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161. Impact of contusion injury on intramuscular emm1 group a streptococcus infection and lymphatic spread Full Text available with Trip Pro

Impact of contusion injury on intramuscular emm1 group a streptococcus infection and lymphatic spread Invasive group A Streptococcus (iGAS) is frequently associated with emm1 isolates, with an attendant mortality of around 20%. Cases occasionally arise in previously healthy individuals with a history of upper respiratory tract infection, soft tissue contusion, and no obvious portal of entry. Using a new murine model of contusion, we determined the impact of contusion on iGAS bacterial burden (...) and phenotype. Calibrated mild blunt contusion did not provide a focus for initiation or seeding of GAS that was detectable following systemic GAS bacteremia, but instead enhanced GAS migration to the local draining lymph node following GAS inoculation at the same time and site of contusion. Increased migration to lymph node was associated with emergence of mucoid bacteria, although was not specific to mucoid bacteria. In one study, mucoid colonies demonstrated a significant increase in capsular hyaluronan

2018 Virulence

162. Locomotor recovery following contusive spinal cord injury does not require oligodendrocyte remyelination Full Text available with Trip Pro

Locomotor recovery following contusive spinal cord injury does not require oligodendrocyte remyelination Remyelination occurs after spinal cord injury (SCI) but its functional relevance is unclear. We assessed the necessity of myelin regulatory factor (Myrf) in remyelination after contusive SCI by deleting the gene from platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha positive (PDGFRα-positive) oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) in mice prior to SCI. While OPC proliferation and density (...) -positive cell derived oligodendrocytes is indispensable for myelin regeneration following contusive SCI but that oligodendrocyte remyelination is not required for spontaneous recovery of stepping.

2018 Nature communications

163. Cell Specific Changes of Autophagy in a Mouse Model of Contusive Spinal Cord Injury Full Text available with Trip Pro

Cell Specific Changes of Autophagy in a Mouse Model of Contusive Spinal Cord Injury Autophagy is an essential process of cellular waist clearance that becomes altered following spinal cord injury (SCI). Details on these changes, including timing after injury, underlying mechanisms, and affected cells, remain controversial. Here we present a characterization of autophagy in the mice spinal cord before and after a contusive SCI. In the undamaged spinal cord, analysis of LC3 and Beclin 1 (...) autophagic markers reveals important differences in basal autophagy between neurons, oligodendrocytes, and astrocytes and even within cell populations. Following moderate contusion, western blot analyses of LC3 indicates that autophagy increases to a maximum at 7 days post injury (dpi), whereas unaltered Beclin 1 expression and increase of p62 suggests a possible blockage of autophagosome clearance. Immunofluorescence analyses of LC3 and Beclin 1 provide additional details that reveal a complex, cell

2018 Frontiers in cellular neuroscience

164. Paraplegia Following Spinal Cord Contusion from an Indirect Gunshot Injury Full Text available with Trip Pro

Paraplegia Following Spinal Cord Contusion from an Indirect Gunshot Injury Spinal cord injuries are debilitating and life threatening. Paraplegia due to direct traumatic gunshot injury to the spinal cord is common. The most common cause of spinal cord injury is road traffic accidents. This is followed by spinal cord injury due to a fall from a height. Most of the spinal cord injuries due to gunshot wounds occur as a result of direct traumatic effects. We present a rare case of a 49-year-old (...) male with trauma. He developed paraplegia after a gunshot wound injury to the neck and contusion to the spinal cord, with no direct trauma. Paraplegia due to direct gunshot injury can have many different outcomes. In our case, the patient was managed conservatively, and the outcome was favorable.

2018 Korean Journal of Neurotrauma

165. Macrophage depletion and Schwann cell transplantation reduce cyst size after rat contusive spinal cord injury Full Text available with Trip Pro

Macrophage depletion and Schwann cell transplantation reduce cyst size after rat contusive spinal cord injury Schwann cell transplantation is a promising therapy for the treatment of spinal cord injury (SCI) and is currently in clinical trials. In our continuing efforts to improve Schwann cell transplantation strategies, we sought to determine the combined effects of Schwann cell transplantation with macrophage depletion. Since macrophages are major inflammatory contributors to the acute spinal (...) cord injury, and are the major phagocytic cells, we hypothesized that transplanting Schwann cells after macrophage depletion will improve cell survival and integration with host tissue after SCI. To test this hypothesis, rat models of contusive SCI at thoracic level 8 were randomly subjected to macrophage depletion or not. In rat subjected to macrophage depletion, liposomes filled with clodronate were intraperitoneally injected at 1, 3, 6, 11, and 18 days post injury. Rats not subjected

2018 Neural Regeneration Research

166. Effect of acute muscle contusion injury, with and without dietary fish oil, on adult and aged male rats: contractile and biochemical responses. (Abstract)

