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aspirin and Reye syndrome

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81. Laboratory diagnosis of G6PD deficiency Full Text available with Trip Pro

haemolysis in G6PD‐deficient subjects. Category of drug Predictable haemolysis Possible haemolysis Antimalarials Dapsone Chloroquine Primaquine Quinine Pamaquin * Not on UK market. Tafenoquine Methylene blue Analgesics/antipyretic Phenazopyridine Aspirin (high doses) † Acceptable up to a dose of at least 1 g daily in most G6PD‐deficient individuals. Paracetamol (Acetaminophen) Antibacterials Cotrimoxazole Sulfasalazine Sulfadiazine Quinolones ‡ Including ciprofloxacin, moxifloxacin, nalidixic acid (...) ” drugs (see Table ) or infection Favism Red‐cell morphology suggestive of oxidant damage or positive Heinz body stain Congenital non‐spherocytic haemolytic anaemia in males or females Haemoglobinuria Sickle cell disease * Sickle cell anaemia and compound heterozygous states. Thalassaemic disorders Family history of G6PD deficiency or favism Patients likely to need rasburicase, such as those with leukaemia, lymphoma or other malignancies Acute haemolysis following haemopoietic stem cell

2020 British Committee for Standards in Haematology

82. Drug-Induced Liver Injury

Drug-Induced Liver Injury EASL Clinical Practice Guidelines: Drug-induced liver injury q European Association for the Study of the Liver ? Summary Idiosyncratic (unpredictable) drug-induced liver injury is one of the most challenging liver disorders faced by hepatologists, because of the myriad of drugs used in clinical practice, avail- able herbs and dietary supplements with hepatotoxic potential, the ability of the condition to present with a variety of clinical (...) andpathologicalphenotypesandthecurrentabsenceofspeci?c biomarkers. This makes the diagnosis of drug-induced liver injury an uncertain process, requiring a high degree of aware- ness of the condition and the careful exclusion of alternative aetiologies of liver disease. Idiosyncratic hepatotoxicity can be severe, leading to a particularly serious variety of acute liver failure for which no effective therapy has yet been developed. These Clinical Practice Guidelines summarize the available evi- dence on risk factors, diagnosis, management and risk

2019 European Association for the Study of the Liver

83. Diagnosis and Treatment of Clinical Alzheimer’s-Type Dementia

for accurately diagnosing clinical Alzheimer’s-type dementia (CATD) and for determining whether Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the underlying neuropathological etiology is to inform decision making about drug and nondrug treatments to improve patient and caregiver outcomes. In most individuals with a clinical dementia syndrome, AD is the primary underlying cause or at least is a contributing factor. 10, 11 Historically, patients with suspected AD have been diagnosed clinically, including by criteria set (...) by the National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Disorders and Stroke and Alzheimer’s Disease and Related Disorders Association (NINCDS-ADRDA), 5 the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), 12-14 and the National Institute on Aging-Alzheimer’s Association (NIA-AA) workgroup. 15 NINCDS-ADRDA and DSM criteria prior to DSM-V require acquired, persistent impairment in memory and at least one other cognitive domain, along with associated functional disability not attributable

2020 Effective Health Care Program (AHRQ)

84. Opioid Treatments for Chronic Pain

and function, and increased risk of harms at short-term (1 to 50 morphine equivalent dose [MED] per day, “avoid” increasing doses >90 MED/day). 5 Of the 12 recommendations in the CDC guideline, all except for one (treatment for opioid use disorder) were assessed as being supported by low quality evidence. Although a number of opioid prescribing practices were declining at the time that the CDC guideline was published, the rate of decline increased following its release. 9 Rationale for This Review (...) with neuropathic pain and primarily evaluated gabapentinoids or nortriptyline, potentially limiting applicability of findings to other pain types and other nonopioids. Evidence on long-term effects of combination therapy versus an opioid or nonopioid alone, including effects on overdose risk and risks related to opioid use disorder, was lacking. Evidence on the effectiveness of different opioid dosing strategies remains very limited. One trial included in the 2014 AHRQ report found no differences between

