day. Before very long lecture theatres

2020 Covid-19 Ad hoc papers

8. COVID-19 Registered Trials – and analysis

coronavirus, 2019-nCoV, also called SARS-CoV-2. The disease it causes has been called COVID-19. The (17 March 2020) suggest that about 180,00 people have been infected worldwide, with about 7200 deaths. The World Health Organization (WHO) designated COVID-19 a “public health emergency of international concern” on 30 January and declared it a pandemic on 11 March. COVID-19 should have come as no surprise. Gralinski and Baric, in a in 2015 wrote: “The existence of novel bat SARS-like coronaviruses that also (...) use bat, civet and human angiotensin 1 converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptors for entry, such as SARS-CoV [now SARS-CoV-1], strongly suggests an opportunity for further zoonotic disease outbreaks in human and animal populations.” Yet attempts to develop effective treatments against two other coronavirus diseases, SARS and MERS, have so far . The coronaviruses are single-stranded RNA viruses that encode for four enzymes essential to the viral life cycle. They enter mammalian cells through

2020 Oxford COVID-19 Evidence Service

9. Interim clinical guidance for patients suspected of/confirmed with COVID-19 in Belgium

of Biological Chemistry 2020; :jbc.AC120.013056. 6 Wang M, Cao R, Zhang L, Yang X, Liu J, Xu M, et al. Remdesivir and chloroquine effectively inhibit the recently emerged novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) in vitro. Cell Res Published Online First: 4 February 2020. doi:10.1038/s41422-020-0282-0 7 Brown AJ, Won JJ, Graham RL, Dinnon KH, Sims AC, Feng JY, et al. Broad spectrum antiviral remdesivir inhibits human endemic and zoonotic deltacoronaviruses with a highly divergent RNA dependent RNA polymerase. Antiviral (...) Res 2019; 169:104541. 8 Vincent MJ, Bergeron E, Benjannet S, Erickson BR, Rollin PE, Ksiazek TG, et al. Chloroquine is a potent inhibitor of SARS coronavirus infection and spread. Virol J 2005; 2:69. 9 Keyaerts E, Vijgen L, Maes P, Neyts J, Van Ranst M. In vitro inhibition of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus by chloroquine. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2004; 323:264–268. 10 de Wilde AH, Jochmans D, Posthuma CC, Zevenhoven-Dobbe JC, van Nieuwkoop S, Bestebroer TM, et al. Screening

2020 Sciensano

10. Should Remdesivir be Used for COVID-19

infections, though it has subsequently shown reasonable antiviral activity against more distantly related viruses including MERS-coronavirus. Possible activity against other coronaviruses including COVID-19 infection is predicted. 1,2 Remdesivir is not currently approved to treat any condition by any regulatory agencies, including the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) or the European Medicines Agency (EMA). Published evidence for remdesivir to treat COVID-19 infection is limited and concludes (...) therapies identified to date to treat COVID-19: remdesivir; chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine; ritonavir/lopinavir; and ritonavir/lopinavir + interferon beta. The following countries are currently included in the trial: Argentina, Bahrain, Canada, France, Iran, Norway, South Africa, Spain, Switzerland and Thailand. More countries are likely to be included over time. The trial completion date has not been released yet. MOH-ACE COVID-19 RAPID REVIEW 24 March 2020 Page 2 of 2 Recommendations from

2020 Appropriate Care Guides, Agency for Care Effectiveness (Singapore)

11. Should Protease Inhibitors be Used for COVID-19?

); however their clinical efficacy was inconclusive. 1 As SARS-CoV and COVID-19 both belong to the Coronavirus family, protease inhibitors are currently being studied as a potential antiviral treatment for COVID-19 infection. Most ongoing trials are focusing on lopinavir/ritonavir (brand names: Kaletra, Aluvia), following reports of its efficacy in a patient with COVID-19 in South Korea. 2 A literature search of protease inhibitors used for treating COVID-19 was conducted on 23 March 2020. † Sixteen (...) Hydroxychloroquine sulfate May 2020 NCT04286503 5 MC, OL, phIV, RCT Carrimycin ? Lopinavir/ritonavir ? arbidol ? chloroquine phosphate February 2021 NCT04255017 6 SC*, SB, phIV, RCT Lopinavir/ritonavir ? Abidol hydrochloride ? oseltamivir June 2020 NCT04295551 7 MC, OL, RCT Lopinavir/ritonavir Lopinavir/ritonavir with Xiyanping injection July 2020 NCT04303299 8 MC, OL, phIII, RCT Mild COVID-19 ? oseltamivir and chloroquine ? lopinavir/ritonavir with favipiravir ? lopinavir/ritonavir with oseltamivir Moderate

