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cephalosporin

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7061. Restriction of third-generation cephalosporin use decreases infection-related mortality. (Abstract)

Restriction of third-generation cephalosporin use decreases infection-related mortality. To determine the effect of restriction of third-generation cephalosporin use on antibiotic resistance and the outcome of patients with infection.A prospective, before-after comparative study.A general intensive care unit with 14 beds at a university-affiliated teaching hospital.All patients admitted to the intensive care unit within 2 yrs.A new antibiotic treatment strategy was implemented during phase II (...) . All patients with confirmed or suspected Gram-negative bacterial infections were treated mainly with antibiotics other than third-generation cephalosporins.Antibiotic resistance among common Gram-negative bacilli and infection-related hospital mortality during phase I were compared with phase II. A 26.6% reduction in third-generation cephalosporin use (from 168.2 +/- 48.0 to 123.5 +/- 39.3 g/month, p =.021), accompanied by a 277.7% increase in cefepime use (from 10.3 +/- 19.2 to 38.9 +/- 31.7 g

2003 Critical Care Medicine

7062. Antimicrobial activity of LB10827, a new orally administered cephalosporin, tested against Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, and Streptococcus pneumoniae. (Abstract)

Antimicrobial activity of LB10827, a new orally administered cephalosporin, tested against Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, and Streptococcus pneumoniae. A new orally administered cephalosporin, LB10827, was compared to 16 other antimicrobial agents tested against Streptococcus pneumoniae (520 strains), Haemophilus influenzae (302 strains) and Moraxella catarrhalis (188 strains) by reference broth microdilution methods. LB10827 (MIC90, 0.12 mg/L; highest MIC, 0.5 mg/L) was 8-16

2003 Clinical Microbiology and Infection

7063. Serum concentrations of cephalosporins and the cell saver in cardiopulmonary bypass surgery. (Abstract)

Serum concentrations of cephalosporins and the cell saver in cardiopulmonary bypass surgery. 3182423 1988 11 30 2017 11 16 0305-7453 22 2 1988 Aug The Journal of antimicrobial chemotherapy J. Antimicrob. Chemother. Serum concentrations of cephalosporins and the cell saver in cardiopulmonary bypass surgery. 266-8 Rooney R R Neligan M C MC Hone R R Murray A A eng Clinical Trial Letter Randomized Controlled Trial England J Antimicrob Chemother 7513617 0305-7453 0 Cephalosporins 5CKP8C2LLI (...) Cefamandole F1BC02I72W Cephradine IM Adult Cardiopulmonary Bypass Cefamandole blood pharmacokinetics Cell Survival drug effects Cephalosporins pharmacokinetics Cephradine blood pharmacokinetics Humans Male Middle Aged Premedication Surgical Wound Infection prevention & control 1988 8 1 1988 8 1 0 1 1988 8 1 0 0 ppublish 3182423

1988 The Journal of antimicrobial chemotherapy Controlled trial quality: uncertain

7064. [Clinical and microbiological evaluation of prodrug antibiotic SCE-2174. A new cephalosporin for oral use. A comparative open randomized study vs cefaclor in 50 patients with infections of the middle or lower respiratory tract]. (Abstract)

[Clinical and microbiological evaluation of prodrug antibiotic SCE-2174. A new cephalosporin for oral use. A comparative open randomized study vs cefaclor in 50 patients with infections of the middle or lower respiratory tract]. 3155015 1991 08 29 2013 11 21 1120-0391 43 6 1988 Nov-Dec Archivio Monaldi per le malattie del torace Arch Monaldi Mal Torace [Clinical and microbiological evaluation of prodrug antibiotic SCE-2174. A new cephalosporin for oral use. A comparative open randomized study

1991 Archivio Monaldi per le malattie del torace Controlled trial quality: uncertain

7065. Relationship between vitamin K1 2,3-epoxide and vitamin K1 in patients treated with N-methyl-thiotetrazole cephalosporins. (Abstract)