2020 Effective Health Care Program (AHRQ)

85. Pharmacological management of migraine

combined. 21 Associated symptoms of nausea, vomiting, photophobia (NNT=7.7) and phonophobia (NNT=6.6) were reduced by aspirin when compared to placebo. The addition of metoclopramide further reduced nausea (NNT=2.6) and vomiting. 21 Aspirin is a potential gastrointestinal irritant and may cause ulcers or gastrointestinal bleeding, however adverse effects from short-term use are mostly mild and transient. 21 Aspirin should not be used in patients under 16 years of age due to the risk of Reye’s syndrome (...) with an underlying pathology and include migraine, tension-type, and cluster headache. Secondary headache disorders are attributed to an underlying pathological condition. Medication-overuse headache (MOH) is increasingly recognised as a problem and affects around 1% of the population worldwide, but can vary significantly between countries (0.5% to 2.6%). 6,7 In patients with MOH, migraine is the most common underlying headache disorder (approximately 80%). Migraine is the most common severe form of primary

2018 SIGN

86. What helps to support people affected by Adverse Childhood Experiences? A Review of Evidence

a person who is under the age of 18. ABBREVIATIONS ACE Adverse Childhood Experience CBT Cognitive Behavioural Therapy CDC Centers for Disease Control and Prevention EMDR Eye Movement Desensitisation and Reprocessing Therapy nRCT Non-Randomised Controlled Trial OoHC Out-of-Home-Care PTSD Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder RCT Randomised Controlled Trial RoB Risk of Bias RoR Review of Reviews (used to describe the systematic review of systematic reviews) SMD Standardised Mean Difference TAU Treatment (...) brain development, especially in the early years, but also into adolescence (Keverne, 2014, Sethi et al., 2013). ACEs have been associated with lasting changes in nervous, endocrine and immune systems which are observable in childhood and persist into adult life (Danese and McEwen, 2012). These resulting significant biological changes in children can exert long-term effects on health across the life-course, such as long-term morbidity from non-communicable disease (Danese and McEwen, 2012). Through

2019 EPPI Centre

87. Care around stillbirth and neonatal death

, such as Beckwith Wiedemann syndrome, should be investigated if there is no maternal or paternal diabetic history. 13 In the case of a suspected genetic metabolic disorder, Clinicians should discuss individual cases with their State Laboratory to identify the optimum tests to request and consult a clinical metabolic specialist if more expert guidance required. 14 All tissue samples should be stored and transported to a Specialist Metabolic Laboratory for investigation. 15 When a lethal genetic metabolic (...) of the event to facilitate this process. 5 The perinatal mortality audit meetings should have an experienced chairperson capable of ensuring a no-blame environment within an appropriate legal framework. 7 Perinatal Society of Australia and New Zealand Clinical Practice Guideline for Care Around Stillbirth and Neonatal Death, Third Edition, March 2018 6 As part of the audit meeting, the PSANZ Classification system should be used to assign the cause of death and associated conditions for every perinatal

2019 Centre of Research Excellence in Stillbirth

88. Management of Acute ST Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI) – (4th Edition)

techniques may be useful investigations in the patient presenting with acute chest pain in difficult diagnostic situations. They help to detect: • Coronary atherosclerotic plaques, myocardial ischaemia and/or scars from previous MI. • Non-ischaemic conditions causing chest pain such as valvular heart disease, peri- myocarditis, pulmonary embolism, aortic dissection and pneumothorax. In STEMI, there is no role for routine CTCA. Use of CT should be confined to selected cases where acute aortic dissection (...) formulations are preferable to solid aspirin either chewed or swallowed. 32,33 Regular aspirin is preferred over enteric coated aspirin in this situation because of its faster onset of action. 34 • The 999 despatchers will provide additional care instructions before the arrival of the pre-hospital care (PHC) providers. 4.2 For patients with known coronary heart disease (CHD) • If the chest pain is suggestive of ACS (section 3.1, pg 45), take one dose of sublingual glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) by tablet

