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21. Preoperative Allergy Testing for Patients Reporting Penicillin and Cephalosporin Allergies is Cost-Effective in Preventing Infection after Total Knee and Hip Arthroplasty. (Abstract)

Preoperative Allergy Testing for Patients Reporting Penicillin and Cephalosporin Allergies is Cost-Effective in Preventing Infection after Total Knee and Hip Arthroplasty. Routine preoperative allergy testing in patients reporting penicillin and cephalosporin allergies increases the number able to receive cefazolin, which should reduce the risk of infection after total knee and hip arthroplasty (TKA/THA), but it remains unclear whether this practice is cost-effective. Using a break-even (...) analysis, we calculated the cost-effectiveness of routine preoperative allergy testing for infection prevention in total joint arthroplasty patients reporting penicillin and cephalosporin allergies.The cost of a penicillin allergy evaluation, the cost of revision arthroplasty for prosthetic joint infection (PJI), and baseline rates of PJI in patients receiving a noncefazolin antibiotic in the perioperative period were derived from existing literature. A break-even economic model using these variables

2020 Journal of Arthroplasty

22. Prescriber perceptions of fluoroquinolones, extended-spectrum cephalosporins, and <i>Clostridioides difficile</i> infection. (Abstract)

Prescriber perceptions of fluoroquinolones, extended-spectrum cephalosporins, and Clostridioides difficile infection. Fluoroquinolones (FQs) and extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESCs) are associated with higher risk of Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI). Decreasing the unnecessary use of FQs and ESCs is a goal of antimicrobial stewardship. Understanding how prescribers perceive the risks and benefits of FQs and ESCs is needed.We conducted interviews with clinicians from 4

2020 Infection control and hospital epidemiology

23. Empirical Treatment With Carbapenem vs Third-generation Cephalosporin for Treatment of Spontaneous Bacterial Peritonitis. (Abstract)

Empirical Treatment With Carbapenem vs Third-generation Cephalosporin for Treatment of Spontaneous Bacterial Peritonitis. Third-generation cephalosporins (TGCs) are recommended as first-line antibiotics for treatment of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP). However, antibiotics against multidrug-resistant organisms (such as carbapenems) might be necessary. We aimed to evaluate whether carbapenems are superior to TGC for treatment of SBP.We performed a retrospective study of 865 consecutive

2020 Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology

24. Genome-based epidemiology and antimicrobial resistance determinants of Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates with decreased susceptibility and resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins in Argentina in 2011-16. (Abstract)

Genome-based epidemiology and antimicrobial resistance determinants of Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates with decreased susceptibility and resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins in Argentina in 2011-16. Our aim was to describe the molecular epidemiology and antimicrobial resistance determinants of isolates of Neisseria gonorrhoeae with decreased susceptibility and resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESCs) in Argentina in 2011-16.Gonococcal isolates (n = 158) with decreased

2019 Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy

25. Effect of Cefiderocol, a Siderophore Cephalosporin, on QT/QTc Interval in Healthy Adult Subjects. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Effect of Cefiderocol, a Siderophore Cephalosporin, on QT/QTc Interval in Healthy Adult Subjects. Cefiderocol is a novel siderophore cephalosporin with potent activity against gram-negative bacteria, including multidrug-resistant strains. This Phase I study was conducted to assess the tolerability of single-ascending doses of cefiderocol (part 1) and the effect of cefiderocol on cardiac repolarization, assessed using the electrocardiographic corrected QT interval (QTcF) and other ECG parameters

2019 Clinical therapeutics Controlled trial quality: uncertain

26. Ciprofloxacin infusion versus third generation cephalosporin as a surgical prophylaxis for percutaneous nephrolithotomy: a randomized study. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Ciprofloxacin infusion versus third generation cephalosporin as a surgical prophylaxis for percutaneous nephrolithotomy: a randomized study. Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) is considered a clean-contaminated surgical procedure. The American Urological Association has recommended different preoperative antimicrobial prophylaxis for various urological procedures to prevent surgical site infections, postoperative fever, and possible sepsis. The European Association of Urology (EAU) antibiotic (...) guidelines endorse giving either a second or third-generation cephalosporin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, fluoroquinolone or aminopenicillin with a β-lactamase inhibitor. The aim of the present study is to prospectively compare two different protocols of antibiotic prophylaxis in PCNL.Successfully consented patients with sterile urine preoperatively who were awaiting percutaneous nephrolithotomy were randomized into two groups. The first group (n = 41) was given a single dose of 200 mg ciprofloxacin

