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141. Detection of SGI1/PGI1 Elements and Resistance to Extended-Spectrum Cephalosporins in Proteae of Animal Origin in France Full Text available with Trip Pro

Detection of SGI1/PGI1 Elements and Resistance to Extended-Spectrum Cephalosporins in Proteae of Animal Origin in France Proteae, and especially Proteus mirabilis, are often the cause of urinary tract infections (UTIs) in humans. They were reported as carriers of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) genes, and recently of carbapenemases, mostly carried by the Salmonella genomic island 1 (SGI1) and Proteus genomic island 1 (PGI1). Proteae have also lately become an increasing cause of UTIs (...) in companion animals, but antimicrobial susceptibility data in animals are still scarce. Here, we report the characterization of 468 clinical epidemiologically unrelated Proteae strains from animals collected between 2013 and 2015 in France. Seventeen P. mirabilis strains (3.6%) were positive for SGI1/PGI1 and 18 Proteae (3.8%) were resistant to extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESC). The 28 isolates carrying SGI1/PGI1 and/or ESC-resistance genes were isolated from cats, dogs, and horses. ESBL genes were

2017 Frontiers in microbiology

142. Impact of Revised Broad-Spectrum Cephalosporin Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute Breakpoints on Susceptibility in Enterobacteriaceae Producing AmpC β-Lactamase Full Text available with Trip Pro

Impact of Revised Broad-Spectrum Cephalosporin Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute Breakpoints on Susceptibility in Enterobacteriaceae Producing AmpC β-Lactamase We evaluated the impact of revised Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) breakpoints for broad-spectrum cephalosporins (BSCs) on the susceptibilities of 1,742 isolates of Enterobacter species, Serratia marcescens, Citrobacter freundii, and Morganella morganii. The 2011 CLSI criteria for cefotaxime and ceftazidime

2017 Infection & chemotherapy

143. Increasing Resistance to Extended-Spectrum Cephalosporins, Fluoroquinolone, and Carbapenem in Gram-Negative Bacilli and the Emergence of Carbapenem Non-Susceptibility in Klebsiella pneumoniae: Analysis of Korean Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System Full Text available with Trip Pro

Increasing Resistance to Extended-Spectrum Cephalosporins, Fluoroquinolone, and Carbapenem in Gram-Negative Bacilli and the Emergence of Carbapenem Non-Susceptibility in Klebsiella pneumoniae: Analysis of Korean Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System National surveillance of antimicrobial resistance becomes more important for the control of antimicrobial resistance and determination of treatment guidelines. We analyzed Korean Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (KARMS) data collected (...) to carbapenem increased to 35% and the prevalence of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii increased from 77% in 2013 to 85% in 2015.Between 2013 and 2015, the resistance rates of E. coli to third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins increased continuously, while carbapenem-susceptibility gradually decreased, particularly in K. pneumoniae. The prevalence of carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa and A. baumannii increased significantly; therefore, few treatment options remain for these resistant strains

2017 Annals of laboratory medicine

144. Alanine-501 Mutations in Penicillin-Binding Protein 2 from Neisseria gonorrhoeae: Structure, Mechanism, and Effects on Cephalosporin Resistance and Biological Fitness Full Text available with Trip Pro

Alanine-501 Mutations in Penicillin-Binding Protein 2 from Neisseria gonorrhoeae: Structure, Mechanism, and Effects on Cephalosporin Resistance and Biological Fitness Resistance of Neisseria gonorrhoeae to expanded-spectrum cephalosporins such as ceftriaxone and cefixime has increased markedly in the past decade. The primary cephalosporin resistance determinant is a mutated penA gene, which encodes the essential peptidoglycan transpeptidase, penicillin-binding protein 2 (PBP2). Decreased (...) -spectrum cephalosporins, we randomized codon 501 in a mosaic penA allele and transformed N. gonorrhoeae to increased cefixime resistance. Interestingly, only five substitutions of Ala501 (A501V, A501T, A501P, A501R, and A501S) that increased resistance and preserved essential transpeptidase function were isolated. To understand their structural implications, these mutations were introduced into the nonmosaic PBP2-6140CT, which contains four C-terminal mutations present in PBP2 from the penicillin

2017 Biochemistry

145. Are third-generation cephalosporins unavoidable for empirical therapy of community-acquired pneumonia in adult patients who require ICU admission? A retrospective study Full Text available with Trip Pro

Are third-generation cephalosporins unavoidable for empirical therapy of community-acquired pneumonia in adult patients who require ICU admission? A retrospective study Third-generation cephalosporins (3GCs) are recommended for empirical antibiotic therapy of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in patients requiring ICU admission. However, their extensive use could promote the emergence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases-producing Enterobacteriaceae. Our aim was to assess whether the use

