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21. Distinguishing and phenotype monitoring of traumatic brain injury and post-concussion syndrome including chronic migraine in serum of Iraq and Afghanistan war veterans. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Distinguishing and phenotype monitoring of traumatic brain injury and post-concussion syndrome including chronic migraine in serum of Iraq and Afghanistan war veterans. Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) and persistent post-concussion syndrome (PCS) including chronic migraine (CM) are major health issues for civilians and the military. It is important to understand underlying biochemical mechanisms of these conditions, and be able to monitor them in an accurate and minimally invasive manner (...) yielded information of the cellular/molecular effects of these disorders (immune responses, amyloidosis/Alzheimer's disease/dementia, neuronal development). More specific biochemical disease effects appear to involve blood brain barrier, depression, migraine headache, autoimmunity, and autophagy pathways. This study demonstrated the ability for the first time of a novel, accurate, biomarker platform to monitor these conditions in serum, and help identify biochemical relationships leading to better

2019 PLoS ONE

22. The Sport Concussion Assessment Tool (SCAT2) for evaluating civilian mild traumatic brain injury. A pilot normative study. Full Text available with Trip Pro

The Sport Concussion Assessment Tool (SCAT2) for evaluating civilian mild traumatic brain injury. A pilot normative study. Self-report measures, particularly symptom inventories, are critical tools for identifying patients with persistent post-concussion symptoms and their follow-up. Unlike in military or sports-related assessment, in general civilian settings pre-injury levels of concussion-like symptoms are lacking. Normative data are available in adolescent and college populations (...) , but no reference data exist to guide clinical adult explorations. The purpose of this study was to use the second edition of the Sport Concussion Assessment Tool (SCAT2) to profile a cohort of 60 healthy community volunteers who had not sustained a head injury. Participating volunteers underwent MRI scanning and were evaluated with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Participants reported a median of 3 concussion-like symptoms and the 97.5 percentile score was found at 10.5 symptoms, out

2019 PLoS ONE

23. Concussion, microvascular injury, and early tauopathy in young athletes after impact head injury and an impact concussion mouse model. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Concussion, microvascular injury, and early tauopathy in young athletes after impact head injury and an impact concussion mouse model. The mechanisms underpinning concussion, traumatic brain injury, and chronic traumatic encephalopathy, and the relationships between these disorders, are poorly understood. We examined post-mortem brains from teenage athletes in the acute-subacute period after mild closed-head impact injury and found astrocytosis, myelinated axonopathy, microvascular injury (...) with blood-brain barrier disruption, microgliosis, neuroinflammation, phosphorylated tauopathy, or electrophysiological dysfunction. Furthermore, concussion-like deficits were observed after impact injury, but not after blast exposure under experimental conditions matched for head kinematics. Computational modelling showed that impact injury generated focal point loading on the head and seven-fold greater peak shear stress in the brain compared to blast exposure. Moreover, intracerebral shear stress

2018 Brain

24. Effects of atorvastatin on brain contusion volume and functional outcome of patients with moderate and severe traumatic brain injury; a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial. (Abstract)

Effects of atorvastatin on brain contusion volume and functional outcome of patients with moderate and severe traumatic brain injury; a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effects of atorvastatin on brain contusion volume and functional outcome of patients with moderate and severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). The study was conducted as a randomized clinical trial during a 16-month period from May 2015 and August 2016 (...) in a level I trauma center in Shiraz, Southern Iran. We included 65 patients with moderate (GCS: 9-13) to severe (GCS: 5-8) TBI who had brain contusions of less than 30cc volume. We excluded those who required surgical intervention. Patients were randomly assigned to receive daily 20mg atorvastatin for 10days (n=21) or placebo in the same dosage (n=23). The brain contusion volumetry was performed on days 0, 3 and 7 utilizing spiral thin-cut brain CT-Scan (1-mm thickness). The outcome measured included

2018 Journal of clinical neuroscience : official journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia Controlled trial quality: predicted high

