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cephalosporin

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161. Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic Modeling and Simulation of Cefiderocol, a Parenteral Siderophore Cephalosporin, for Dose Adjustment based on Renal Function. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic Modeling and Simulation of Cefiderocol, a Parenteral Siderophore Cephalosporin, for Dose Adjustment based on Renal Function. Cefiderocol, a novel parenteral siderophore cephalosporin, exhibits potent efficacy against most Gram-negative bacteria, including carbapenem-resistant strains. Since cefiderocol is excreted primarily via the kidneys, this study was conducted to develop a population pharmacokinetics (PK) model to determine dose adjustment based on renal

2016 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

162. High third-generation cephalosporin resistant Enterobacteriaceae prevalence rate among neonatal infections in Dakar, Senegal. Full Text available with Trip Pro

High third-generation cephalosporin resistant Enterobacteriaceae prevalence rate among neonatal infections in Dakar, Senegal. Neonatal infection constitutes one of Senegal's most important public health problems, with a mortality rate of 41 deaths per 1,000 live births.Between January 2007 and March 2008, 242 neonates with suspected infection were recruited at three neonatal intensive care units in three major tertiary care centers in Dakar, the capital of Senegal. Neonatal infections were (...) confirmed by positive bacterial blood or cerebrospinal fluid culture. The microbiological pattern of neonatal infections and the antibiotic susceptibility of the isolates were characterized. In addition, the genetic basis for antibiotic resistance and the genetic background of third-generation cephalosporin-resistant (3GC-R) Enterobacteriaceae were studied.A bacteriological infection was confirmed in 36.4 % (88/242) of neonates: 22.7 % (30/132) during the early-onset and 52.7 % (58/110) during the late

2016 BMC Infectious Diseases

163. Clinical and Molecular Characterization of Community-Onset Urinary Tract Infections Due to Extended-Spectrum Cephalosporin-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Clinical and Molecular Characterization of Community-Onset Urinary Tract Infections Due to Extended-Spectrum Cephalosporin-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae. OBJECTIVE To evaluate risk factors for and molecular characteristics of community-onset extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant (ESC-R) Enterobacteriaceae (EB) urinary tract infections (UTIs) in a US health system. DESIGN Case-control study. PARTICIPANTS All patients presenting to the emergency department or outpatient practices with EB UTIs

2016 Infection control and hospital epidemiology

164. Fluoroquinolone and Third-Generation Cephalosporin Resistance Among Hospitalized Patients with Urinary Tract Infections Due to Escherichia coli: Do Rates Vary by Hospital Characteristics and Geographic Region? Full Text available with Trip Pro

Fluoroquinolone and Third-Generation Cephalosporin Resistance Among Hospitalized Patients with Urinary Tract Infections Due to Escherichia coli: Do Rates Vary by Hospital Characteristics and Geographic Region? This analysis of nearly 10,000 hospital-associated urinary tract infection (UTI) episodes due to Escherichia coli showed that fluoroquinolone and third-generation-cephalosporin resistance rates were 34.5% and 8.6%, respectively; the rate of concurrent resistance to both agents was 7.3 (...) %. Fluoroquinolone resistance rates exceeded 25% regardless of geographic location or hospital characteristics. The findings suggest that fluoroquinolones should be reserved and third-generation cephalosporins be used with caution as empirical agents for hospitalized patients with UTIs due to E. coli.Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

2016 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

165. Acquisition of broad-spectrum cephalosporin resistance leading to colistin resistance in Klebsiella pneumoniae. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Acquisition of broad-spectrum cephalosporin resistance leading to colistin resistance in Klebsiella pneumoniae. An extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing and colistin-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae clinical isolate was recovered from a patient who was treated with cefotaxime. This isolate harbored a blaCTX-M-15 ESBL gene that was associated with an ISEcp1 insertion sequence. Transposition of that tandem occurred within the chromosomal mgrB gene, leading to inactivation of the mgrB gene (...) and consequently to acquired resistance to colistin. We showed here a coselection of colistin resistance as a result of a broad-spectrum cephalosporin selective pressure.Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

