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1761. The effect of antibiotics on the clinical outcomes of patients with solid cancers undergoing immune checkpoint inhibitor treatment: a retrospective study. Full Text available with Trip Pro

The effect of antibiotics on the clinical outcomes of patients with solid cancers undergoing immune checkpoint inhibitor treatment: a retrospective study. This study aimed to assess the effect of antibiotics on the clinical outcomes of patients with solid cancers undergoing treatment with immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs).The medical records of 234 patients treated with ICIs for any type of solid cancer between February 2012 and May 2018 at the Seoul St. Mary's Hospital were retrospectively (...) reviewed. The data of patients who received antibiotics within 60 days before the initiation of ICI treatment were analyzed. The patients' responses to ICI treatment and their survival were evaluated.Non-small-cell lung carcinoma was the most common type of cancer. About half of the patients were treated with nivolumab (51.9%), and cephalosporin (35.2%) was the most commonly used class of antibiotics. The total objective response rate was 21%. Antibiotics use was associated with a decreased objective

2019 BMC Cancer

1762. Upper Gastrointestinal Perforations: A Possible Danger of Antibiotic Overuse. (Abstract)

Upper Gastrointestinal Perforations: A Possible Danger of Antibiotic Overuse. The role of changes in gut microflora on upper gastrointestinal (UGI) perforations is not known. We conducted a retrospective case-control study to examine the relationship between antibiotic exposure-a proxy for microbiome modulation-and UGI perforations in a national sample.We queried a 5% random sample of Medicare (2009-2013) to identify patients ≥ 65 years old hospitalized with UGI (stomach or small intestine (...) ) perforations using International Classification of Diseases diagnosis codes. Cases with UGI perforations were matched with 4 controls, each based on age and sex. Exposure to outpatient antibiotics (0-30, 31-60, 61-90 days) prior to case patients' index hospitalization admission data was determined with Part D claims. Univariate and multivariable regression analyses were performed to evaluate the effect of antibiotic exposure on UGI perforation.Overall, 504 cases and 2016 matched controls were identified

2019 Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery

1763. Postoperative Antibiotic Use Among Patients Undergoing Functional Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. (Abstract)

Postoperative Antibiotic Use Among Patients Undergoing Functional Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Best practices for antibiotic use after facial plastic and reconstructive procedures have been the subject of much debate, and there is a need for large-scale data to guide further development of evidence-based guidelines for antibiotic use in this setting.To assess patterns of postoperative antibiotic prescriptions and infection rates after nasal and oculoplastic procedures.A (...) , 2007, to December 31, 2016.Primary outcomes were antibiotic prescription patterns in the immediate postoperative period and rates of postoperative infectious complications. Explanatory variables included patient demographics, procedure type, and relevant comorbidities, which were used in multivariable logistic regression analysis.Of the 294 039 patients who met inclusion criteria (55.9% women and 44.1% men; mean [SD] age, 54.0 [18.6 years]), 45.2% filled prescriptions for postoperative antibiotics

2019 JAMA facial plastic surgery

1764. Antibiotic ointment versus a silver-based dressing for children with extremity burns: A randomized controlled study. (Abstract)

Antibiotic ointment versus a silver-based dressing for children with extremity burns: A randomized controlled study.

2019 Journal of Pediatric Surgery

1765. Urinary tract infections in a university hospital: pathogens and antibiotic susceptibility. (Abstract)

Urinary tract infections in a university hospital: pathogens and antibiotic susceptibility. A substantial group of patients visit the emergency department (ED) with complaints of urinary tract infections (UTI). Treatment advice is based on national and local public health surveillance data. It is unclear whether this advice is adequate for hospitals with selected patient populations, such as university hospitals.We performed a retrospective study on patients visiting the ED of the Erasmus (...) University Medical Center (Erasmus MC) in the Netherlands from January 1st, 2013 until December 31st, 2014 with a suspected complicated UTI (cUTI) and positive urinary cultures. Patient data, data concerning the ED visit and microbiological data were analysed.439 patients visited the ED, of whom 429 had a cUTI. Our results were compared with NethMap data. Distribution of uropathogens was comparable with the overall distribution in the Netherlands. Antibiotic susceptibility was comparable for intravenous

2019 Netherlands Journal of Medicine

1766. Learning from our mistakes: using key opportunities to remove the perverse incentives that help drive antibiotic resistance. (Abstract)