2020 Appropriate Care Guides, Agency for Care Effectiveness (Singapore)

12. Should Favipiravir be Used for COVID-19?

Should Favipiravir be Used for COVID-19? MOH-ACE COVID-19 RAPID REVIEW 26 March 2020 Page 1 of 3 Clinical evidence Background Should favipiravir be used for COVID-19? This write-up summarises a rapid evidence review of favipiravir for treating COVID-19. The information may be revised as new evidence emerges. A news article titled “Japanese flu drug 'clearly effective' in treating coronavirus, say China” was published in the Guardian on 18 Mar 2020. 1 Favipiravir (brand name Avigan (...) -19 RAPID REVIEW 26 March 2020 Page 2 of 3 Recommendations from professional bodies Conclusion Table 1: Ongoing or planned studies for favipiravir in patients with COVID-19 Study identifier Study Design (Location) Intervention Comparator Date of primary completion NCT04303299 8 OL, R, (Thailand) lopinavir/darunavir + ritonavir + favipiravir +/- chloroquine placebo October 2020 NCT04310228 9 OL, R, MC (China) favipiravir +/- tocilizumab tocilizumab May 2020 Sihuan Pharmaceutical 10 R, MC (China

2020 Appropriate Care Guides, Agency for Care Effectiveness (Singapore)

13. Can Antimalarials be Used to Treat COVID-19?

-and-treatment 3. Gautret et al. Hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin as a treatment of COVID019: results of an open-label non-randomized clinical trial. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 17 March 2020. doi:10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2020.105949 4. Newsweek. (2020) Health officials warn against self-medicating with chloroquine for coronavirus after man dies from taking fish tank cleaner. 2020 Mar 24. Accessed 25 Mar 2020 at: https://www.newsweek.com/health-officials-warn-against-self-medicating- chloroquine-coronavirus (...) -after-man-dies-taking-fish-1493874 5. Cable News Network. (2020) Nigeria records chloroquine poisoning after Trump endorses it for coronavirus treatment. 2020 Mar 23. Accessed 25 Mar 2020 at: https://edition.cnn.com/2020/03/23/africa/chloroquine-trump-nigeria-intl/index.html 6. Cortegiani A, Inogoglia G, Ippolito M et al. A systematic review on the efficacy and safety of chloroquine for the treatment of COVID- 10. J Crit Care. 2020. Doi: 10.1016/j.jcrc.2020.03.005 7. Tricou V, Minh NN, Van TP et al

2020 Appropriate Care Guides, Agency for Care Effectiveness (Singapore)

14. MERS-CoV pathogenesis and antiviral efficacy of licensed drugs in human monocyte-derived antigen-presenting cells. Full Text available with Trip Pro

MERS-CoV pathogenesis and antiviral efficacy of licensed drugs in human monocyte-derived antigen-presenting cells. Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) presents an emerging threat to public health worldwide by causing severe respiratory disease in humans with high virulence and case fatality rate (about 35%) since 2012. Little is known about the pathogenesis and innate antiviral response in primary human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) and dendritic cells (MDDCs) upon (...) MERS-CoV infection. In this study, we assessed MERS-CoV replication as well as induction of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in MDMs and immature and mature MDDCs. Immature MDDCs and MDMs were permissive for MERS-CoV infection, while mature MDDCs were not, with stimulation of proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine upregulation in MDMs, but not in MDDCs. To further evaluate the antiviral activity of well-defined drugs in primary antigen presenting cells (APCs), three compounds (chloroquine

2018 PLoS ONE

15. Chloroquine is a potent inhibitor of SARS coronavirus infection and spread Full Text available with Trip Pro

Chloroquine is a potent inhibitor of SARS coronavirus infection and spread Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is caused by a newly discovered coronavirus (SARS-CoV). No effective prophylactic or post-exposure therapy is currently available.We report, however, that chloroquine has strong antiviral effects on SARS-CoV infection of primate cells. These inhibitory effects are observed when the cells are treated with the drug either before or after exposure to the virus, suggesting both (...) prophylactic and therapeutic advantage. In addition to the well-known functions of chloroquine such as elevations of endosomal pH, the drug appears to interfere with terminal glycosylation of the cellular receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2. This may negatively influence the virus-receptor binding and abrogate the infection, with further ramifications by the elevation of vesicular pH, resulting in the inhibition of infection and spread of SARS CoV at clinically admissible concentrations.Chloroquine

2005 Virology journal

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