2017 Annals of intensive care

146. Role of inducers in detection of blaPDC-mediated oxyimino-cephalosporin resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Full Text available with Trip Pro

Role of inducers in detection of blaPDC-mediated oxyimino-cephalosporin resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Pseudomonas aeruginosa possessing chromosomally inducible blaPDCalong with other intrinsic mechanism causes infection with high mortality rate. It is difficult to detect inducible AmpC enzymes in this organism and is usually overlooked by routine testing that may lead to therapeutic failure. Therefore, three different inducers were evaluated in the present study to assess their ability (...) for detecting inducible AmpC enzymes. Isolates harbouring blaPDCshowed high MIC against all tested cephalosporins and monobactam. DNA fingerprinting of these isolates showed 22 different clones of P. aeruginosa.P. aeruginosa harbouring inducible (chromosomal) and plasmid-mediated AmpC β-lactamase is a matter of concern as it may limit therapeutic option. Using cefoxitin-ceftazidime-based test is simple and may be used for detecting inducible AmpC β-lactamase amongst P. aeruginosa.

2017 The Indian journal of medical research

147. Cephalosporin-Glycopeptide Combinations for Use against Clinical Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Isolates: Enhanced In vitro Antibacterial Activity Full Text available with Trip Pro

Cephalosporin-Glycopeptide Combinations for Use against Clinical Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Isolates: Enhanced In vitro Antibacterial Activity The empirical combination of both a beta-lactam and glycopeptide to counter potential staphylococcal pathogens may improve the clinical outcomes for cases of Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia. We reported comparative in vitro studies of combination effects of different cephalosporins (i.e., cefazolin, cefmetazole, cefotaxime, and cefepime (...) -based combinations at 30.8-69.2 and 13.6-66.7%, as well as teicoplanin-based combinations of 38.5-84.6 and 0-47.6%, of the HCM and LCM isolates, respectively. No antagonism was noted. The in vitro inhibitory activity was evident even at a low concentration of 1/512x MIC of cephalosporin combined with sub-inhibitory concentrations (1/2x MIC) of a glycopeptide. With time-killing assays, synergism was noted at 1/2x or 1x susceptible breakpoint concentrations (SBCs) of a cephalosporin combined with 1/4

2017 Frontiers in microbiology

148. Structure and dimerization of IreB, a negative regulator of cephalosporin resistance in Enterococcus faecalis Full Text available with Trip Pro

Structure and dimerization of IreB, a negative regulator of cephalosporin resistance in Enterococcus faecalis Enterococcus faecalis, a leading cause of hospital-acquired infections, exhibits intrinsic resistance to most cephalosporins, which are antibiotics in the beta-lactam family that target cell-wall biosynthesis. A comprehensive understanding of the underlying genetic and biochemical mechanisms of cephalosporin resistance in E. faecalis is lacking. We previously determined (...) that a transmembrane serine/threonine kinase (IreK) and its cognate phosphatase (IreP) reciprocally regulate cephalosporin resistance in E. faecalis, dependent on the kinase activity of IreK. Other than IreK itself, thus far the only known substrate for reversible phosphorylation by IreK and IreP is IreB, a small protein of unknown function that is well conserved in low-GC Gram-positive bacteria. We previously showed that IreB acts as a negative regulator of cephalosporin resistance in E. faecalis. However

2017 Journal of Molecular Biology

149. Second generation cephalosporin antibiotic prophylaxis and Clostridium difficile infection in hip and knee arthroplasty Full Text available with Trip Pro

Second generation cephalosporin antibiotic prophylaxis and Clostridium difficile infection in hip and knee arthroplasty Introduction The use of broad spectrum cephalosporin antibiotics has been discouraged by the Department of Health in England because of the link to increased Clostridium difficile infection rates. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether a local protocol that included the use of second generation cephalosporin (cefuroxime) antibiotics as a prophylactic agent (...) diarrhoea was identified that correlated to the 8-week postoperative period following 4,488 arthroplasty procedures. Conclusions The use of cephalosporin antibiotic prophylaxis in the elective hip and knee arthroplasty setting does not appear to be associated with increased C difficile infection rates, achieving surgical site infection rates that are comparable with the national average.

