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1801. Comparative Evaluation of Three Different Materials: Mineral Trioxide Aggregate, Triple Antibiotic Paste, and Abscess Remedy on Apical Development of Vital Young Permanent Teeth. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Comparative Evaluation of Three Different Materials: Mineral Trioxide Aggregate, Triple Antibiotic Paste, and Abscess Remedy on Apical Development of Vital Young Permanent Teeth. The aim of the study is to compare the success rate of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), Triple antibiotic paste, and Abscess remedy in apical development of vital young permanent teeth.A total of 60 children aged 6-14 years were selected and were randomly divided into three groups, each comprising of 20 children (...) . Group I, Group II, and Group III in which MTA (Pro root), triple antibiotic paste (3Mix MP), and Abscess remedy (Product Dentaire, Switzerland) was used pulpotomy medicament. The children were recalled 1, 6, 9, 12, 18, and 24 months for clinical and radiographic evaluation and were designed as single-blinded randomized clinical trial.Chi-square test.The follow-up evaluations revealed that 56 teeth appeared to be clinically and radiographically successful at 24 months' postoperative evaluation. Four

2019 Contemporary clinical dentistry Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1802. Effect of a Single Preoperative Dose of Oral Antibiotic to Reduce the Incidence of Surgical Site Infection Following Below-Knee Dermatological Flap and Graft Repair. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Effect of a Single Preoperative Dose of Oral Antibiotic to Reduce the Incidence of Surgical Site Infection Following Below-Knee Dermatological Flap and Graft Repair. Surgical site infection (SSI) rates for below-knee dermatological surgery are unacceptably high, particularly following complex flap and graft closures. The role of antibiotic prophylaxis for these surgical cases is uncertain.To determine whether SSI following complex dermatological closures on the leg could be reduced (...) by antibiotic prophylaxis administered as a single oral preoperative dose.A total of 115 participants were randomized to 2 g of oral cephalexin or placebo 40-60 minutes prior to surgical incision in a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial at a primary care skin cancer clinic in North Queensland, Australia.Overall 17/55 (30.9%) controls and 14/55 (25.5%) intervention participants developed infection (P = 0.525). There was no difference between the study groups in adverse symptoms

2019 Dermatology practical & conceptual Controlled trial quality: predicted high

1803. Comparative evaluation of two antibacterial-coated resorbable sutures versus noncoated resorbable sutures in periodontal flap surgery: A clinico-microbiological study. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Comparative evaluation of two antibacterial-coated resorbable sutures versus noncoated resorbable sutures in periodontal flap surgery: A clinico-microbiological study. Sutures at the surgical site can act as a reservoir for microbes, leading to surgical site infection. This mainly occurs in braided sutures due to wicking action. The use of triclosan-coated suture (TCS) or chlorhexidine-coated suture (CCS) could be one of the possible alternatives to reduce the microbial load.The study (...) was designed to assess the antibacterial efficacy of resorbable TCS and CCS along with its effect on healing after periodontal flap surgery in comparison to noncoated sutures (NCSs).Thirty patients with chronic periodontitis indicated for periodontal flap surgery satisfying inclusion criteria were randomly assigned in the three groups: (1) NCS-polyglycolic acid sutures (control group), (2) TCS-polyglycolic acid sutures (experimental Group A), and (3) CCS-polyglycolic acid sutures (experimental Group B

2019 Journal of Indian Society of Periodontology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1804. Are postoperative prophylactic antibiotics in closed reduction of nasal bone fracture valuable?: prospective study of 30 cases. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Are postoperative prophylactic antibiotics in closed reduction of nasal bone fracture valuable?: prospective study of 30 cases. Prophylactic antibiotic administration after surgery for a nasal bone fracture is performed due to concerns about infection-related complications, such as, toxic shock syndrome. To evaluate the validity and efficacy of antibiotic use, we compared the results obtained and the bacterial profiles of nasal packing materials in patients that underwent closed reduction (...) for a nasal bone fracture with or without prophylactic antibiotic administration.Thirty consecutive patients with a nasal bone fracture, but without an open wound, that underwent closed reduction during March to August 2017 were included in the present study. Fifteen of these 30 patients were randomly assigned to a control group, members of were administered postoperative intravenous antibiotics once at the day of surgery and then oral antibiotics for 4 days. The other 15 patients were assigned