2019 Central European journal of urology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

27. The role of extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistance in recurrent community-onset Enterobacteriaceae urinary tract infections: a retrospective cohort study. Full Text available with Trip Pro

The role of extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistance in recurrent community-onset Enterobacteriaceae urinary tract infections: a retrospective cohort study. Bacterial resistance to first line antibiotics used to treat community-onset urinary tract infections (UTIs) continues to emerge. We sought to determine the association between extended-spectrum cephalosporin resistance (ESC-R) and recurrence among Enterobacteriaceae (EB) UTIs.A retrospective cohort study was performed. All patients

2019 BMC Infectious Diseases

28. Circulation of plasmids harboring resistance genes to quinolones and/or extended spectrum cephalosporins in multiple <i>Salmonella enterica</i> serotypes from swine in the United States. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Circulation of plasmids harboring resistance genes to quinolones and/or extended spectrum cephalosporins in multiple Salmonella enterica serotypes from swine in the United States. Nontyphoidal Salmonella enterica (NTS) poses a major public-health risk worldwide that is amplified by the existence of antimicrobial resistant strains, especially to quinolones and extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESC). Little is known on the dissemination of plasmids harboring the acquired genetic (...) determinants that confer resistance to these antimicrobials across NTS serotypes from livestock in the United States.NTS isolates (n=183) from U.S. swine clinical cases retrieved during 2014-2016 were selected for sequencing based on their phenotypic resistance to enrofloxacin (quinolone) or ceftiofur (3rd-generation cephalosporin). De-novo assemblies were used to identify chromosomal mutations and acquired antimicrobial resistance genes (AARGs). In addition, plasmids harboring AARGs were identified using

2019 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

29. Prevalence and genetic characterization of cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae among dogs and cats in an animal shelter. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Prevalence and genetic characterization of cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae among dogs and cats in an animal shelter. The prevalence of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria, especially cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, is a major concern for human and animal health. We investigated the prevalence of cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae among sheltered dogs and cats with various backgrounds.Faecal samples or rectal swabs were collected from 151 dogs and 182 cats (...) -producing. Their β-lactamase genes were varied and associated with humans, animals or other origins. The genes CTX-M-14 (n=9) and CMY-2 (n=9) were dominant, but CTX-M-1, CTX-M-2, CTX-M-8, CTX-M-15, CTX-M-24, CTX-M-27, CTX-M-55 and DHA-1 genes were also detected. Genotyping of isolates revealed that β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae had high genetic diversity. Relationships between animals harbouring cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae and individual attributes, such as sex and nutrition

2019 Journal of Medical Microbiology

30. Clinical Outcomes of Failing to Dose-Reduce Cephalosporin Antibiotics in Older Adults with CKD. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Clinical Outcomes of Failing to Dose-Reduce Cephalosporin Antibiotics in Older Adults with CKD. Current dosing recommendations for cephalosporin antibiotics are on the basis of pharmacokinetic studies and are frequently ignored in practice. This study was undertaken to investigate the clinical outcomes of failing to dose-reduce cephalosporin antibiotics in CKD.Retrospective cohort study conducted in Ontario, Canada using linked population-based health care databases. Nine thousand three hundred (...) ) with a condition listed as a possible side-effect of cephalosporins. Secondary outcomes were antibiotic treatment failure and all-cause mortality. All measures were assessed in the 30 days after cephalosporin initiation.Patients who received a higher than recommended dose of a cephalosporin antibiotic were similar in multiple indicators of baseline health to patients who received a reduced dose. Overall, 6% of patients presented to hospital with a possible cephalosporin side-effect, 13% failed antibiotic

