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cephalosporin

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7061. The nonprophylactic role of cephalosporins in obstetrics and gynecology. (Full text)

The nonprophylactic role of cephalosporins in obstetrics and gynecology. 6372917 1984 07 09 2018 11 13 0028-7091 60 4 1984 May Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine Bull N Y Acad Med The nonprophylactic role of cephalosporins in obstetrics and gynecology. 416-25 LeFrock J L JL Smith B R BR Molavi A A eng Journal Article Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't Review United States Bull N Y Acad Med 7505398 0028-7091 0 Cephalosporins IM Bacteria drug effects Bacterial Infections drug therapy (...) Cephalosporins therapeutic use Cervix Uteri microbiology Female Genital Diseases, Female drug therapy Humans Microbial Sensitivity Tests Pregnancy Pregnancy Complications, Infectious drug therapy Vagina microbiology 30 1984 5 1 1984 5 1 0 1 1984 5 1 0 0 ppublish 6372917 PMC1911788 Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1973 Dec 15;117(8):1053-5 4758303 Rev Infect Dis. 1979 Jan-Feb;1(1):202-5 318223 Obstet Gynecol Surv. 1975 Jul;30(7):477-94 1094357 Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1975 Jul 15;122(6):683-7 1155508 Am J Obstet Gynecol

1984 Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine PubMed abstract

7062. Internal Medicine—Important Advances in Clinical Medicine: Third-Generation Cephalosporins (Full text)

Internal Medicine—Important Advances in Clinical Medicine: Third-Generation Cephalosporins 18749366 2010 06 30 2018 11 13 0093-0415 138 5 1983 May The Western journal of medicine West. J. Med. Internal medicine-important advances in clinical medicine: third-generation cephalosporins. 712-3 Ikeda D D Goldstein E E eng Journal Article United States West J Med 0410504 0093-0415 1983 5 1 0 0 1983 5 1 0 1 1983 5 1 0 0 ppublish 18749366 PMC1010801 Am J Med. 1981 Oct;71(4):693-703 6269429 Ann Intern

1983 Western Journal of Medicine PubMed abstract

7063. Antimicrobial Activity of Cefmenoxime Compared with Those of Other Cephalosporins (Full text)

Antimicrobial Activity of Cefmenoxime Compared with Those of Other Cephalosporins The antimicrobial activity of cefmenoxime was compared with those of cefamandole, cefoperazone, cefotaxime, cephalothin, and moxalactam. In general, the activity of cefmenoxime was equivalent to those of the other cephalosporins. Cefmenoxime appears to be a potent antimicrobial agent against most gram-negative microorganisms other than Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp.

1983 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy PubMed abstract

7064. Comparison of a new cephalosporin, BMY 28142, with other broad-spectrum beta-lactam antibiotics. (Full text)

Comparison of a new cephalosporin, BMY 28142, with other broad-spectrum beta-lactam antibiotics. BMY 28142, a new broad-spectrum semisynthetic cephalosporin, was evaluated in vitro and in vivo in comparison with ceftazidime, cefotaxime, moxalactam, and cefoperazone. The activity of BMY 28142 compared favorably with the activities of the other compounds against both Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus and was somewhat greater against members of the family Enterobacteriaceae

1985 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy PubMed abstract

7065. In vitro activity of Ro 15-8074, a new oral cephalosporin, against Neisseria gonorrhoeae. (Full text)

In vitro activity of Ro 15-8074, a new oral cephalosporin, against Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Ro 15-8074, a new cephalosporin the pivaloyloxymethylester of which (Ro 15-8075) is orally absorbable, showed greater in vitro activity than cefaclor against 48 Neisseria gonorrhoeae strains, including 25 penicillinase-producing strains. Unlike cefaclor, Ro 15-8074 was unaffected by increase in inoculum size, and it exhibited a remarkable stability against gonococcal beta-lactamase hydrolysis.

1985 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy PubMed abstract

7066. In vitro activity of Ro 15-8074 and Ro 19-5247, two orally administered cephalosporin metabolites. (Full text)

In vitro activity of Ro 15-8074 and Ro 19-5247, two orally administered cephalosporin metabolites. The activity of two iminomethoxy aminothiazoly cephalosporins, Ro 15-8074 and Ro 19-5247, was compared with that of other beta-lactams against a total of 491 bacterial strains. Both were highly active (MIC for 90% of the strains tested [MIC 90], less than or equal to 2 micrograms/ml) against the majority of the members of the family Enterobacteriaceae, Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria spp (...) % for Ro 19-5247. The major target site for the two cephalosporins was PBP 3.