25. Integrated Care Models for Acquired Brain Injury: Clinical Effectiveness, Cost-Effectiveness and Guidelines

Integrated Care Models for Acquired Brain Injury: Clinical Effectiveness, Cost-Effectiveness and Guidelines Integrated Care Models for Acquired Brain Injury: Clinical Effectiveness, Cost-Effectiveness and Guidelines | CADTH.ca Find the information you need Integrated Care Models for Acquired Brain Injury: Clinical Effectiveness, Cost-Effectiveness and Guidelines Integrated Care Models for Acquired Brain Injury: Clinical Effectiveness, Cost-Effectiveness and Guidelines Last updated: May 21, 2019 (...) Project Number: RB1327-000 Product Line: Research Type: Non-Pharma Mental Health Intervention Report Type: Summary of Abstracts Result type: Report Question What is the clinical effectiveness of integrated care models for patients with acquired brain injury with mental health and/or substance use disorders compared to patients who do not have access to patient-centered care? What is the cost-effectiveness of integrated care models for patients with acquired brain injury with mental health

2019 Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health - Rapid Review

26. Care for Acquired Brain Injury and Concurrent Mental Health and Substance Use Issues

Care for Acquired Brain Injury and Concurrent Mental Health and Substance Use Issues Care for Acquired Brain Injury and Concurrent Mental Health and Substance Use Issues | CADTH.ca Find the information you need Care for Acquired Brain Injury and Concurrent Mental Health and Substance Use Issues Care for Acquired Brain Injury and Concurrent Mental Health and Substance Use Issues Last updated: October 11, 2019 Project Number: ES0339-000 Product Line: Result type: Report Expected Completion Date (...) : February 21, 2020 CADTH is undertaking an Environmental Scan of systems and services that are in place in Canada for caring for individuals affected by acquired brain injury (ABI) and concurrent mental health and/or substance use issues. This project is being conducted to help inform decision-making and support practice change to improve the health and well-being of people living with ABI and concurrent mental health and/or substance use issues. The key objectives of this Environmental Scan

2019 Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health - Environmental Scanning

27. Neuroprotection from acute brain injury in preterm infants

Neuroprotection from acute brain injury in preterm infants Infants born at ≤32 +6 weeks gestation are at higher risk for intracranial ischemic and hemorrhagic injuries, which often occur in the first 72 hours postbirth. Antenatal strategies to reduce the incidence of acute brain injuries include administering maternal corticosteroids and prompt antibiotic treatment for chorioamnionitis. Perinatal strategies include delivery within a tertiary centre, delayed cord clamping, and preventing (...) hypothermia. Postnatal strategies include empiric treatment with antibiotics when chorioamnionitis is suspected, the cautious use of inotropes, the avoidance of blood PCO2 fluctuation, and neutral head positioning. Clinicians should be aware of the policies and procedures that, especially when combined, can provide neuroprotection for preterm infants. Keywords: Acute brain injury; Infant; Intraventricular hemorrhage; Neuroprotection; Neuroprotective strategies; Premature

2019 Canadian Paediatric Society

28. Systematic Review - Relationship of Deployment-related Mild Traumatic Brain Injury to Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Depressive Disorders, Substance Use Disorders, Suicidal Ideation, and Anxiety Disorders

Systematic Review - Relationship of Deployment-related Mild Traumatic Brain Injury to Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Depressive Disorders, Substance Use Disorders, Suicidal Ideation, and Anxiety Disorders 4 March 2019 Prepared for: Department of Veterans Affairs Veterans Health Administration Health Services Research & Development Service Washington, DC 20420 Prepared by: Evidence Synthesis Program (ESP) Center Portland VA Medical Center Portland, OR Mark Helfand, MD, MPH, MS, Director (...) Relationship of Deployment-related Mild Traumatic Brain Injury to Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Depressive Disorders, Substance Use Disorders, Suicidal Ideation, and Anxiety Disorders: A Systematic Review Authors: Principal Investigator: Nancy Greer, PhD Timothy J. Wilt, MD, MPH Co-Investigators: Princess Ackland, PhD, MSPH Roderick MacDonald, MS Nina Sayer, PhD Michele Spoont, PhD Brent Taylor, PhD Research Assistants: Lauren McKenzie, MPH Christina Rosebush, MPH Evidence Synthesis Program 4 Relationship