2016 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

166. Are first-generation cephalosporins obsolete? A retrospective, non-inferiority, cohort study comparing empirical therapy with cefazolin versus ceftriaxone for acute pyelonephritis in hospitalized patients. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Are first-generation cephalosporins obsolete? A retrospective, non-inferiority, cohort study comparing empirical therapy with cefazolin versus ceftriaxone for acute pyelonephritis in hospitalized patients. Literature is lacking regarding the utilization of first-generation cephalosporins for the treatment of acute pyelonephritis. The aim of this study was to determine whether cefazolin is non-inferior to ceftriaxone for the empirical treatment of acute pyelonephritis in hospitalized patients

2016 Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy

167. Stability of novel siderophore cephalosporin S-649266 to clinically relevant carbapenemases. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Stability of novel siderophore cephalosporin S-649266 to clinically relevant carbapenemases. To better understand the antibacterial activity of S-649266 against carbapenemase producers, its stability against clinically relevant carbapenemases was investigated. The catalytic efficiencies (kcat/Km) of IMP-1, VIM-2, and L1 for S-649266 were 0.0048, 0.0050, and 0.024 μM(-1) s(-1), respectively, which were more than 260-fold lower than that for meropenem. Only slight hydrolysis of S-649266 against

2016 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

168. Ease-of-use protocol for the rapid detection of third-generation cephalosporin resistance in Enterobacteriaceae isolated from blood cultures using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry. (Abstract)

Ease-of-use protocol for the rapid detection of third-generation cephalosporin resistance in Enterobacteriaceae isolated from blood cultures using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry. An ease-of-use protocol for the identification of resistance against third-generation cephalosporins in Enterobacteriaceae isolated from blood culture bottles was evaluated using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry. A cefotaxime

2016 Journal of Hospital Infection

169. PBP4 mediates high-level resistance to new generation cephalosporins in Staphylococcus aureus. Full Text available with Trip Pro

PBP4 mediates high-level resistance to new generation cephalosporins in Staphylococcus aureus. Staphylococcus aureus is an important cause of both hospital- and community-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) infections worldwide. β-Lactam antibiotics are the drugs of choice to treat S. aureus infections, but resistance to these and other antibiotics make treatment problematic. High-level β-lactam resistance of S. aureus has always been attributed to the horizontally acquired (...) penicillin binding protein 2a (PBP 2a) encoded by the mecA gene. Here, we show that S. aureus can also express high-level resistance to β-lactams, including new-generation broad-spectrum cephalosporins that are active against methicillin-resistant strains, through an uncanonical core genome-encoded penicillin binding protein, PBP 4, a nonessential enzyme previously considered not to be important for staphylococcal β-lactam resistance. Our results show that PBP 4 can mediate high-level resistance to β

2016 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

170. Cross-reactivity and tolerability of aztreonam and cephalosporins in subjects with a T cell-mediated hypersensitivity to penicillins. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Cross-reactivity and tolerability of aztreonam and cephalosporins in subjects with a T cell-mediated hypersensitivity to penicillins. The few studies performed in adults with T cell-mediated hypersensitivity to penicillins have found a rate of cross-reactivity with cephalosporins ranging from 2.8% to 31.2% and an absence of cross-reactivity with aztreonam.We sought to evaluate the possibility of using cephalosporins and aztreonam in subjects with documented delayed hypersensitivity (...) to penicillins who especially require them.We conducted a prospective study of 214 consecutive subjects who had 307 nonimmediate reactions to penicillins (almost exclusively aminopenicillins) and had positive patch test and/or delayed-reading skin test responses to at least 1 penicillin reagent. To assess cross-reactivity with cephalosporins and aztreonam and the tolerability of such alternative β-lactams, all subjects underwent skin tests with cephalexin, cefaclor, cefadroxil, cefuroxime, ceftriaxone