1986 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy PubMed abstract

7067. Cephalosporin-induced hypoprothrombinemia: is the N-methylthiotetrazole side chain the culprit? (Full text)

Cephalosporin-induced hypoprothrombinemia: is the N-methylthiotetrazole side chain the culprit? The reported high incidence of vitamin-K-reversible hypoprothrombinemia associated with the new beta-lactamase-stable cephalosporins prompted us to evaluate the effect on hemostasis of three cephalosporins (cefamandole, ceftriaxone, and ceftazidime) in 30 patients with serious infections. Cefamandole and ceftriaxone, both containing a sulfhydryl group, induced a significant and similar prolongation

1986 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy PubMed abstract

7068. In vitro activities of Ro 19-5247 and Ro 15-8074, new oral cephalosporins. (Full text)

In vitro activities of Ro 19-5247 and Ro 15-8074, new oral cephalosporins. The in vitro activities of two new oral cephalosporins, Ro 19-5247 and Ro 15-8074, were compared with the in vitro activities of cefuroxime, cefaclor, amoxicillin-clavulanate, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMZ), and doxycycline against a variety of bacterial species. MIC50s (MICs required to inhibit 50% of strains) of Ro 19-5247 were less than or equal to 0.13 micrograms/ml for streptococci (except Streptococcus (...) beta-lactams and doxycycline; TMP-SMZ had the broadest spectrum of activity against these organisms. None of the cephalosporins were active against methicillin-resistant staphylococci, S. faecalis, most nonfermenters, or Bacteroides sp. Inoculum size variations affected MICs in a species-dependent manner for beta-lactams and unpredictably for TMP-SMZ but had little effect for doxycycline. Bactericidal activity was consistent with beta-lactams, inconsistent with TMP-SMZ, and uncommon

1986 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy PubMed abstract

7069. Emergency Medicine: Cephalosporins for Bacterial Meningitis (Full text)

Emergency Medicine: Cephalosporins for Bacterial Meningitis 18750243 2010 06 30 2018 11 13 0093-0415 146 5 1987 May The Western journal of medicine West. J. Med. Emergency medicine: cephalosporins for bacterial meningitis. 607-8 Young G P GP eng Journal Article United States West J Med 0410504 0093-0415 1987 5 1 0 0 1987 5 1 0 1 1987 5 1 0 0 ppublish 18750243 PMC1307415 Am J Med. 1985 Aug 9;79(2A):47-51 3849260 Bull N Y Acad Med. 1984 May;60(4):380-93 6372914 Pediatrics. 1986 Nov;78(5 Pt 2):959

1987 Western Journal of Medicine PubMed abstract

7070. BMY 28100, a new oral cephalosporin. (Full text)

BMY 28100, a new oral cephalosporin. BMY 28100, a new oral cephalosporin with a (Z)-propenyl side chain at the 3 position and a p-hydroxyphenylglycyl substituent at the 7 position, was evaluated in comparison with cefaclor and cephalexin and, when appropriate, ampicillin and vancomycin. In vitro, BMY 28100 was more active than the reference cephalosporins against streptococci, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Listeria monocytogenes, Haemophilus influenzae, Propionibacterium

1987 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy PubMed abstract

7071. Pharmacokinetics of the novel cephalosporin cefepime (BMY-28142) in rats and monkeys. (Full text)

Pharmacokinetics of the novel cephalosporin cefepime (BMY-28142) in rats and monkeys. The disposition of the novel cephalosporin cefepime (BMY-28142) was characterized for intravenous administration of single doses to rats and cynomolgus monkeys, the species used most extensively for safety evaluation of the compound. Serial blood samples were collected from individual animals, and plasma was analyzed for intact cefepime by a high-pressure liquid chromatography-UV method. Assay results were (...) ) was again similar for all dose groups. Mean t1/2 values (1.3 to 4.6 h) appeared unusually long for a cephalosporin in rats, and inordinately variable. No consistent differences among dose group mean Vss values were found. The maximal concentration of drug in plasma at the end of infusion was not a linear function of dose. For the cynomolgus monkey, kinetic parameters for 5-min i.v. infusions were linearly related to dose over the range of 10 to 600 mg/kg. Mean parameter values were t1/2 = 1.7 h, CL

1987 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy PubMed abstract

7072. In vitro and in vivo antibacterial activities of CS-807, a new oral cephalosporin. (Full text)

In vitro and in vivo antibacterial activities of CS-807, a new oral cephalosporin. CS-807 is a new oral prodrug of R-3746, a cephalosporin derivative, with potent in vitro and in vivo antibacterial activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. The susceptibility of about 1,200 clinical isolates to R-3746 was determined by the agar dilution method. Ninety percent or more of pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus, streptococci, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae

1987 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy PubMed abstract

7073. Biological activity of BO-1236, a new antipseudomonal cephalosporin. (Full text)

Biological activity of BO-1236, a new antipseudomonal cephalosporin. BO-1236, a new cephalosporin having an N-methyl-5,6-dihydroxyisoindolinium moiety on the 3-methylene of the cephem, showed potent activity against gram-negative organisms, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The in vitro activity of BO-1236 was superior or comparable to that of ceftazidime, cefotaxime, and cefoperazone in susceptibility tests with clinical isolates. BO-1236 was significantly more active than ceftazidime against

1987 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy PubMed abstract

7074. In vitro and in vivo antibacterial activities of T-2588, a new oral cephalosporin, compared with those of other oral beta-lactam antibiotics. (Full text)