2019 Veterans Affairs Evidence-based Synthesis Program Reports

29. Traumatic Brain Injury and Dementia

on the Management of Concussion-mild Traumatic Brain (mTBI) (2016) 14 and the Brain Trauma Foundation’s 4 th Edition of Guidelines for Management of Severe Traumatic Brain Injury (2016). 15 Furthermore, increased public awareness and concern about reports of Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy (CTE) in active-duty service members has heightened the urgency to better understand the potential chronic neurodegenerative risks of TBI. 16,17 CTE is a neurodegenerative condition first recognized in contact sports (...) -worldwide-numbers-tbi. Accessed December 12, 2018, 2018. 3. Hoge CW, McGurk D, Thomas JL, Cox AL, Engel CC, Castro CA. Mild traumatic brain injury in U.S. Soldiers returning from Iraq. N Engl J Med. 2008;358(5):453-463. 4. Jaycox L, Rand C, Tanielian TL. Invisible wounds of war psychological and cognitive injuries, their consequences, and services to assist recovery. Santa Monica, Calif.: RAND; 2008. 5. Wilk EJ, Herrell KR, Wynn HG, Riviere AL, Hoge WC. Mild traumatic brain injury (concussion

2019 Veterans Affairs Evidence-based Synthesis Program Reports

30. Assessment of traumatic brain injury, acute

of 13 to 15 after head injury. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Traumatic brain injury and concussion. July 2017 [internet publication]. http://www.cdc.gov/TraumaticBrainInjury/ Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a non-specific term describing blunt, penetrating, or blast injuries to the brain. TBI can be classified as mild, moderate, or severe, typically based on the GCS and/or neurobehavioural deficits after the injury. The term 'concussion' is often used interchangeably with mild TBI (...) /pubmed/11356436?tool=bestpractice.com After traumatic brain injury, there is an inverse relationship between the GCS score and the incidence of positive findings on CT; in fact, the rate of intracranial injury (ICI) and need for neurosurgical intervention doubles when the GCS drops from 15 to 14. Smits M, Dippel DW, Steyerberg EW, et al. Predicting intracranial traumatic findings on computed tomography in patients with minor head injury: the CHIP prediction rule. Ann Intern Med. 2007;146(6):397-405

2018 BMJ Best Practice

31. Assessment of traumatic brain injury, acute

of 13 to 15 after head injury. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Traumatic brain injury and concussion. July 2017 [internet publication]. http://www.cdc.gov/TraumaticBrainInjury/ Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a non-specific term describing blunt, penetrating, or blast injuries to the brain. TBI can be classified as mild, moderate, or severe, typically based on the GCS and/or neurobehavioural deficits after the injury. The term 'concussion' is often used interchangeably with mild TBI (...) /pubmed/11356436?tool=bestpractice.com After traumatic brain injury, there is an inverse relationship between the GCS score and the incidence of positive findings on CT; in fact, the rate of intracranial injury (ICI) and need for neurosurgical intervention doubles when the GCS drops from 15 to 14. Smits M, Dippel DW, Steyerberg EW, et al. Predicting intracranial traumatic findings on computed tomography in patients with minor head injury: the CHIP prediction rule. Ann Intern Med. 2007;146(6):397-405

2018 BMJ Best Practice

32. Optic tract injury after closed head traumatic brain injury in mice: A model of indirect traumatic optic neuropathy. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Optic tract injury after closed head traumatic brain injury in mice: A model of indirect traumatic optic neuropathy. Adult male C57BL/6J mice have previously been reported to have motor and memory deficits after experimental closed head traumatic brain injury (TBI), without associated gross pathologic damage or neuroimaging changes detectable by magnetic resonance imaging or diffusion tensor imaging protocols. The presence of neurologic deficits, however, suggests neural damage or dysfunction (...) at 7 days, but not 24 hours, after injury). Fluoro Jade B staining was not detectable in other white matter tracts, brain regions or in cell somata. In addition, there was increased GFAP staining in these optic tract, lateral geniculate, and superior colliculus 7 days post-injury, and morphologic changes in optic tract microglia that were detectable 24 hours after injury but were more prominent 7 days post-injury. Interestingly, there were no findings of degeneration or gliosis