Effect of acute muscle contusion injury, with and without dietary fish oil, on adult and aged male rats: contractile and biochemical responses. Contusion injury in aging muscle has not been studied in detail, but older adults are at risk for such injuries due to increased risk of falls. As falls in older populations are unlikely to be eliminated, interventions to minimize the negative impact of falls, including contusion injury should be pursued. Dietary fish oil (FO) is a common often (...) supplement in older adults, which is associated with factors that might reduce or worsen the negative impact of contusion.Here, we investigate whether 8 weeks of FO can blunt the impact of contusion injury in adult (n = 14) and aged (n = 12) rats. We assessed contractility and several biochemical markers in adult and aged gastrocnemius muscles 48 h post-contusion injury, using the uninjured muscles as controls.Injury reduced force production ~40% (P < 0.001), sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium release by ~20

2018 Experimental Gerontology

167. Trends in concussions at Ontario schools prior to and subsequent to the introduction of a concussion policy - an analysis of the Canadian hospitals injury reporting and prevention program from 2009 to 2016. Full Text available with Trip Pro

in the province to create and implement a concussion policy. The purpose of this paper is to examine trends in school-based concussions prior to and subsequent to the introduction of the PPM.This report examined emergency department (ED) visits in 5 Ontario hospitals that are part of the Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program (CHIRPP), and compared trends over time in diagnosed concussions, and suspected concussions identified as "other head injury" in children and youth aged 4-18.From (...) 2009 to 2016 study years, there were 21,094 suspected concussions, including 8934 diagnosed concussions in youth aged 4-18. The average number of diagnosed concussions in the 5 years before the PPM was 89 concussions/month, compared to approximately 117 concussions per month after; a 30% increase in the monthly rate of concussions presenting to the ED. The total number of concussion or head injury-related ED visits remained relatively unchanged but the proportion of diagnosed concussions rose from

2018 BMC Public Health

168. The swimming test is effective for evaluating spasticity after contusive spinal cord injury. Full Text available with Trip Pro

The swimming test is effective for evaluating spasticity after contusive spinal cord injury. Spasticity is a frequent chronic complication in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI). However, the severity of spasticity varies in patients with SCI. Therefore, an evaluation method is needed to determine the severity of spasticity. We used a contusive SCI model that is suitable for clinical translation. In this study, we examined the feasibility of the swimming test and an EMG for evaluating (...) spasticity in a contusive SCI rat model. Sprague-Dawley rats received an injury at the 8th thoracic vertebra. Swimming tests were performed 3 to 6 weeks after SCI induction. We placed the SCI rats into spasticity-strong or spasticity-weak groups based on the frequency of spastic behavior during the swimming test. Subsequently, we recorded the Hoffman reflex (H-reflex) and examined the immunoreactivity of serotonin (5-HT) and its receptor (5-HT2A) in the spinal tissues of the SCI rats. The spasticity

2017 PLoS ONE

169. Senescence-associated-β-galactosidase staining following traumatic brain injury in the mouse cerebrum. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Senescence-associated-β-galactosidase staining following traumatic brain injury in the mouse cerebrum. Primary and secondary traumatic brain injury (TBI) can cause tissue damage by inducing cell death pathways including apoptosis, necroptosis, and autophagy. However, similar pathways can also lead to senescence. Senescent cells secrete senescence-associated secretory phenotype proteins following persistent DNA damage response signaling, leading to cell disorders. TBI initially activates (...) the initial 14 days after TBI using a mouse model of controlled cortical impact (CCI). Within the area adjacent to the cerebral contusion after TBI, the protein and/or mRNA expression levels of cell cycle markers were increased significantly until 4 days after injury and senescence markers were significantly increased at 4, 7, and 14 days after injury. Our findings suggested that TBI initially activated the cell cycle in neurons, astrocytes, and microglia within the area adjacent to the hemicerebrum

2019 PLoS ONE

170. Cerebral cortical microinfarcts: A novel MRI marker of vascular brain injury in patients with heart failure. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Cerebral cortical microinfarcts: A novel MRI marker of vascular brain injury in patients with heart failure. Patients with heart failure (HF) are at risk for vascular brain injury. Cerebral cortical microinfarcts (CMIs) are a novel MRI marker of vascular brain injury. This study aims to determine the occurrence of CMIs in patient with HF and their clinical correlates, including haemodynamic status.From the Heart-Brain Study, a multicenter prospective cohort study, 154 patients with clinically (...) stable HF without concurrent atrial fibrillation (mean age 69.5 ± 10.1, 32% female) and 124 reference participants without HF (mean age 65.6 ± 7.4, 47% females) were evaluated for CMIs on 3 T MRI. CMI presence in HF was tested for associations with vascular risk profile, cardiac function and history, MRI markers of vascular brain injury and cognitive profile.CMI occurrence was higher in patient with HF (17%) than reference participants (7%); after correction for age and sex OR 2.5 [95% CI 1.1-6.0] p