2016 Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology

171. Extended-Spectrum Cephalosporin-Resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Heidelberg Strains, the Netherlands(1). Full Text available with Trip Pro

Extended-Spectrum Cephalosporin-Resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Heidelberg Strains, the Netherlands(1). Extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Heidelberg strains (JF6X01.0022/XbaI.0251, JF6X01.0326/XbaI.1966, JF6X01.0258/XbaI.1968, and JF6X01.0045/XbaI.1970) have been identified in the United States with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Our examination of isolates showed introduction of these strains in the Netherlands and highlight the need for active

2016 Emerging Infectious Diseases

172. Meta-analysis of randomised trials comparing a penicillin or cephalosporin with a macrolide or lincosamide in the treatment of cellulitis or erysipelas. (Abstract)

Meta-analysis of randomised trials comparing a penicillin or cephalosporin with a macrolide or lincosamide in the treatment of cellulitis or erysipelas. Beta-lactam antibiotics, such as penicillin, flucloxacillin or cephalexin, are widely considered first-line treatment for cellulitis and erysipelas, while macrolides and lincosamides, such as erythromycin, azithromycin or clindamycin, are widely considered second-line agents. We attempted to determine whether outcomes differed between patients

2016 Infection

173. Combining the FtsZ-Targeting Prodrug TXA709 and the Cephalosporin Cefdinir Confers Synergy and Reduces the Frequency of Resistance in Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Combining the FtsZ-Targeting Prodrug TXA709 and the Cephalosporin Cefdinir Confers Synergy and Reduces the Frequency of Resistance in Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Combination therapy of bacterial infections with synergistic drug partners offers distinct advantages over monotherapy. Among these advantages are (i) a reduction of the drug dose required for efficacy, (ii) a reduced potential for drug-induced toxicity, and (iii) a reduced potential for the emergence of resistance (...) . Here, we describe the synergistic actions of the third-generation oral cephalosporin cefdinir and TXA709, a new, FtsZ-targeting prodrug that we have developed with improved pharmacokinetics and enhanced in vivo efficacy against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) relative to earlier agents. We show that the active product of TXA709 (TXA707) acts synergistically with cefdinir in vitro against clinical isolates of MRSA, vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus (VISA), vancomycin-resistant S

2016 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

174. Association of novel nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms in ampD with cephalosporin resistance and phylogenetic variations in ampC, ampR, ompF and ompC in Enterobacter cloacae that are highly resistant to carbapenems. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Association of novel nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms in ampD with cephalosporin resistance and phylogenetic variations in ampC, ampR, ompF and ompC in Enterobacter cloacae that are highly resistant to carbapenems. InEnterobacter cloacae, the genetic lesions associated with derepression of the AmpC β-lactamase include diverse single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and/or indels in theampDandampRgenes and SNPs inampC, while diverse SNPs in the promoter region or SNPs/indels within (...) the coding sequence of outer membrane proteins have been described to alter porin production leading to carbapenem resistance. We sought to define the underlying mechanisms conferring cephalosporin and carbapenem resistance in a collection ofE. cloacaeisolates with unusually high carbapenem resistance and no known carbapenemase and, in contrast to many previous studies, considered the SNPs we detected in relation to the multilocus sequence type (MLST)-based phylogeny of our collection. Whole-genome

2016 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

175. Decline in Decreased Cephalosporin Susceptibility and Increase in Azithromycin Resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Canada. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Decline in Decreased Cephalosporin Susceptibility and Increase in Azithromycin Resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Canada. Antimicrobial resistance profiles were determined for Neisseria gonorrhoeae strains isolated in Canada during 2010-2014. The proportion of isolates with decreased susceptibility to cephalosporins declined significantly between 2011 and 2014, whereas azithromycin resistance increased significantly during that period. Continued surveillance of antimicrobial drug

2016 Emerging Infectious Diseases

176. Modelling concentrations of antimicrobial drugs: comparative pharmacokinetics of cephalosporin antimicrobials and accuracy of allometric scaling in food-producing and companion animals Full Text available with Trip Pro