2019 Archives of Craniofacial Surgery Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1805. Two different antibiotic protocols as adjuncts to one-stage full-mouth ultrasonic debridement to treat generalized aggressive periodontitis: A pilot randomized controlled clinical trial. (Abstract)

Two different antibiotic protocols as adjuncts to one-stage full-mouth ultrasonic debridement to treat generalized aggressive periodontitis: A pilot randomized controlled clinical trial. To assess the clinical and microbiological responses of amoxicillin + metronidazole (AMX + MET) versus clarithromycin (CLM) as adjuncts to one-stage full-mouth ultrasonic debridement (FMUD) in the treatment of generalized aggressive periodontitis (GAgP).For this parallel, double-masked, pilot randomized (...) from subgingival biofilm were determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction.Both treatments significantly improved all clinical parameters compared with baseline and promoted a significant reduction of A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis counts (P > 0.05). CLM succeeded in decreasing T. forsythia at 6 months (P < 0.05), but no antibiotic was able to reduce F. nucleatum. There was no difference between the two protocols regarding the reported adverse effects (P > 0.05).The results

2019 Journal of periodontology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1806. Metronidazole in the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea and Clostridium difficile infection in high-risk hospitalised patients. (Abstract)

Metronidazole in the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea and Clostridium difficile infection in high-risk hospitalised patients. In-hospital diarrhoea has a high impact on morbidity and mortality rates among hospitalised patients. Chemoprophylaxis with antibiotics in selected patients could be a cost-effective tool for prevention.A prospective randomised, open-label study was conducted in a tertiary hospital in Mexico City, selecting patients at high risk of acquiring in-hospital (...) diarrhoea and assigning them to a group taking metronidazole 500mg orally every eight hours for seven days or an observation group. The primary endpoint was the presence of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea and Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) infection during the seven days of evaluation. The study was approved by the institutional ethics committee. Registration number (11.2017) of 14 March 2017.Of the 116 patients who met the inclusion criteria, 96 were analysed, 41 in the intervention group and 55

2019 Gastroenterologia y hepatologia Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1807. Protocol for a comparison study of 1-day (single dose) versus 2-day prophylactic antibiotic administration in Holmium Laser enucleation of the prostate (HoLEP): a randomized controlled trial. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Protocol for a comparison study of 1-day (single dose) versus 2-day prophylactic antibiotic administration in Holmium Laser enucleation of the prostate (HoLEP): a randomized controlled trial. Background: The best method of antimicrobial prophylaxis administration for surgical site infection (SSI) in transurethral holmium laser resection and enucleation of the prostate (HoLEP)/bipolar transurethral enucleation (TUEB) remains controversial. The purpose of this study is to compare one-day and two (...) -day cefazolin in a randomized 2 nd-phase study to help establish a protocol with a 95% confidence interval (CI) for SSI prevention. Methods: Patients undergoing HoLEP/TUEB for benign prostate hyperplasia without preoperative pyuria will be enrolled and randomized to receive prophylactic antibiotic administration for HoLEP/TUEB in two groups, 1-day (single dose) cefazolin and 2-day cefazolin. The primary endpoint is the occurrence rate of postoperative urinary tract infection or urogenital

2019 F1000Research Controlled trial quality: predicted high

1808. Combined Endoscopic and Oral Fecal Microbiota Transplantation in Patients with Antibiotic-Dependent Pouchitis: Low Clinical Efficacy due to Low Donor Microbial Engraftment. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Combined Endoscopic and Oral Fecal Microbiota Transplantation in Patients with Antibiotic-Dependent Pouchitis: Low Clinical Efficacy due to Low Donor Microbial Engraftment. A significant number of pouch patients develop antibiotic-dependent pouchitis (ADP). Microbial dysbiosis is thought to be a major driver of clinical symptoms in ADP. The objective of this proof of concept study was to evaluate safety, efficacy, and donor microbial engraftment of an intensified fecal microbiota transplant (...) (FMT) consisting of a single endoscopic FMT followed by daily oral FMT for 2 weeks in patients with ADP.We performed a prospective placebo-controlled double-blind FMT trial in patents with established ADP and planned to enroll 20 patients in this proof of concept study. In case of non-response, patients were offered an optional open label active FMT treatment. The endpoints were safety, clinical remission without need for antibiotics during 16 weeks of follow-up, quantitative changes of fecal