2020 International journal of cardiology

171. Sir Hugh Cairns and World War II British advances in head injury management, diffuse brain injury, and concussion: an Oxford tale. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Sir Hugh Cairns and World War II British advances in head injury management, diffuse brain injury, and concussion: an Oxford tale. The authors trace the Oxford, England, roots of World War II (WWII)-related advances in head injury management, the biomechanics of concussion and brain injury, and postwar delineation of pathological findings in severe concussion and diffuse brain injury in man. The prominent figure in these developments was the charismatic and innovative Harvey Cushing-trained (...) Hospital for Head Injuries. During this time Cairns also trained the first full-time female neurosurgeon. Pivotal in supporting animal research demonstrating the critical role of acceleration in the causation of concussion, Cairns recruited the physicist Hylas Holbourn, whose research implicated rotary acceleration and shear strains as particularly damaging. Cairns' work in military medicine and head injury remain highly influential in efforts to mitigate and manage brain injury.

2016 Journal of Neurosurgery

172. Multidisciplinary Rehabilitation Interventions for Patients with Acquired Brain Injuries: Clinical Effectiveness, Cost-Effectiveness, and Guidelines

Multidisciplinary Rehabilitation Interventions for Patients with Acquired Brain Injuries: Clinical Effectiveness, Cost-Effectiveness, and Guidelines Multidisciplinary Rehabilitation Interventions for Patients with Acquired Brain Injuries: Clinical Effectiveness, Cost-Effectiveness, and Guidelines | CADTH.ca Find the information you need Multidisciplinary Rehabilitation Interventions for Patients with Acquired Brain Injuries: Clinical Effectiveness, Cost-Effectiveness, and Guidelines (...) Multidisciplinary Rehabilitation Interventions for Patients with Acquired Brain Injuries: Clinical Effectiveness, Cost-Effectiveness, and Guidelines Published on: August 22, 2016 Project Number: RB1014-000 Product Line: Research Type: Devices and Systems Report Type: Summary of Abstracts Result type: Report Question What is the clinical effectiveness of multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary rehabilitation interventions for patients with an acquired brain injury? What is the cost-effectiveness

2016 Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health - Rapid Review

173. Stem Cell Therapy for the Treatment of Brain or Spinal Cord Injuries: Clinical Effectiveness and Guidelines

Stem Cell Therapy for the Treatment of Brain or Spinal Cord Injuries: Clinical Effectiveness and Guidelines Stem Cell Therapy for the Treatment of Brain or Spinal Cord Injuries: Clinical Effectiveness and Guidelines | CADTH.ca Find the information you need Stem Cell Therapy for the Treatment of Brain or Spinal Cord Injuries: Clinical Effectiveness and Guidelines Stem Cell Therapy for the Treatment of Brain or Spinal Cord Injuries: Clinical Effectiveness and Guidelines Published on: May 12, 2016 (...) Project Number: RA0847-000 Product Line: Research Type: Drug Report Type: Reference List Result type: Report Question What is the clinical evidence regarding the effectiveness of stem cell therapy for the treatment of brain or spinal cord injuries? What are the evidence-based guidelines regarding the use of stem cell therapy for the treatment of brain or spinal cord injuries? Key Message Three systematic reviews with meta-analyses, three randomized controlled trials, and 11 non-randomized studies were

2016 Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health - Rapid Review

174. Employment Interventions for Return to Work in Working Aged Adults Following Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI): A Systematic Review Full Text available with Trip Pro

a TBI. There is some discrepancy in the reporting of the severity of injury. Salazar et al. report that the injuries were “moderate to severe” (p. 3035), but state later that the injuries were “relatively severe” based on “the rates of axonal shear injury on MRI (92% and 95%), cerebral contusions (51% and 54%), posttraumatic amnesia of 7 days or more (41% to 42%), and traumatic unconsciousness for 24 hours or more (30% and 38%), respectively, in the hospital and home treatment groups” (p. 3077 (...) Employment Interventions for Return to Work in Working Aged Adults Following Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI): A Systematic Review Employment Interventions for Return to Work in Working Aged Adults Following Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI): A Systematic Review - Graham - 2016 - Campbell Systematic Reviews - Wiley Online Library By continuing to browse this site, you agree to its use of cookies as described in our . Search within Search term Search term SYSTEMATIC REVIEW Open Access Employment

2016 Campbell Collaboration

175. Characterization of children hospitalized with traumatic brain injuries after building falls Full Text available with Trip Pro