2019 Ministry of Health, Malaysia

89. Management of Heart Failure (4th Edition)

), cyclophosphamide. ? Endocrine and metabolic disorders: thyroid disease, acromegaly, phaechromocytoma. ? Collagen vascular disease: systemic lupus erythematosis, polymyositis, polyarteritis nodosa. ? Tachycardia induced cardiomyopathy eg uncontrolled atrial fibrillation. ? Infiltrative cardiac disease e.g. amyloid, hyper-eosinophilic syndrome. ? Miscellaneous. ? High output HF e.g. severe anaemia, large A-V shunts/malformations. ? Peripartum cardiomyopathy. ? Stress (Takotsubo) cardiomyopathy. Patients (...) to establish the aetiology of the syndrome. (Section 5, Page 37) The diagnosis of HFrEF requires these conditions to be satisfied: ? Symptoms and signs typical of HF. ? Objective evidence of reduced LVEF. In the diagnosis of HFpEF the requirements are: ? Symptoms and signs typical of HF. ? Objective evidence of a normal, non-dilated LV and/or evidence of diastolic dysfunction.Relevant structural heart disease (LV hypertrophy/LA enlargement). Key Recommendation # 1: ? In making a diagnosis of Heart failure

2019 Ministry of Health, Malaysia

90. Achieving Health Equity in Preventive Services

including disparities in preventive health services, 3 such as routine screenings, examinations, and patient counseling to prevent illnesses and other health-related conditions. 4 Key Questions This review addresses five KQs on achieving health equity in preventive services related to three high-burden diseases in the United States: cancer, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes. Specific preventive services are based on 10 A- or B-level recommendations from the U.S. ES-2 Preventive Services Task Force (...) screening Women age 40 years and older a Cervical cancer screening Women age 21 to 65 years Lung cancer screening Adults age 55 to 80 years with a smoking history Tobacco smoking cessation: behavioral and pharmacotherapy interventions b Adults Cardiovascular disease Aspirin use to prevent cardiovascular disease and colorectal cancer: preventive medication Adults age 50 to 59 years with >10% 10-year CVD risk Healthful diet and physical activity for CVD prevention in adults with risk factors: behavioral

2019 Effective Health Care Program (AHRQ)

91. Long-Term Drug Therapy and Drug Holidays for Osteoporosis Fracture Prevention: A Systematic Review

reviews to assist public- and private-sector organizations in their efforts to improve the quality of healthcare in the United States. These reviews provide comprehensive, science-based information on common, costly medical conditions, and new healthcare technologies and strategies. Systematic reviews are the building blocks underlying evidence-based practice; they focus attention on the strength and limits of evidence from research studies about the effectiveness and safety of a clinical intervention (...) Order Officer Center for Evidence and Practice Improvement Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality v Acknowledgments We thank many individuals for their contributions to this project: Laura Pincock and Jill Huppert, our AHRQ Task Order Officers; Keisha Shropshire and Carrie Klabunde, of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Office of Disease Prevention (ODP); and Lyndon Joseph, National Institute on Aging (NIA), and Faye Chen, National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin

2019 Effective Health Care Program (AHRQ)

92. Treatment of Diabetes in Older Adults Full Text available with Trip Pro

heart failure, the following oral hypoglycemic agents should be prescribed with caution to prevent worsening of heart failure: glinides, rosiglitazone, pioglitazone, and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors. (Ungraded Good Practice Statement) Management of atherosclerosis in older adults with diabetes 5.9 In patients aged 65 years and older with diabetes and a history of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, we recommend low-dosage aspirin (75 to 162 mg/d) for secondary prevention of cardiovascular (...) Navigation Close mobile search navigation Article navigation May 2019 Article Contents Article Navigation Treatment of Diabetes in Older Adults: An Endocrine Society Clinical Practice Guideline Derek LeRoith Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York Correspondence: Derek LeRoith, MD, PhD, Mt. Sinai School of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Bone Diseases, 1 Gustave Levy Place, Box 1055, New York, New York 10029. E-mail: . Search for other works by this author on: Geert

2019 The Endocrine Society

93. Development of Harmonized Outcome Measures for Use in Patient Registries and Clinical Practice: Methods and Lessons Learned

to inform decision-making. A particular strength of registries is their ability to enroll large numbers of patients and follow them over multiple years to assess long-term outcomes that are important to patients, providers, and other decision-makers. A patient registry is defined as “an organized system that uses observational study methods to collect uniform data (clinical and other) to evaluate specified outcomes for a population defined 2 by a particular disease, condition, or exposure (...) specified outcomes for a population defined by a particular disease, condition, or exposure and that serves one or more pre-determined scientific, clinical, or policy purposes. 2 Registries were excluded if they did not collect patient outcomes (e.g., registries designed solely to track vaccination status). This process is summarized in Table 1. 6 Table 1. Steps in registry identification process Source Purpose and approach Registry of Patient Registries (RoPR) https://patientregistry.ahrq.gov Used