2019 Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology

31. Studies of selective digestive decontamination as a natural experiment to evaluate topical antibiotic prophylaxis and cephalosporin use as population-level risk factors for enterococcal bacteraemia among ICU patients. (Abstract)

Studies of selective digestive decontamination as a natural experiment to evaluate topical antibiotic prophylaxis and cephalosporin use as population-level risk factors for enterococcal bacteraemia among ICU patients. Selective digestive decontamination (SDD) and selective oropharyngeal decontamination (SOD) regimens appear protective against ICU-acquired overall bacteraemia. These regimens can be factorized as topical antibiotic prophylaxis (TAP) with (SDD) or without (SOD) protocolized (...) parenteral antibiotic prophylaxis (PPAP) using cephalosporins. Both TAP and cephalosporins are risk factors for enterococcal colonization although their impact on enterococcal bacteraemia within studies of SDD/SOD remains unclear.To benchmark the enterococcal bacteraemia incidence within component (control and intervention) groups of SDD/SOD studies among ICU patients versus studies without intervention (observational groups).The literature was searched for SDD/SOD studies reporting enterococcal

2019 Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy

32. Clostridioides difficile incidence related to in-hospital cephalosporin use: a tale of two highly comparable hospitals. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Clostridioides difficile incidence related to in-hospital cephalosporin use: a tale of two highly comparable hospitals. Antibiotic treatment is a well-known risk factor for healthcare facility-associated Clostridioides (Clostridium) difficile infection (HCF-CDI). Antibiotic stewardship programmes (ASPs) targeting high-risk antibiotics have been shown to decrease HCF-CDI incidence. HCF-CDI incidence is high in Nordic countries despite relatively low antibiotic use in hospital.To determine if HCF (...) -CDI incidence was modified by a hospital ASP that restricted cephalosporin use.The effects of an ASP on HCF-CDI incidence were evaluated in a two-centre setting using a retrospective design. We exploited a strategy of both individual case ascertainment based on chart reviews and aggregated data from the hospitals. Cases were attributed to the antibiotics given prior to disease onset, in proportion to the number of DDDs used. Three periods were studied: 2007 (before the ASP), 2012 and 2015

2019 Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy

33. Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Profiles of Cefiderocol, a Novel Siderophore Cephalosporin. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Profiles of Cefiderocol, a Novel Siderophore Cephalosporin. Cefiderocol, a novel parenteral siderophore cephalosporin, exhibits potent in vitro activity and in vivo efficacy against most gram-negative bacteria, including carbapenem-resistant strains of Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. In phase 1 studies, cefiderocol demonstrated linear pharmacokinetics, primarily urinary excretion (...) , an elimination half-life of 2-3 hours, and a protein binding of 58% in human plasma. Cefiderocol is a time-dependent cephalosporin; the probability of a target attainment at ≥75% of the dosing interval during which the free drug concentration exceeds the minimum inhibitory concentration (ƒT/MIC) for bacterial strains with an MIC of ≤4 μg/mL is likely to be achieved at the therapeutic dose of 2 g over 3-hour infusion every 8 hours in most patients. As expected, renal function markers were the most influential

2019 Clinical Infectious Diseases

34. Cefiderocol: A Novel Siderophore Cephalosporin Defeating Carbapenem-resistant Pathogens. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Cefiderocol: A Novel Siderophore Cephalosporin Defeating Carbapenem-resistant Pathogens. Cefiderocol, a novel siderophore cephalosporin in late-stage clinical development, utilizes a "Trojan horse" active transport mechanism to enter bacteria and has proven in vitro activity against carbapenem-resistant gram-negative pathogens, including those with major carbapenem-resistance mechanisms, and stability against all carbapenemases.© The Author(s) 2019. Published by Oxford University Press

2019 Clinical Infectious Diseases

35. Cefiderocol: Discovery, Chemistry, and In Vivo Profiles of a Novel Siderophore Cephalosporin. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Cefiderocol: Discovery, Chemistry, and In Vivo Profiles of a Novel Siderophore Cephalosporin. The emergence of antimicrobial resistance is a significant public health issue worldwide, particularly for healthcare-associated infections caused by carbapenem-resistant gram-negative pathogens. Cefiderocol is a novel siderophore cephalosporin targeting gram-negative bacteria, including strains with carbapenem resistance. The structural characteristics of cefiderocol show similarity to both