2019 Inflammatory Intestinal Diseases Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1809. [Influence of systematic antibiotic prophylaxis and/or cystoscope cleaning/disinfecting method on urinary culture becoming positive after outpatient flexible cystoscopy.] (Abstract)

[Influence of systematic antibiotic prophylaxis and/or cystoscope cleaning/disinfecting method on urinary culture becoming positive after outpatient flexible cystoscopy.] To evaluate the efficacy of antibiotic prophylaxis as well as the cleaning/disinfection procedures to prevent urinary tract infection in patients undergoing office flexible cystoscopy.A prospective, randomized study was performed between June 2015 to May 2016 including every patient who underwent flexible cystoscopy (...) at the Urology outpatient unit. Patients with temporary or permanent urinary stents were excluded from the study as well as procedures that involved bladder biopsies. A total of 251 patients were recruited. Urinary culture was collected in all of the patients before and after the procedure. Patients were randomized in two groups: Antibiotic prophylaxis versus no prophylaxis. Antibiotic prophylaxis consisted in 4 doses of Norfloxacin ( 400mg ): twice a day during two days. Three different cleaning

2019 Archivos Espanoles de Urologia Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1810. Electronically delivered interventions to reduce antibiotic prescribing for respiratory infections in primary care: cluster RCT using electronic health records and cohort study. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Electronically delivered interventions to reduce antibiotic prescribing for respiratory infections in primary care: cluster RCT using electronic health records and cohort study. Unnecessary prescribing of antibiotics in primary care is contributing to the emergence of antimicrobial drug resistance.To develop and evaluate a multicomponent intervention for antimicrobial stewardship in primary care, and to evaluate the safety of reducing antibiotic prescribing for self-limiting respiratory (...) was smaller than initially intended.This study found evidence that, overall, general practice antibiotic prescribing for RTIs was reduced by this electronically delivered intervention. Antibiotic prescribing rates were reduced for adults aged 15-84 years, but not for children or the senior elderly.Strategies for antimicrobial stewardship should employ stratified interventions that are tailored to specific age groups. Further research into the safety of reduced antibiotic prescribing is also needed.Current

2019 Health technology assessment (Winchester, England) Controlled trial quality: predicted high

1811. The effectiveness of systemic antibiotic therapy with and without ethanol-locked solution in the treatment of hemodialysis-related catheter infection. Full Text available with Trip Pro

The effectiveness of systemic antibiotic therapy with and without ethanol-locked solution in the treatment of hemodialysis-related catheter infection. Bacterial overgrowth in the inner layer of the catheter as a biofilm is highly encountered in routine medical care, and it may occur in a few days after inserting a catheter as an access in hemodialysis (HD) patients. Catheter-induced bacteremia is often due to the development of biofilms. Locking catheters with antimicrobial agents (...) is an effective way of reducing the risk of catheter-related infection. In a controlled, randomized clinical trial, 64 chronic HD patients (32 men and 32 women with a mean age of 57.5 ± 15.6 years) were divided into case and control groups, with 32 patients in each group. The case group received systemic antibiotic and a lock of catheters with 60% ethanol and the control group received only systemic antibiotic. The results were evaluated after three weeks of treatment. The success rate of clearing infection

2019 Saudi journal of kidney diseases and transplantation : an official publication of the Saudi Center for Organ Transplantation, Saudi Arabia Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1812. One-day versus four-day antibiotic treatment for acute right colonic uncomplicated diverticulitis: A randomized clinical trial. Full Text available with Trip Pro

One-day versus four-day antibiotic treatment for acute right colonic uncomplicated diverticulitis: A randomized clinical trial. Currently, right colonic uncomplicated diverticulitis is typically treated with antibiotic therapy. However, the optimal duration of treatment is unknown. The aim of the present study was to compare the treatment failure rates between 1- and 4-day antibiotic treatment protocols.A prospective randomized study in adults presenting with uncomplicated diverticulitis (...) at the first episode from July 2011 to June 2014 was performed. Patients were randomized to receive intravenous antibiotics for 1 day (1-day group) or intravenous and oral antibiotics for 4 days (4-day group). All patients received cefmetazole and metronidazole. Treatment failure was defined as readmission within 30 days and disease recurrence during the follow-up period.Overall, 87 and 89 patients were randomized to the 1-day and 4-day groups, respectively. All patients were successfully treated initially