2019 Effective Health Care Program (AHRQ)

94. Consensus statement for perioperative care in total hip replacement and total knee replacement surgery: Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) Society recommendations Full Text available with Trip Pro

, and the effect may only be seen in specific patient groups, such as elderly and frail patients, patients with special needs or multiple comorbidities, patients with psychiatric diseases, and patients not currently able to achieve discharge on the day of surgery (Bandholm et al. Bandholm T , Wainwright T W , Kehlet H . Rehabilitation strategies for optimisation of functional recovery after major joint replacement . J Exp Orthop 2018 ; 5(1): 44 . , , ). Summary/recommendation —Current evidence does not support (...) for and multimodal PONV prophylaxis and treatment for patients undergoing hip and knee replacement Evidence level —Moderate Recommendation grade —Strong Prevention of perioperative blood loss—tranexamic acid Hip and knee replacement has been associated with pronounced blood loss (Liu et al. Liu X , Zhang X , Chen Y , Wang Q , Jiang Y , Zeng B . Hidden blood loss after total hip arthroplasty . J Arthroplasty 2011 ; 26(7): 1100 – 5 e1 . , , , ), which, traditionally, has been healed by blood transfusion. However

2019 ERAS Society

95. Pruritus

Diagnostic algorithm and diagnostics 21 6 Therapy 212 6.1 Therapy: general principles including emollients 212 6.2 Causative therapy and aetiology-specific treatment 23 6.3 Topical therapy 24 6.3.1 Local anaesthetics 24 6.3.2 Zinc, menthol and camphor 25 6.3.3 Capsaicin 26 6.3.4 Topical glucocorticosteroids 27 6.3.5 Tacrolimus and pimecrolimus 28 6.3.6 Acetylsalicylic acid 29 6.3.7 Doxepin 30 6.3.8 Topical mast cell inhibitors 30 6.4 Systemic therapy 30 6.4.1 Antihistamines 30 6.4.2 Mast cell inhibitors (...) that it is frequently refractory to therapy, it causes a high burden and impairs quality of life. This guideline addresses all causes and types of CP including chronic prurigo. In its early stage, CP is considered a symptom of the underlying disease. However, with time, CP may develop its own dynamics that are no longer linked to the course of the underlying disease. In this stage, and much like chronic pain, this can be considered a distinct syndrome (CP syndrome) or even a disease in its own right

2019 European Dermatology Forum

96. WHO Guidelines for the pharmacological and radiotherapeutic management of cancer pain in adults and adolescents

of comprehensive care throughout the life course .. 114 References 115 ANNEX 6: PHARMACOLOGICAL PROFILES AND OPIOID CONVERSION TABLES 117 I. Pharmacological profiles 117 1. Acetylsalicylic acid 117 2. Codeine phosphate 118 3. Fentanyl 119 4. Hydromorphone 122 5. Ibuprofen 123 6. Methadone 124 7 . Morphine 126 8. Naloxone 128 9. Oxycodone 128 10. Paracetamol 130 II. Typical starting doses 131 III. Opioid conversion tables 132 IV. Opioid cessation 135 References 136 ANNEX 7: NETWORK META-ANALYSIS OF EVIDENCE (...) of illness, through a people- centred approach concurrently with disease-modifying therapies (4). As a result of early diagnosis and improved cancer treatment, cancer patients are living longer. Nevertheless, in many settings, patients often present with cancer that is so advanced that any disease-modifying treatment may not be effective or feasible. For these patients, the preferred treatment option is palliative care and pain relief when needed. The mainstay of cancer pain therapy is pharmacological

2019 World Health Organisation Guidelines

97. The EAU – EANM – ESTRO – ESUR – SIOG Guidelines on Prostate Cancer

Urol, 2019. 76: 831. 29. Leitzmann, M.F., et al. Risk factors for the onset of prostatic cancer: age, location, and behavioral correlates. Clin Epidemiol, 2012. 4: 1. 30. Breslow, N., et al. Latent carcinoma of prostate at autopsy in seven areas. The International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyons, France. Int J Cancer, 1977. 20: 680. 31. Esposito, K., et al. Effect of metabolic syndrome and its components on prostate cancer risk: meta-analysis. J Endocrinol Invest, 2013. 36: 132. 32. Blanc (...) -Lapierre, A., et al. Metabolic syndrome and prostate cancer risk in a population-based case-control study in Montreal, Canada. BMC Public Health, 2015. 15: 913. 33. Preston, M.A., et al. Metformin use and prostate cancer risk. Eur Urol, 2014. 66: 1012. 34. Freedland, S.J., et al. Statin use and risk of prostate cancer and high-grade prostate cancer: results from the REDUCE study. Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis, 2013. 16: 254. 35. James, N.D., et al. Abiraterone for Prostate Cancer Not Previously Treated