2017 Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England

150. Transfer Potential of Plasmids Conferring Extended-Spectrum-Cephalosporin Resistance in Escherichia coli from Poultry Full Text available with Trip Pro

Transfer Potential of Plasmids Conferring Extended-Spectrum-Cephalosporin Resistance in Escherichia coli from Poultry Escherichia coli strains resistant to extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESC) are widely distributed in Norwegian broiler production, and the majority harbor transferable IncK or IncI1 plasmids carrying blaCMY-2 Persistent occurrence in broiler farms may occur through the survival of ESC-resistant E. coli strains in the farm environment, or by transfer and maintenance

2017 Applied and environmental microbiology

151. Drug Resistance Pattern in the Recent Isolates of Salmonella Typhi with Special Reference to Cephalosporins and Azithromycin in the Gangetic Plain Full Text available with Trip Pro

Drug Resistance Pattern in the Recent Isolates of Salmonella Typhi with Special Reference to Cephalosporins and Azithromycin in the Gangetic Plain Typhoid fever is an endemic disease in India against which many antibiotics are available. In the recent times, emerging resistance to traditional antibiotics, such as Ampicillin, Chloramphenicol and Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, Azithro-mycin and third generation Cephalosporins are being reported and increasingly being used in the treatment (...) of invasive Salmonella infections. However, the latter two drugs have been reported with occasional clinical failures. Currently, we do not have data regarding their drug resistance levels in the recent isolates of Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serotype Typhi.To determine the current levels of drug resistance of the two drugs (i.e., cephalosporins and azithromycin) against S. Typhi isolates.It is a prospective case study. A total of 47 recent strains of S. Typhi were isolated from blood

2017 Journal of clinical and diagnostic research : JCDR

152. Whole-Genome Shotgun Sequencing of Cephalosporin-Resistant Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi Full Text available with Trip Pro

Whole-Genome Shotgun Sequencing of Cephalosporin-Resistant Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi Typhoid is one of the leading causes of mortality in developing countries. Here, we report the draft genome sequences of four Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi strains isolated from bloodstream infections in a tertiary care hospital. The sequence data indicate genomes of ~4.5 Mb for all isolates, with one plasmid in each.Copyright © 2017 Rodrigues et al.

2017 Genome Announcements

153. The Drug-Resistant Variant P167S Expands the Substrate Profile of CTX-M β-lactamases for Oxyimino-Cephalosporin Antibiotics by Enlarging the Active Site upon Acylation Full Text available with Trip Pro

The Drug-Resistant Variant P167S Expands the Substrate Profile of CTX-M β-lactamases for Oxyimino-Cephalosporin Antibiotics by Enlarging the Active Site upon Acylation CTX-M β-lactamases provide resistance against the β-lactam antibiotic, cefotaxime, but not a related antibiotic, ceftazidime. β-Lactamases that carry the P167S substitution, however, provide ceftazidime resistance. In this study, CTX-M-14 was used as a model to study the structural changes caused by the P167S mutation

2017 Biochemistry

154. Genotypic characterization of gentamicin and cephalosporin resistant Escherichia coli isolates from blood cultures in a Norwegian university hospital 2011–2015 Full Text available with Trip Pro

Genotypic characterization of gentamicin and cephalosporin resistant Escherichia coli isolates from blood cultures in a Norwegian university hospital 2011–2015 Cephalosporin resistance in clinical E. coli isolates is increasing internationally. The increase has been caused by virulent and often multidrug-resistant clones, especially the extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) producing E. coli clone O25b-ST131.In Norway, recommended empirical treatment of sepsis consists of gentamicin (...) and penicillin combined, or a broad-spectrum cephalosporin. To investigate if increased gentamicin and cephalosporins resistance rates in our hospital could be caused by specific clones, we conducted a retrospective study on E. coli blood culture isolates from 2011 through 2015. All E. coli isolates non-susceptible to gentamicin and/or third-generation cephalosporins were genotyped using multiple-locus variable-number of tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) and compared with antibiotic susceptible isolates

2017 Antimicrobial resistance and infection control

155. The mechanism of NDM-1-catalyzed carbapenem hydrolysis is distinct from that of penicillin or cephalosporin hydrolysis Full Text available with Trip Pro

The mechanism of NDM-1-catalyzed carbapenem hydrolysis is distinct from that of penicillin or cephalosporin hydrolysis New Delhi metallo-β-lactamases (NDMs), the recent additions to metallo-β-lactamases (MBLs), pose a serious public health threat due to its highly efficient hydrolysis of β-lactam antibiotics and rapid worldwide dissemination. The MBL-hydrolyzing mechanism for carbapenems is less studied than that of penicillins and cephalosporins. Here, we report crystal structures of NDM-1 (...) . These results strongly suggest a distinct mechanism of NDM-1-catalyzed carbapenem hydrolysis from that of penicillin or cephalosporin hydrolysis, which may provide a novel rationale for design of mechanism-based inhibitors.