2018 PLoS ONE

33. Management of Concussion-mild Traumatic Brain Injury (mTBI)

) • Any alteration in mental state at the time of the injury (e.g., confusion, disorientation, slowed thinking, alteration of consciousness/mental state) • Neurological deficits (e.g., weakness, loss of balance, change in vision, praxis, paresis/plegia, sensory loss, aphasia) that may or may not be transient • Intracranial lesion External forces may include any of the following events: the head being struck by an object, the head striking an object, the brain undergoing an acceleration/deceleration (...) " or "brain injury" that may inadvertently reinforce misattribution of symptoms or insecurities about recovery. The patient who is told he or she has "brain damage" based on vague symptoms or complaints and no clear indication of significant head trauma may develop a long-term perception of disability that may be difficult to reverse.[10] The terms “concussion” and “mTBI” will be used throughout this document as a convention. Also, patients should not be referred to as “mTBI patients” or “patients

2016 VA/DoD Clinical Practice Guidelines

34. L-Carnitine and extendin-4 improve outcomes following moderate brain contusion injury Full Text available with Trip Pro

L-Carnitine and extendin-4 improve outcomes following moderate brain contusion injury There is a need for pharmaceutical agents that can reduce neuronal loss and improve functional deficits following traumatic brain injury (TBI). Previous research suggests that oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction play a major role in neuronal damage after TBI. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate two drugs known to have antioxidant effects, L-carnitine and exendin-4, in rats with moderate (...) contusive TBI. L-carnitine (1.5 mM in drinking water) or exendin-4 (15 µg/kg/day, ip) were given immediately after the injury for 2 weeks. Neurological function and brain histology were examined (24 h and 6 weeks post injury). The rats with TBI showed slight sensory, motor and memory functional deficits at 24 h, but recovered by 6 weeks. Both treatments improved sensory and motor functions at 24 h, while only exendin-4 improved memory. Both treatments reduced cortical contusion at 24 h and 6 weeks

2018 Scientific reports

35. Differences in corpus callosum injury between cerebral concussion and diffuse axonal injury. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Differences in corpus callosum injury between cerebral concussion and diffuse axonal injury. We investigated differences in corpus callosum (CC) injuries between patients with concussion and those with diffuse axonal injury (DAI) by using diffusion tensor tractography (DTT).Twenty-nine patients with concussion, 21 patients with DAI, and 25 control subjects were recruited. We reconstructed the whole CC and 5 regions of the CC after applying Hofer classification (I, II, III, IV, and V). The whole (...) differences in FN were observed in CC regions I and II (connected with the prefrontal lobe and secondary motor area) between the concussion and control groups, in CC regions I, II, III, and IV (connected with the frontoparietal lobes) between the DAI and control groups, and in CC regions III, IV (connected with the motor-sensory cortex) between the concussion and DAI groups (P < .05).It was observed that both concussion and DAI patients showed diffuse neural injuries in the whole CC and all 5 regions

2019 Medicine

36. Cerebral near-infrared spectroscopy monitoring for prevention of brain injury in very preterm infants. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Cerebral near-infrared spectroscopy monitoring for prevention of brain injury in very preterm infants. Cerebral injury and long-term neurodevelopmental impairment is common in extremely preterm infants. Cerebral near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) enables continuous estimation of cerebral oxygenation. This diagnostic method coupled with appropriate interventions if NIRS is out of normal range (that is cerebral oxygenation within the 55% to 85% range) may offer benefits without causing more harms (...) . Therefore, NIRS coupled with appropriate responses to abnormal findings on NIRS needs assessment in a systematic review of randomised clinical trials and quasi-randomised studies.To evaluate the benefits and harms of interventions that attempt to alter cerebral oxygenation guided by cerebral NIRS monitoring in order to prevent cerebral injury, improve neurological outcome, and increase survival in preterm infants born more than 8 weeks preterm.We used the standard search strategy of the Cochrane

2017 Cochrane

37. Long-Term Psychosocial Support Interventions for Individuals with Moderate to Severe Acquired Brain Injury: Clinical and Cost Effectiveness