Learning from our mistakes: using key opportunities to remove the perverse incentives that help drive antibiotic resistance. Introduction: Governments need to do far more to help curb the emergence and transmission of antibiotic resistance and help protect the efficacy of any new antibiotics that come to the market. Industry is an important stakeholder that must be brought on-board such efforts given its influence on the direction and scale of antibiotic sales. Financial incentives supporting (...) industry R&D of novel antibiotics should structurally remove the drivers of superfluous sales and encourage access to newer antibiotics where infections are otherwise resistant to treatment. Indeed, the use of public money provides an important opportunity to prioritize these public health goals within market structures such that we both adequately reward industry for their efforts and prolong antibiotic efficacy for as long as possible.Areas covered: This work discusses possible financial 'pull

2019 Expert review of pharmacoeconomics & outcomes research

1767. Species, antibiotic susceptibility profiles and van gene frequencies among enterococci isolated from patients at Mulago National Referral Hospital in Kampala, Uganda. (Abstract)

Species, antibiotic susceptibility profiles and van gene frequencies among enterococci isolated from patients at Mulago National Referral Hospital in Kampala, Uganda.

2019 BMC Infectious Diseases

1768. Prosthetic valve endocarditis caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa with variable antibacterial resistance profiles: a diagnostic challenge. (Abstract)

Prosthetic valve endocarditis caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa with variable antibacterial resistance profiles: a diagnostic challenge.

2019 BMC Infectious Diseases

1770. Laboratory confirmed puerperal sepsis in a national referral hospital in Tanzania: etiological agents and their susceptibility to commonly prescribed antibiotics. (Abstract)

Laboratory confirmed puerperal sepsis in a national referral hospital in Tanzania: etiological agents and their susceptibility to commonly prescribed antibiotics.

2019 BMC Infectious Diseases

1771. Trend of antibiotics usage for acute pyelonephritis in Korea based on national health insurance data 2010-2014. (Abstract)

Trend of antibiotics usage for acute pyelonephritis in Korea based on national health insurance data 2010-2014.

2019 BMC Infectious Diseases

1772. Intra-abdominal infections: the role of different classifications on the selection of the best antibiotic treatment. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Intra-abdominal infections: the role of different classifications on the selection of the best antibiotic treatment. Intra-abdominal infections (IAIs) represent a most frequent gastrointestinal emergency and serious cause of morbimortality. A full classification, including all facets of IAIs, does not exist. Two classifications are used to subdivide IAIs: uncomplicated or complicated, considering infection extent; and community-acquired, healthcare-associated or hospital-acquired, regarding (...) the place of acquisition. Adequacy of initial empirical antibiotic therapy prescribed is an essential need. Inadequate antibiotic therapy is associated with treatment failure and increased mortality. This study was designed to determine accuracy of different classifications of IAIs to identify infections by pathogens sensitive to current treatment guidelines helping the selection of the best antibiotic therapy.A retrospective cohort study including all adult patients discharged from hospital

2019 BMC Infectious Diseases

1773. Co-existence of virulence factors and antibiotic resistance in new Klebsiella pneumoniae clones emerging in south of Italy. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Co-existence of virulence factors and antibiotic resistance in new Klebsiella pneumoniae clones emerging in south of Italy. Endemic presence of Klebsiella pneumoniae resistant to carbapenem in Italy has been due principally to the clonal expansion of CC258 isolates; however, recent studies suggest an ongoing epidemiological change in this geographical area.50 K. pneumoniae strains, 25 carbapenem-resistant (CR-Kp) and 25 susceptible (CS-Kp), collected from march 2014 to march 2016 (...) at the Laboratory of Bacteriology of the Paolo Giaccone Polyclinic University hospital of Palermo, Italy, were characterized for antibiotic susceptibility and fully sequenced by next generation sequencing (NGS) for the in silico analysis of resistome, virulome, multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) and core single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotypes RESULTS: MLST in silico analysis of CR-Kp showed that 52% of isolates belonged to CC258, followed by ST395 (12%), ST307 (12%), ST392 (8%), ST348 (8%), ST405 (4

2019 BMC Infectious Diseases

1775. The European gonococcal antimicrobial surveillance programme (Euro-GASP) appropriately reflects the antimicrobial resistance situation for Neisseria gonorrhoeae in the European Union/European Economic Area. Full Text available with Trip Pro

The European gonococcal antimicrobial surveillance programme (Euro-GASP) appropriately reflects the antimicrobial resistance situation for Neisseria gonorrhoeae in the European Union/European Economic Area. European Gonococcal Antimicrobial Surveillance Programme (Euro-GASP) antimicrobial resistance (AMR) data are used to inform gonorrhoea treatment guidelines; therefore the data need to be robust and representative. We assessed the extent to which Euro-GASP reflects national measures

2019 BMC Infectious Diseases

1776. First-line antibiotic susceptibility pattern of toxigenic Corynebacterium diphtheriae in Indonesia. Full Text available with Trip Pro