Relationship between vitamin K1 2,3-epoxide and vitamin K1 in patients treated with N-methyl-thiotetrazole cephalosporins. 1631806 1992 08 20 2013 11 21 0049-3848 65 3 1992 Feb 01 Thrombosis research Thromb. Res. Relationship between vitamin K1 2,3-epoxide and vitamin K1 in patients treated with N-methyl-thiotetrazole cephalosporins. 439-42 Schäfer H H Centre for Clinical Trials, University of Heidelberg. Matthias F R FR eng Clinical Trial Journal Article Randomized Controlled Trial Research

1992 Thrombosis research Controlled trial quality: uncertain

7066. Recent analytical methods for cephalosporins in biological fluids. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Recent analytical methods for cephalosporins in biological fluids. Since 1980, RP chromatography has been the principal analytical technique used for cephalosporins. This technology offers selectivity, accuracy, and ease of use. Most of the methods rely on protein precipitation and, to a lesser extent, solid-phase isolation or extraction procedures. The proper selection of a method depends on the analytical constraints imposed by the overall objective of the study. For example, pharmacokinetic (...) datum interpretation mandates that the method be validated and provide specific and accurate results. LC is the preferred technique, since it not only meets these specifications but may also distinguish between the drug and metabolites. Those chromatographic methods which quantify several different cephalosporins are not desirable for pharmacokinetic datum interpretation, since accuracy and precision are usually compromised in order that many different drugs may be quantified in a single analysis

1987 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

7067. Antimicrobial activity and disk diffusion susceptibility testing of U-76,253A (R-3746), the active metabolite of the new cephalosporin ester, U-76,252 (CS-807). Full Text available with Trip Pro

Antimicrobial activity and disk diffusion susceptibility testing of U-76,253A (R-3746), the active metabolite of the new cephalosporin ester, U-76,252 (CS-807). Compound U-76,253A (R-3746), the active metabolite sodium salt of the prodrug ester U-76,252 (CS-807), was demonstrated to be active against members of the family Enterobacteriaceae with 82 and 85% of strains inhibited by less than or equal to 2.0 and less than or equal to 4.0 micrograms/ml, respectively. In addition, U-76,253A

1988 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

7068. Immune thrombocytopenia induced by cephalosporins specific for thiomethyltetrazole side chain. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Immune thrombocytopenia induced by cephalosporins specific for thiomethyltetrazole side chain. 3611401 1987 09 22 2018 11 13 0021-9746 40 6 1987 Jun Journal of clinical pathology J. Clin. Pathol. Immune thrombocytopenia induced by cephalosporins specific for thiomethyltetrazole side chain. 700-1 Lown J A JA Barr A L AL eng Case Reports Letter England J Clin Pathol 0376601 0021-9746 0 Cephalosporins AIM IM Aged Cephalosporins adverse effects Humans Thrombocytopenia chemically induced 1987 6 1

1987 Journal of Clinical Pathology

7069. Mechanism of Pseudomonas aeruginosa persistence during treatment with broad-spectrum cephalosporins of lung infections in patients with cystic fibrosis. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Mechanism of Pseudomonas aeruginosa persistence during treatment with broad-spectrum cephalosporins of lung infections in patients with cystic fibrosis. Beta-lactam resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa detected only during ceftazidime therapy of cystic fibrosis patients was studied. Evaluation of resistant and susceptible isolates from one patient and resistant laboratory derivatives indicated that elevated beta-lactamase levels were the primary determinant of resistance. Susceptible isolates

1987 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

7070. Dissemination of the novel plasmid-mediated beta-lactamase CTX-1, which confers resistance to broad-spectrum cephalosporins, and its inhibition by beta-lactamase inhibitors. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Dissemination of the novel plasmid-mediated beta-lactamase CTX-1, which confers resistance to broad-spectrum cephalosporins, and its inhibition by beta-lactamase inhibitors. The novel beta-lactamase CTX-1 (pI 6.3) encoded on a transferable 84-kilobase plasmid was found in six different bacterial species. It was responsible for a significant decrease in susceptibility towards most penicillins and cephalosporins, except imipenem, temocillin, and cephalosporins which have a 7-alpha-methoxy

1988 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

7071. Simple assay of beta-lactamase with agar medium containing a chromogenic cephalosporin, pyridinium-2-azo-p-dimethylaniline chromophore (PADAC). Full Text available with Trip Pro