Long-Term Psychosocial Support Interventions for Individuals with Moderate to Severe Acquired Brain Injury: Clinical and Cost Effectiveness Long-Term Psychosocial Support Interventions for Individuals with Moderate to Severe Acquired Brain Injury: Clinical and Cost Effectiveness | CADTH.ca Find the information you need Long-Term Psychosocial Support Interventions for Individuals with Moderate to Severe Acquired Brain Injury: Clinical and Cost Effectiveness Long-Term Psychosocial Support (...) Interventions for Individuals with Moderate to Severe Acquired Brain Injury: Clinical and Cost Effectiveness Last updated: April 27, 2018 Project Number: RB1214-000 Product Line: Research Type: Devices and Systems Report Type: Summary of Abstracts Result type: Report Question What is the clinical effectiveness of professionally-administered, long-term psychosocial support for individuals with moderate to severe traumatic or acquired brain injuries? What is the cost effectiveness of community-based acquired

2018 Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health - Rapid Review

38. Falls Prevention Strategies for Acquired Brain Injury Patients with Impulsivity Issues: Clinical Effectiveness and Guidelines

Falls Prevention Strategies for Acquired Brain Injury Patients with Impulsivity Issues: Clinical Effectiveness and Guidelines Falls Prevention Strategies for Acquired Brain Injury Patients with Impulsivity Issues: Clinical Effectiveness and Guidelines | CADTH.ca Find the information you need Falls Prevention Strategies for Acquired Brain Injury Patients with Impulsivity Issues: Clinical Effectiveness and Guidelines Falls Prevention Strategies for Acquired Brain Injury Patients with Impulsivity (...) Issues: Clinical Effectiveness and Guidelines Last updated: October 18, 2018 Project Number: RA0974-000 Product Line: Research Type: Devices and Systems Report Type: Reference List Result type: Report Question What is the comparative clinical effectiveness of falls prevention strategies compared with usual care for the prevention of falls in patients with acquired brain injury or stroke? What are the evidence-based guidelines regarding falls prevention strategies for the prevention of falls

2018 Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health - Rapid Review

39. Duration of Physiotherapy Rehabilitation after Acquired Brain Injury: A Review of Guidelines

Duration of Physiotherapy Rehabilitation after Acquired Brain Injury: A Review of Guidelines Duration of Physiotherapy Rehabilitation after Acquired Brain Injury: A Review of Guidelines | CADTH.ca Find the information you need Duration of Physiotherapy Rehabilitation after Acquired Brain Injury: A Review of Guidelines Duration of Physiotherapy Rehabilitation after Acquired Brain Injury: A Review of Guidelines Last updated: November 16, 2018 Project Number: RC1044-000 Product Line: Research Type (...) : Devices and Systems Report Type: Summary with Critical Appraisal Result type: Report Question What are the evidence-based guidelines regarding the duration and frequency of physiotherapy treatment/rehabilitation for adults with acquired brain injury? Key Message The review found eight guidelines that offered recommendations on the duration and/or frequency/intensity of rehabilitation for acquired brain injury (from stroke or other means). Wherever possible, recommendations on physiotherapy or elements

2018 Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health - Rapid Review

40. Traumatic brain injury

have a GCS of 13 to 15 after head injury . Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Traumatic brain injury and concussion. July 2017. http://www.cdc.gov [Internet publication]. http://www.cdc.gov/TraumaticBrainInjury/ Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a non-specific term describing 2018 6. Moderate to severe traumatic brain injury 2017 7. Cognitive rehabilitation for adults with traumatic brain injury to improve occupational outcomes. BACKGROUND: Cognitive impairment in people with traumatic brain (...) intracranial pressure (ICP)] are [hypertonic sodium solutions better than mannitol] at [reducing morbidity and mortality]? Clinical Scenario A 54 year old female pedestrian has been hit by a bus. She is brought into the ED by ambulance. Her GCS is 13 on arrival and examination reveals an isolated head injury with a haematoma over the left occiput. CT confirms a right 2011 13. Elevation of the head during intensive care management in people with severe traumatic brain injury . BACKGROUND: Traumatic brain

2018 Trip Latest and Greatest

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