2019 The Turkish journal of gastroenterology : the official journal of Turkish Society of Gastroenterology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1813. No differences in microbiome changes between anti-adhesive and antibacterial ingredients in toothpastes during periodontal therapy. Full Text available with Trip Pro

No differences in microbiome changes between anti-adhesive and antibacterial ingredients in toothpastes during periodontal therapy. This subgroup analysis of a 12-week randomized, double-blind, and two-center trial aimed to evaluate whether two different toothpaste formulations can differentially modulate the dental microbiome.Forty one mild to moderate periodontitis patients used as an adjunct to periodontal treatment either a toothpaste with anti-adhesive zinc-substituted carbonated (...) hydroxyapatite (HA) or with antimicrobial and anti-adhesive amine fluoride/stannous fluoride (AmF/SnF2 ) during a 12-week period. Plaque samples from buccal/lingual, interproximal, and subgingival sites were taken at baseline, 4 weeks after oral hygiene phase, and 8 weeks after periodontal therapy. Samples were analyzed with paired-end Illumina Miseq 16S rDNA sequencing. The differences and changes on community level (alpha and beta diversity) and on the level of single agglomerated ribosomal sequence

2019 Journal of periodontal research Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1814. Antibiotic stewardship program in Intensive Care Unit: First report from Iran. (Abstract)

Antibiotic stewardship program in Intensive Care Unit: First report from Iran. Few data regarding antibiotic stewardship programs in critically ill patients are available. In the present study, the consequence of changing an empirical antibiotic regimen from a carbapenem (meropenem) to a noncarbapenem antibiotic (piperacillin-tazobactam) was evaluated in critically ill patients with a suspicion of sepsis.This open-label randomized clinical trial was conducted during May 2015-January 2017 (...) at the general Intensive Care Unit of the Imam Khomeini Hospital Complex, Tehran, Iran. In this study, a carbapenem (meropenem) or a noncarbapenem (piperacillin-tazobactam) antibiotic was considered as an empirical antibiotic regimen in 100 critically ill patients with a suspicion of sepsis. Clinical response and bacterial eradication were defined as primary and secondary outcomes of the study, respectively. Chi-square, Mann-Whitney, and independent sample t-tests were used for comparing variables between

2019 International journal of critical illness and injury science Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1815. Impact of Azithromycin-Based Extended-Spectrum Antibiotic Prophylaxis on Noninfectious Cesarean Wound Complications. (Abstract)

Impact of Azithromycin-Based Extended-Spectrum Antibiotic Prophylaxis on Noninfectious Cesarean Wound Complications.  Adding azithromycin to standard antibiotic prophylaxis for unscheduled cesarean delivery has been shown to reduce postcesarean infections. Because wound infection with ureaplasmas may not be overtly purulent, we assessed the hypothesis that azithromycin-based extended-spectrum antibiotic prophylaxis also reduces wound complications that are identified as noninfectious (...) . This is a secondary analysis of the C/SOAP (Cesarean Section Optimal Antibiotic Prophylaxis) randomized controlled trial, which enrolled women with singleton pregnancies ≥24 weeks who were undergoing nonelective cesarean. Women were randomized to adjunctive azithromycin or identical placebo up to 1 hour preincision. All wound complications occurring within 6 weeks were adjudicated into infection and noninfectious wound complications (seroma, hematoma, local cellulitis, and other noninfectious wound breakdown

2019 American journal of perinatology Controlled trial quality: predicted high

1816. The Effect of Non-penicillin Antibiotic Regimens on Neonatal Outcomes in Preterm Premature Rupture of Membranes. Full Text available with Trip Pro

The Effect of Non-penicillin Antibiotic Regimens on Neonatal Outcomes in Preterm Premature Rupture of Membranes. Objective  A 7-day course of a penicillin (PCN) and macrolide is standard of care (SAR) in preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM). Data regarding alternative antibiotic regimens are limited. We sought to assess the impact of non-PCN regimens on neonatal outcomes. Study Design  Secondary analysis of randomized controlled trial of antenatal magnesium sulfate. Singleton