2020 European Association of Nuclear Medicine

98. Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Prevention and Management of Diabetes in Canada

. Prebtani MD, FRCPC, Vincent Woo MD, FRCPC S190 Management of Acute Coronary Syndromes Jean-Claude Tardif MD, FRCPC, FACC, FCAHS, Phillipe L. L'Allier MD, David H. Fitchett MD, FRCPCCONTENTS (continued): April 2018 Volume 42 Supplement 1 S196 Treatment of Diabetes in People With Heart Failure Kim A. Connelly MBBS, PhD, FCCS, Richard E. Gilbert MBBS, PhD, Peter Liu MD, FRCPC, FACC S201 Chronic Kidney Disease in Diabetes Philip McFarlane MD, PhD, FRCPC, David Cherney MD, PhD, FRCPC, Richard E. Gilbert (...) , Doreen Rabi MD, MSc, FRCPC, Robyn L. Houlden MD, FRCPC S10 Definition, Classification and Diagnosis of Diabetes, Prediabetes and Metabolic Syndrome Zubin Punthakee MD, MSc, FRCPC, Ronald Goldenberg MD, FRCPC, FACE, Pamela Katz MD, FRCPC S16 Screening for Diabetes in Adults Jean-Marie Ekoe MD, CSPQ, PD, Ronald Goldenberg MD, FRCPC, FACE, Pamela Katz MD, FRCPC S20 Reducing the Risk of Developing Diabetes Ally P.H. Prebtani MD, BScPhm, FRCPC, Harpreet S. Bajaj MD, MPH, ECNU, FACE, Ronald Goldenberg MD

2018 Diabetes Canada

99. Diagnosis of Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis

recommend serological testing to exclude connective tissue disease (CTD) as a potential cause of the ILD (motherhood statement). For patients with newly detected ILD of apparently unknown cause who are clinically suspected of having IPF and have an HRCT pattern of probable UIP, indeterminate for UIP, or an alternative diagnosis: d We suggest cellular analysis of their BAL ?uid (conditional recommendation, very low quality of evidence). d We suggest surgical lung biopsy (SLB) (conditional recommendation (...) tissue disease We recommend serological testing to exclude connective tissue diseases as a potential cause of the ILD (motherhood statement) “Diagnosis of IPF requires exclusion of other known causes of ILD (e.g., domestic and occupational environmental exposures, connective tissue disease, and drug toxicity).” Multidisciplinary discussion We suggest multidisciplinary discussion for decision-making (conditional) “We recommend that a multidisciplinary discussion should be used in the evaluation of IPF

2018 American Thoracic Society

100. Prostate Cancer

. 29. Esposito, K., et al. Effect of metabolic syndrome and its components on prostate cancer risk: meta-analysis. J Endocrinol Invest, 2013. 36: 132. 30. Blanc-Lapierre, A., et al. Metabolic syndrome and prostate cancer risk in a population-based case-control study in Montreal, Canada. BMC Public Health, 2015. 15: 913. 31. Preston, M.A., et al. Metformin use and prostate cancer risk. Eur Urol, 2014. 66: 1012. 32. Freedland, S.J., et al. Statin use and risk of prostate cancer and high-grade (...) , J., et al. Is alcohol consumption a risk factor for prostate cancer? A systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC Cancer, 2016. 16: 845. 39. Key, T.J. Nutrition, hormones and prostate cancer risk: results from the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition. Recent Results Cancer Res, 2014. 202: 39. 40. Alexander, D.D., et al. Meta-Analysis of Long-Chain Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (LComega-3PUFA) and Prostate Cancer. Nutr Cancer, 2015. 67: 543. 41. Lippi, G., et al. Fried

2018 European Association of Urology

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