Simple assay of beta-lactamase with agar medium containing a chromogenic cephalosporin, pyridinium-2-azo-p-dimethylaniline chromophore (PADAC). A new beta-lactamase assay method with agar plates containing pyridinium-2-azo-p-dimethylaniline chromophore (PADAC) (50 microM), a beta-lactamase-labile, chromogenic cephalosporin, was examined. On the PADAC plates inoculated with beta-lactamase-producing gram-negative bacteria (10(4) CFU per spot) and incubated at 37 degrees C, a yellow zone showing

1988 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

7072. In vitro activity of U-76,252 (CS-807), a new oral cephalosporin. Full Text available with Trip Pro

In vitro activity of U-76,252 (CS-807), a new oral cephalosporin. U-76,252 is the prodrug of U-76,253. MICs of U-76,253 were 0.015 to 0.06 microgram/ml for greater than or equal to 90% of the strains of Streptococcus spp., Haemophilus influenzae, and Proteus mirabilis; 0.25 to 1 microgram/ml for Branhamella catarrhalis, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp., and Citrobacter diversus; 1 to 8 micrograms/ml for Staphylococcus spp.; and 2 to greater than 16 micrograms/ml for other members of the family

1988 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

7073. Molecular Epidemiology and Characterization of Plasmid-Encoded β-Lactamases Produced by Tunisian Clinical Isolates of Salmonella enterica Serotype Mbandaka Resistant to Broad-Spectrum Cephalosporins Full Text available with Trip Pro

Molecular Epidemiology and Characterization of Plasmid-Encoded β-Lactamases Produced by Tunisian Clinical Isolates of Salmonella enterica Serotype Mbandaka Resistant to Broad-Spectrum Cephalosporins We studied 31 clinical isolates of Salmonella enterica serotype Mbandaka resistant to broad-spectrum cephalosporins and recovered in Tunisia over a 5-year period. The transferability of this resistance was demonstrated by conjugation experiments. Thirty of the 31 isolates were positive

2003 Journal of clinical microbiology

7074. Phenotypic and genotypic detection of ESBL mediated cephalosporin resistance in Klebsiella pneumoniae: emergence of high resistance against cefepime, the fourth generation cephalosporin. (Abstract)

Phenotypic and genotypic detection of ESBL mediated cephalosporin resistance in Klebsiella pneumoniae: emergence of high resistance against cefepime, the fourth generation cephalosporin. Cephalosporins belonging to second and third generation are commonly used in India for the treatment of Klebsiella pneumoniae. Report on resistance among K. pneumoniae strains to second and third generation cephalosporins are on rise in this country, which has been attributed to emergence of strains expressing (...) extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs). The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro susceptibility of K. pneumoniae to broad-spectrum cephalosporins particularly to cefepime, a recently introduced fourth generation cephalosporin in relation to ESBL production.This study has been carried out in two phases among K. pneumoniae strains isolated between October 2001 and September 2002 (phase I, before marketing of cefepime in India) and between August 2003 and July 2004 (phase II, after marketing

2006 Journal of Infection

7075. Immediate allergic reactions to cephalosporins: evaluation of cross-reactivity with a panel of penicillins and cephalosporins. (Abstract)

Immediate allergic reactions to cephalosporins: evaluation of cross-reactivity with a panel of penicillins and cephalosporins. Allergy to cephalosporins has mainly been evaluated in the context of patients with confirmed penicillin allergy. The problem of studying cross-reactivity in subjects primarily sensitized to cephalosporins and potentially allergic to penicillins has not been sufficiently addressed.To evaluate the in vitro IgE response and cross-reactivity to betalactams in patients (...) with immediate allergic reactions to cephalosporins.The study included 24 patients with immediate allergic reactions to cephalosporins and RAST-positive to at least 1 cephalosporin. Skin testing and RAST were performed with a panel of penicillins and cephalosporins. RAST inhibition assay with different monomeric conjugates of penicillin and cephalosporin was performed to establish cross-reactivity.The culprit cephalosporins were cefaclor (N = 7), cefonicid (N = 1), cefotaxime (N = 2), ceftazidime (N = 2