2019 AJP Reports Controlled trial quality: predicted high

1817. Influence of a single preoperative dose of antibiotics on the early implant failure rate. A randomized clinical trial. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Influence of a single preoperative dose of antibiotics on the early implant failure rate. A randomized clinical trial. The use of a preoperative single dose of antibiotics as routine in conjunction with implant surgery is controversial, in light of the unclear effect on early implant failure rate and risk for development of resistant bacterial strains.This randomized clinical trial compared the early implant failure rates in two different patient cohorts: One group receiving a single dose (...) of preoperative antibiotics (AB group) and one group receiving no antibiotics, prior to implant surgery (noAB group).Patients were referred for treatment at four specialist clinics in the county council of West Sweden, Vastra Gotaland and randomly assigned into one of the two groups. A total of 447 patients received 963 implants were included in the study. Of these, 223 patients (535 implants) belonged to the AB-group and 224 patients (428 implants) to the noAB-group. Four commercial implant brands were

2019 Clinical implant dentistry and related research Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1818. Reducing inappropriate outpatient antibiotic prescribing: normative comparison using unblinded provider reports. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Reducing inappropriate outpatient antibiotic prescribing: normative comparison using unblinded provider reports. Antibiotic resistance is a global health issue. Up to 50% of antibiotics are inappropriately prescribed, the majority of which are for acute respiratory tract infections (ARTI).To evaluate the impact of unblinded normative comparison on rates of inappropriate antibiotic prescribing for ARTI.Non-randomised, controlled interventional trial over 1 year followed by an open intervention (...) in the second year.Primary care providers in a large regional healthcare system.The test group consisted of 30 primary care providers in one geographical region; controls consisted of 162 primary care providers located in four other geographical regions.The intervention consisted of provider and patient education and provider feedback via biweekly, unblinded normative comparison highlighting inappropriate antibiotic prescribing for ARTI. The intervention was applied to both groups during the second

2019 BMJ Open Quality Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1819. A protocol for a phase 3 multicentre randomised controlled trial of continuous versus intermittent β-lactam antibiotic infusion in critically ill patients with sepsis: BLING III. (Abstract)

A protocol for a phase 3 multicentre randomised controlled trial of continuous versus intermittent β-lactam antibiotic infusion in critically ill patients with sepsis: BLING III. β-Lactam antibiotics display a time-dependent mechanism of action, with evidence suggesting improved outcomes when administering these drugs via continuous infusion compared with standard intermittent infusion. However, there is no phase 3 randomised controlled trial (RCT) evidence to support one method (...) of administration over another in critically ill patients with sepsis.The β-Lactam Infusion Group (BLING) III study is a prospective, multicentre, open, phase 3 RCT to compare continuous infusion with standard intermittent infusion of β-lactam antibiotics in critically ill patients with sepsis. The study will be conducted in about 70 intensive care units (ICUs) in Australia, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, Belgium and selected other countries, from 2018 to 2021.BLING III will recruit 7000 critically ill

2019 Critical care and resuscitation : journal of the Australasian Academy of Critical Care Medicine Controlled trial quality: predicted high

1820. Effects of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product on liver abscesses, fecal microbiome, and resistome in feedlot cattle raised without antibiotics. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Effects of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product on liver abscesses, fecal microbiome, and resistome in feedlot cattle raised without antibiotics. Liver abscesses in feedlot cattle form secondary to high concentrate feeds and rumen acidosis. Antimicrobial drugs are commonly included in cattle feed for prevention of liver abscesses, but concerns regarding antimicrobial resistance have increased the need for alternative treatments. A block randomized clinical trial was conducted (...) to evaluate the effects of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product (SCFP) on liver abscesses, fecal microbiomes, and resistomes in cattle raised without antibiotics in a Colorado feedlot. At enrollment, steers (n = 4,689) were sorted, by weight and source, into 2 pens comprising a block (n = 14 blocks, 28 pens); pens were randomly allocated to either the control group or the treatment group, where the diet was supplemented with SCFP. Prior to harvest, composited feces were collected

2019 Scientific reports Controlled trial quality: uncertain

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