Modelling concentrations of antimicrobial drugs: comparative pharmacokinetics of cephalosporin antimicrobials and accuracy of allometric scaling in food-producing and companion animals To optimize antimicrobial dosing in different animal species, pharmacokinetic information is necessary. Due to the plethora of cephalosporin antimicrobials and animal species in which they are used, assessment of pharmacokinetics in all species is unfeasible. In this study we aimed to describe pharmacokinetic (...) data of cephalosporins by reviewing the available literature for food producing and companion animal species. We assessed the accuracy of interspecies extrapolation using allometric scaling techniques to determine pharmacokinetic characteristics of cephalosporins in animal species for which literature data is unavailable. We assessed the accuracy of allometric scaling by comparing the predicted and the published pharmacokinetic value in an animal species/humans not included in the allometric

2016 BMC veterinary research

177. Nonconvulsive status epilepticus cases arising in connection with cephalosporins Full Text available with Trip Pro

Nonconvulsive status epilepticus cases arising in connection with cephalosporins Cephalosporins, particularly cefepime, exert neurotoxic side effects that can lead to status epilepticus. These neurotoxic side effects include myoclonus, dystonic movements, tremor, asterixis, seizure, status epilepticus, encephalopathy, and sometimes coma. Status epilepticus, particularly nonconvulsive status epilepticus (NCSE), is a well-known but unusual complication in patients with altered renal function who (...) were receiving treatment with intravenous cephalosporins, especially cefepime. We reviewed the clinical and electroencephalographic (EEG) characteristics of 7 patients with renal failure who developed consciousness alterations with changes in EEG activity while being treated with cephalosporins. All patients developed renal failure: six patients had chronic renal failure, one patient had acute renal failure, and two patients were administered hemodialysis. Nonconvulsive status epilepticus

2016 Epilepsy & behavior case reports

178. Polyclonal Intestinal Colonization with Extended-Spectrum Cephalosporin-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae upon Traveling to India Full Text available with Trip Pro

Polyclonal Intestinal Colonization with Extended-Spectrum Cephalosporin-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae upon Traveling to India We aimed to assess the intestinal colonization dynamics by multiple extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (ESC-R-Ent) clones in Swiss travelers to India, a country with high prevalence of these multidrug-resistant pathogens. Fifteen healthy volunteers (HVs) colonized with ESC-R-Ent after traveling to India who provided stools before, after, and at 3

2016 Frontiers in microbiology

179. Study on genetic engineering of Acremonium chrysogenum, the cephalosporin C producer Full Text available with Trip Pro

Study on genetic engineering of Acremonium chrysogenum, the cephalosporin C producer Acremonium chrysogenum is an important filamentous fungus which produces cephalosporin C in industry. This review summarized the study on genetic engineering of Acremonium chrysogenum, including biosynthesis and regulation for fermentation of cephalosporin C, molecular techniques, molecular breeding and transcriptomics of Acremonium chrysogenum. We believe with all the techniques available and full genomic

2016 Synthetic and Systems Biotechnology

180. Repurposing clinically approved cephalosporins for tuberculosis therapy Full Text available with Trip Pro

Repurposing clinically approved cephalosporins for tuberculosis therapy While modern cephalosporins developed for broad spectrum antibacterial activities have never been pursued for tuberculosis (TB) therapy, we identified first generation cephalosporins having clinically relevant inhibitory concentrations, both alone and in synergistic drug combinations. Common chemical patterns required for activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis were identified using structure-activity relationships (SAR (...) ) studies. Numerous cephalosporins were synergistic with rifampicin, the cornerstone drug for TB therapy, and ethambutol, a first-line anti-TB drug. Synergy was observed even under intracellular growth conditions where beta-lactams typically have limited activities. Cephalosporins and rifampicin were 4- to 64-fold more active in combination than either drug alone; however, limited synergy was observed with rifapentine or rifabutin. Clavulanate was a key synergistic partner in triple combinations

2016 Scientific reports

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