Characterization of children hospitalized with traumatic brain injuries after building falls Unintentional falls cause a substantial proportion of pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI), with building falls carrying particularly high risk for morbidity and mortality. The cohort of children sustaining building fall-related TBI has not been well-examined. We sought to characterize children hospitalized with building fall-related TBIs and evaluate if specific factors distinguished these children (...) by International Classification of Diseases, Clinical Modification, Ninth revision (ICD9-CM) diagnosis codes. Urban versus non-urban status was determined using PHIS-assigned Rural-Urban Commuting Area codes. Injury severity (i.e. Injury Severity Score (ISS) and head Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) score) were calculated. Head AIS scores were dichotomized into minor/moderate (1-2) and serious/severe (3-6) for analysis. Frequencies, descriptive statistics, Chi-square analysis, and Mann-Whitney U analysis

2018 Injury epidemiology

176. Unpicking the Gordian knot: a systems approach to traumatic brain injury care in low-income and middle-income countries Full Text available with Trip Pro

Unpicking the Gordian knot: a systems approach to traumatic brain injury care in low-income and middle-income countries 29607105 2018 11 14 2059-7908 3 2 2018 BMJ global health BMJ Glob Health Unpicking the Gordian knot: a systems approach to traumatic brain injury care in low-income and middle-income countries. e000768 10.1136/bmjgh-2018-000768 Bashford Tom T 0000-0003-0228-9779 NIHR Global Health Research Group for Neurotrauma, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK. Engineering Design Centre

2018 BMJ global health

177. Incidence of emergency department presentations for traumatic brain injury in Indigenous and non-Indigenous residents aged 15–64 over the 9-year period 2007–2015 in North Queensland, Australia Full Text available with Trip Pro

Incidence of emergency department presentations for traumatic brain injury in Indigenous and non-Indigenous residents aged 15–64 over the 9-year period 2007–2015 in North Queensland, Australia Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of disability worldwide. Previous studies have shown that males have a higher incidence than females, and Indigenous populations have a higher rate than non-Indigenous. To date, no study has compared the incidence rate of TBI between Indigenous and non

2018 Injury epidemiology

178. Prevention and Management of Heterotopic Ossification in Patients with Acquired Brain Injury: Guidelines

Number: RB1009-000 Product Line: Research Type: Devices and Systems Report Type: Summary of Abstracts Result type: Report Question What are the evidence-based guidelines for the prevention or management of heterotopic ossification in patients with acquired brain injury? Key Message One evidence-based guideline was identified regarding the prevention or management of heterotopic ossification in patients with acquired brain injury. Tags brain injuries, craniocerebral trauma, head injuries, nervous (...) system, pathologic ossification, traumatic brain injury, Heterotopic, Ossification, ectopic ossification, head injury Files Rapid Response Summary of Abstracts Published : July 28, 2016 Follow us: © 2019 Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health Get our newsletter:

2016 Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health - Rapid Review

179. Does Mannitol Reduce Mortality From Traumatic Brain Injury?

. 5 Moreover, it is a contributing factor in 30.5% of all injury- related deaths each year. 5 Given this substantial health care burden, there has been extensive research on primary prevention and treatment of head injury. Left unchecked, elevated intracra- nialpressurecanresultinimpaired cerebral perfusion, brain hernia- tion, and even death. As an os- motic diuretic, mannitol produces an initial reduction in the intracel- lular volume of brain tissue, resulting in a transient improve- ment (...) in cerebral blood ?ow and oxygenation. 6 The Brain Trauma Foundation Guidelines Task Force provided a level II recommen- dation (moderate clinical cer- tainty) for administering mannitol in cases of elevated intracranial pressure. 7 A recent survey re- ported that a majority of Canadian emergency physicians in one province use mannitol for pa- tients with severe traumatic brain injury in accordance with physical examination ?ndings or computed tomography evidence ofherniation. 8 Despite mannitol’s long

2016 Annals of Emergency Medicine Systematic Review Snapshots

180. Headache due to spinothalamic tract injury in patients with mild traumatic brain injury: Two case reports. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Headache due to spinothalamic tract injury in patients with mild traumatic brain injury: Two case reports. Headache is the most common physical complaint reported by the following traumatic brain injury (TBI). Several studies using diffusion tensor tractography (DTT) have demonstrated that injury of the spinothalamic tract (STT) is a pathogenetic mechanism of central pain following TBI. However, no study of headache due to injury of the STT has been reported.Patient 1 was a 52-year-old female (...) who suffered head trauma resulting from an in-car traffic crash. While sitting in a passenger seat in a moving vehicle, another vehicle suddenly hit the car from the right side. Her head hit the door and she suffered a flexion-hyperextension-rotation injury. She began to feel headaches in both fronto-parieto-occipital areas approximately 2 weeks after the crash. The characteristics and severity of pain were as follows: constant tingling and intermittent stabbing pain without allodynia

2019 Medicine

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