In vitro and in vivo antibacterial activities of T-2588, a new oral cephalosporin, compared with those of other oral beta-lactam antibiotics. T-2588, the pivaloyloxymethyl ester of T-2525, [6R, 7R]-7-[(z)-2-(2-aminothiazol-4-yl)-2-methoxyiminoacetoamido] -3- [(5-methyl-2H-tetrazol-2-yl)methyl]-3-cephem-4-carboxylic acid, is a new oral cephalosporin. T-2525 had a widely expanded antibacterial spectrum against gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. T-2525 was more active in vitro than cefaclor

1987 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy PubMed abstract

7075. Recent analytical methods for cephalosporins in biological fluids. (Full text)

Recent analytical methods for cephalosporins in biological fluids. Since 1980, RP chromatography has been the principal analytical technique used for cephalosporins. This technology offers selectivity, accuracy, and ease of use. Most of the methods rely on protein precipitation and, to a lesser extent, solid-phase isolation or extraction procedures. The proper selection of a method depends on the analytical constraints imposed by the overall objective of the study. For example, pharmacokinetic (...) datum interpretation mandates that the method be validated and provide specific and accurate results. LC is the preferred technique, since it not only meets these specifications but may also distinguish between the drug and metabolites. Those chromatographic methods which quantify several different cephalosporins are not desirable for pharmacokinetic datum interpretation, since accuracy and precision are usually compromised in order that many different drugs may be quantified in a single analysis

1987 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy PubMed abstract

7076. Mechanism of Pseudomonas aeruginosa persistence during treatment with broad-spectrum cephalosporins of lung infections in patients with cystic fibrosis. (Full text)

Mechanism of Pseudomonas aeruginosa persistence during treatment with broad-spectrum cephalosporins of lung infections in patients with cystic fibrosis. Beta-lactam resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa detected only during ceftazidime therapy of cystic fibrosis patients was studied. Evaluation of resistant and susceptible isolates from one patient and resistant laboratory derivatives indicated that elevated beta-lactamase levels were the primary determinant of resistance. Susceptible isolates

1987 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy PubMed abstract

7077. Pharmacokinetics of cephalosporins in normal and septicemic rabbits. (Full text)

Pharmacokinetics of cephalosporins in normal and septicemic rabbits. The differences in the pharmacokinetics of cefotaxime, moxalactam, and CPW 86-363, a new expanded-spectrum cephalosporin, were studied in healthy rabbits and in rabbits infected intravenously with Streptococcus pneumoniae. The pharmacokinetic analysis of concentration-time courses in the sera of infected animals according to a two compartment-model evidenced a clear decrease of drug fractions in the central compartment

1985 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy PubMed abstract

7078. The role of beta-lactamase in staphylococcal resistance to penicillinase-resistant penicillins and cephalosporins. (Full text)

The role of beta-lactamase in staphylococcal resistance to penicillinase-resistant penicillins and cephalosporins. We showed that most Staphylococcus aureus strains that have borderline or intermediate susceptibility to the penicillinase-resistant penicillins (PRPs) react this way because of the activity of their beta-lactamase on these antimicrobial agents. These strains produced large amounts of staphylococcal beta-lactamase that rapidly hydrolyzed penicillin and partially hydrolyzed the PRPs

1986 Journal of clinical microbiology PubMed abstract

7079. Affinity of cephalosporins for beta-lactamases as a factor in antibacterial efficacy. (Full text)

Affinity of cephalosporins for beta-lactamases as a factor in antibacterial efficacy. Strains of Escherichia coli, Enterobacter aerogenes, and Enterobacter cloacae that were resistant to ceftazidime (MIC greater than 16 micrograms/ml) but susceptible to BMY 28142 (MIC less than 4 micrograms/ml) were found to contain higher levels of beta-lactamase activity (50- to 3,340-fold) than control strains of the corresponding species. Ceftazidime was at least as resistant as BMY 28142 to hydrolysis (...) by these enzymes. However, the apparent Ki of BMY 28142 for each enzyme was larger (8- to greater than 20-fold) than that of ceftazidime; i.e., the affinity of these enzymes for BMY 28142 appeared to be lower than that for ceftazidime. Thus, BMY 28142 was affected less than ceftazidime by a mechanism of resistance that depends, at least in part, on the relative affinities of cephalosporins for the beta-lactamases of these species. These results indicate that the affinity between a beta-lactamase

1986 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy PubMed abstract

7080. Antimicrobial spectrum of Ro 15-8074/001, a new oral cephalosporin. (Full text)

Antimicrobial spectrum of Ro 15-8074/001, a new oral cephalosporin. The activity of Ro 15-8074/001 was compared with that of cefaclor, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, norfloxacin, and ceftriaxone against 225 clinical isolates. It was more active than cefaclor, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole against members of the family Enterobacteriaceae and Haemophilus influenzae and had activity similar to that of cefaclor against nonenterococcal

1986 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy PubMed abstract

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