2019 Clinical Infectious Diseases

36. Prevalence and Predictors of Third-Generation Cephalosporin Resistance in the Empirical Treatment of Spontaneous Bacterial Peritonitis. (Abstract)

Prevalence and Predictors of Third-Generation Cephalosporin Resistance in the Empirical Treatment of Spontaneous Bacterial Peritonitis. To better characterize the changing patterns of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) in a tertiary academic center in the United States by identifying the prevalence of gram-positive organisms and cephalosporin resistance along with predictors of mortality and antibiotic drug resistance.We reviewed 481 consecutive patients with SBP at Mayo Clinic (...) in Rochester, Minnesota, from January 1, 2005, through December 31, 2016. Data on comorbid conditions, etiology of cirrhosis, factors predisposing to infection, and antimicrobial and antibiotic drug use were collected.We identified 96 patients (20%) with culture-positive SBP requiring treatment (median age, 60 years; age range, 22-87 years; 44% men). Gram-positive organisms account for more than half of the cases. Overall resistance to third-generation cephalosporins was 10% (n=10). Risk factors for third

2019 Mayo Clinic Proceedings

37. A Novel VIM-type Metallo-β-Lactamase Variant, VIM-60, with Increased Fourth-generation Cephalosporin-hydrolyzing Activities in <i>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</i> Clinical Isolates in Japan. Full Text available with Trip Pro

A Novel VIM-type Metallo-β-Lactamase Variant, VIM-60, with Increased Fourth-generation Cephalosporin-hydrolyzing Activities in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Clinical Isolates in Japan. A novel VIM-type metallo-β-lactamase variant, VIM-60, was identified in multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical isolates in Japan. Compared with VIM-2, VIM-60 had two amino acid substitutions (Arg228Leu and His252Arg) and higher catalytic activities against fourth-generation cephalosporins

2019 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

38. Kinetic Profile and Molecular Dynamic Studies Show that Y229W Substitution in an NDM-1/L209F Variant Restores the Hydrolytic Activity of the Enzyme toward Penicillins, Cephalosporins, and Carbapenems. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Kinetic Profile and Molecular Dynamic Studies Show that Y229W Substitution in an NDM-1/L209F Variant Restores the Hydrolytic Activity of the Enzyme toward Penicillins, Cephalosporins, and Carbapenems. The New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase-1 (NDM-1) enzyme is the most common metallo-β-lactamase identified in many Gram-negative bacteria causing severe nosocomial infections. The aim of this study was to focus the attention on non-active-site residues L209 and Y229 of NDM-1 and to investigate

2019 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

39. Decreased Cephalosporin Susceptibility of Oropharyngeal Neisseria Species in Antibiotic-Using Men-who-have-sex-with-men of Hanoi, Vietnam. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Decreased Cephalosporin Susceptibility of Oropharyngeal Neisseria Species in Antibiotic-Using Men-who-have-sex-with-men of Hanoi, Vietnam. Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) infections are a global health burden. Increasing reports of NG resistance to cephalosporins are an imminent threat to public health. Many hypothesize that commensal Neisseria species are an important reservoir for genetic material conferring antimicrobial resistance in NG, however clinical data are lacking.Men-who-have-sex

2019 Clinical Infectious Diseases

40. Intrapulmonary pharmacokinetics of cefiderocol, a novel siderophore cephalosporin, in healthy adult subjects. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Intrapulmonary pharmacokinetics of cefiderocol, a novel siderophore cephalosporin, in healthy adult subjects. Cefiderocol, a novel siderophore cephalosporin, has shown potent activity against Gram-negative bacteria, including MDR pathogens. Cefiderocol is under clinical investigation for the treatment of serious Gram-negative infections including nosocomial pneumonia.This study assessed intrapulmonary penetration after a single intravenous dose of cefiderocol (2000 mg infused over 60 min

2019 Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy

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