2017 Nature communications

156. From Farms to Markets: Gram-Negative Bacteria Resistant to Third-Generation Cephalosporins in Fruits and Vegetables in a Region of North Africa Full Text available with Trip Pro

From Farms to Markets: Gram-Negative Bacteria Resistant to Third-Generation Cephalosporins in Fruits and Vegetables in a Region of North Africa The role of food in human exposure to antimicrobial-resistant bacteria is a growing food safety issue. The contribution of fruits and vegetables eaten raw to this exposure is still unclear. The evaluation of contamination levels of fruits, vegetables and the agricultural environment by third-generation cephalosporin (3GC)-resistant Gram-negative

2017 Frontiers in microbiology

157. Determination of Disk Diffusion and MIC Quality Control Guidelines for High-Dose Cefepime-Tazobactam (WCK 4282), a Novel Antibacterial Combination Consisting of a β-Lactamase Inhibitor and a Fourth-Generation Cephalosporin Full Text available with Trip Pro

Determination of Disk Diffusion and MIC Quality Control Guidelines for High-Dose Cefepime-Tazobactam (WCK 4282), a Novel Antibacterial Combination Consisting of a β-Lactamase Inhibitor and a Fourth-Generation Cephalosporin High-dose cefepime-tazobactam (1:1; WCK 4282), a novel antibacterial combination consisting of the β-lactamase inhibitor tazobactam and a fourth-generation cephalosporin, is under clinical development for the treatment of serious Gram-negative infections. A quality control

2017 Journal of clinical microbiology

158. Adding Azithromycin to Cephalosporin for Cesarean Delivery Infection Prophylaxis: A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis. (Abstract)

Adding Azithromycin to Cephalosporin for Cesarean Delivery Infection Prophylaxis: A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis. To investigate the cost-effectiveness of adding azithromycin to standard cephalosporin regimens of cesarean delivery prophylaxis by considering the maternal outcomes in the current and potential subsequent pregnancies.A cost-effectiveness model was created using TreeAge to compare the outcomes of using azithromycin-cephalosporin with cephalosporin alone in a theoretical cohort (...) the literature, and a cost-effectiveness threshold was set at $100,000 per quality-adjusted life-year. Sensitivity analyses were used to determine the robustness of our results.Compared with cephalosporin alone for prophylaxis, our model showed 16,100 fewer cases of endometritis, 17 fewer cases of sepsis, eight fewer cases of venous thromboembolism, and one fewer maternal death with azithromycin-cephalosporin. Additionally, this strategy prevented 36 uterine ruptures and four cesarean hysterectomies

2017 Obstetrics and Gynecology

159. Genomic Analysis of Third Generation Cephalosporin Resistant Escherichia coli from Dairy Cow Manure Full Text available with Trip Pro

Genomic Analysis of Third Generation Cephalosporin Resistant Escherichia coli from Dairy Cow Manure The production of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) conferring resistance to new derivatives of β-lactams is a major public health threat if present in pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria. The objective of this study was to characterize ceftiofur (TIO)- or cefotaxime (FOX)-resistant Escherichia coli isolated from dairy cow manure. Twenty-four manure samples were collected from four farms (...) and incubated under anaerobic conditions for 20 weeks at 4 °C or at 25 °C. A total of 37 TIO- or FOX-resistant E. coli were isolated from two of the four farms to determine their susceptibility to 14 antibiotics. Among the 37 resistant E. coli, 10 different serotypes were identified, with O8:H1 being the predominant serotype (n = 17). Five isolates belonged to each of serotypes O9:NM and O153:H42, respectively. All 37 cephalosporin resistant isolates were multi-resistant with the most prevalent resistance

2017 Veterinary Sciences

160. Cephalosporins

Cephalosporins USE OF CEPHALOSPORINS IN PREGNANCY 0344 892 0909 USE OF CEPHALOSPORINS IN PREGNANCY (Date of issue: June 2017 , Version: 3.1 ) This is a UKTIS monograph for use by health care professionals. For case-specific advice please contact UKTIS on 0344 892 0909. To report an exposure please download and complete a . Please encourage all women to complete an . A corresponding patient information leaflet on is available at . Summary The cephalosporins (commonly used include: cefaclor (...) , cefadroxil, cefalexin, cefixime, cefotaxime, cefpodoxime, cefradine, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone and cefuroxime) are a class of β-lactam antibiotics originally derived from the Acremonium fungus. Cephalosporins are broad-spectrum antibacterial agents used in the treatment of respiratory tract infections, otitis media, skin and soft tissue infections, urinary tract infections, sexually transmitted infections, septicaemia, meningitis, peritonitis, endocarditis, and in the prophylaxis of postoperative

2014 UK Teratology Information Service

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