2006 Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology

7076. Impact of restriction of third generation cephalosporins on the burden of third generation cephalosporin resistant K. pneumoniae and E. coli in an ICU. (Abstract)

Impact of restriction of third generation cephalosporins on the burden of third generation cephalosporin resistant K. pneumoniae and E. coli in an ICU. To test whether a reduction of third generation cephalosporin (3GC) use has a sustainable positive impact on the high endemic prevalence of 3GC resistant K. pneumoniae and E. coli.Segmented regression analysis of interrupted time series was used to analyse antibiotic consumption and resistance data 30 months before and 30 after

2008 Intensive Care Medicine

7077. Treatment with a broad-spectrum cephalosporin versus piperacillin-tazobactam and the risk for isolation of broad-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacter species. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Treatment with a broad-spectrum cephalosporin versus piperacillin-tazobactam and the risk for isolation of broad-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacter species. Receipt of a broad-spectrum cephalosporin is a strong risk factor for isolation of broad-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacter species, and yet the risk from other broad-spectrum beta-lactams hydrolyzed by group 1 beta-lactamases has not been well characterized. We compared the risk conferred by broad-spectrum (...) cephalosporins to that conferred by piperacillin-tazobactam, alone or in combination with an aminoglycoside or a fluoroquinolone. A retrospective cohort was monitored from treatment onset until a broad-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacter strain was isolated or the patient was discharged. There were 447 patients in the piperacillin-tazobactam group and 2,341 patients in the broad-spectrum cephalosporin group. Groups were similar in age (mean, 62.5 years). The piperacillin-tazobactam group had

2003 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

7078. Comparative antibacterial activities of 7 alpha-methoxy cephalosporins and 7 beta-methoxyiminoacetamido cephalosporins against Bacteroides fragilis. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Comparative antibacterial activities of 7 alpha-methoxy cephalosporins and 7 beta-methoxyiminoacetamido cephalosporins against Bacteroides fragilis. The in vitro antibacterial activities of the newly developed 7 alpha-methoxy cephalosporins and 7 beta-methoxyiminoacetamido cephalosporins against 67 clinical isolates of Bacteroides fragilis and their resistance to the hydrolytic action of a beta-lactamase produced by B. fragilis were simultaneously compared. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (...) that inhibited 90% of the 7 alpha-methoxy cephalosporins, cefoxitin, cefmetazole, moxalactam, and cefotetan, against the isolates were 4, 8, 8, and 16 micrograms/ml, respectively, and these antibiotics were entirely resistant to hydrolysis by beta-lactamases (0.10 mumol/h per mg of protein) of the isolates. By contrast, 7 beta-methoxyiminoacetamido cephalosporins represented by cefotaxime, ceftizoxime, and cefmenoxime were not effective, as indicated by the minimal inhibitory concentrations that inhibited 90

1984 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

7079. Escherichia coli resistant to cephalosporins and quinolones is still susceptible to the cephalosporin-quinolone ester Ro 23-9424. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Escherichia coli resistant to cephalosporins and quinolones is still susceptible to the cephalosporin-quinolone ester Ro 23-9424. Ro 23-9424 is a broad-spectrum antibacterial agent consisting of a cephalosporin (desacetylcefotaxime) linked through an ester bond to a fluoroquinolone (fleroxacin). Its activity against mutants of Escherichia coli TE18 resistant to both antibacterial components was examined. E. coli TE18 overproduces the AmpC beta-lactamase and is resistant to several (...) cephalosporins, including desacetylcefotaxime (MIC, 50 micrograms/ml), although it is still susceptible to Ro 23-9424 (MIC, 0.2 microgram/ml). Thirty-five spontaneous, two-step mutants of E. coli TE18 which were resistant to fleroxacin (MIC, 50 micrograms/ml) were isolated. In the mutants, replicative DNA biosynthesis (permeabilized cells) was resistant to fleroxacin, and some mutants had porin abnormalities. However, all remained susceptible to Ro 23-9424 (MIC, 0.5 microgram/ml). Examination of beta

1991 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

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