First-line antibiotic susceptibility pattern of toxigenic Corynebacterium diphtheriae in Indonesia. Diphtheria has been reported as an outbreak in some regions in Indonesia, most especially in East Java Province. Resistance to penicillin, erythromycin, and other antibiotics, single or multiple, has been reported in several studies. This study aims to evaluate the first-line antibiotic susceptibility pattern of toxigenic Corynebacterium diphtheriae isolates.This descriptive observational study (...) was performed from August to November 2018. C. diphtheriae isolates were collected from diphtheria patients and carriers in East Java from 2012 to 2017 and kept at the Balai Besar Laboratorium Kesehatan Daerah Surabaya or the Public Health Laboratory of Surabaya. Sample selection was done by random cluster sampling. The sensitivity test by E-test®of the five antibiotics (penicillin, oxacillin, erythromycin, azithromycin, and clarithromycin) was done to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC

2019 BMC Infectious Diseases

1777. Mathematical modelling for antibiotic resistance control policy: do we know enough? Full Text available with Trip Pro

Mathematical modelling for antibiotic resistance control policy: do we know enough? Antibiotics remain the cornerstone of modern medicine. Yet there exists an inherent dilemma in their use: we are able to prevent harm by administering antibiotic treatment as necessary to both humans and animals, but we must be mindful of limiting the spread of resistance and safeguarding the efficacy of antibiotics for current and future generations. Policies that strike the right balance must be informed (...) by a transparent rationale that relies on a robust evidence base.One way to generate the evidence base needed to inform policies for managing antibiotic resistance is by using mathematical models. These models can distil the key drivers of the dynamics of resistance transmission from complex infection and evolutionary processes, as well as predict likely responses to policy change in silico. Here, we ask whether we know enough about antibiotic resistance for mathematical modelling to robustly and effectively

2019 BMC Infectious Diseases

1778. Etiology of childhood diarrhoea among under five children and molecular analysis of antibiotic resistance in isolated enteric bacterial pathogens from a tertiary care hospital, Eastern Odisha, India. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Etiology of childhood diarrhoea among under five children and molecular analysis of antibiotic resistance in isolated enteric bacterial pathogens from a tertiary care hospital, Eastern Odisha, India. Although, India has made steady progress in reducing deaths in children younger than 5 years, the proportional mortality accounted by diarrhoeal diseases still remains high. The present hospital based cross sectional study was carried out to understand the prevalence of various bacterial pathogens (...) associated with the diarrhoea cases in under 5 years age group.During, 1st September, 2015 to 30th November 2017, all the childhood diarrhoea cases (≤5 yrs) of SCB Medical College in Odisha, India were included in the study. Stool samples were collected and processed for the isolation of causative bacterial pathogen and the isolated bacterial pathogens were subjected to antibiotic sensitivity testing, molecular analysis of drug resistance. Clinical and demographic data were collected and analyzed.Three

2019 BMC Infectious Diseases

1779. Nasopharyngeal carriage, spa types and antibiotic susceptibility profiles of Staphylococcus aureus from healthy children less than 5 years in Eastern Uganda. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Nasopharyngeal carriage, spa types and antibiotic susceptibility profiles of Staphylococcus aureus from healthy children less than 5 years in Eastern Uganda. Staphylococcus aureus carriage is a known risk factor for staphylococcal disease. However, the carriage rates vary by country, demographic group and profession. This study aimed to determine the S. aureus carriage rate in children in Eastern Uganda, and identify S. aureus lineages that cause infection in Uganda.Nasopharyngeal samples from (...) 742 healthy children less than 5 years residing in the Iganga/Mayuge Health and Demographic Surveillance Site in Eastern Uganda were processed for isolation of S. aureus. Antibiotic susceptibility testing based on minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) was determined by the BD Phoenix™ system. Genotyping was performed by spa and SCCmec typing.The processed samples yielded 144 S. aureus isolates (one per child) therefore, the S. aureus carriage rate in children was 19.4% (144/742). Thirty one

2019 BMC Infectious Diseases

1780. Antibiotics prescription and guidelines adherence in elderly: impact of the comorbidities. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Antibiotics prescription and guidelines adherence in elderly: impact of the comorbidities. Although the interest of antibiotics is well known, antibiotics prescription is associated with side effect, especially in patients with multiples comorbidities. One way to reduce the incidence of side effects is to respect antibiotics prescriptions guidelines. Our objective was to investigated the factors associated with guidelines adherence in elderly patients with multiples comorbidities.From October (...) 2015 to December 2016, antibiotics prescription and guidelines adherence were analyzed in two post-acute care and rehabilitation services of a 2600-bed, university-affiliated center.One hundred and twenty-eight patients were included, fifty-nine (46%) patients had antibiotics prescription according to guidelines. In Multivariable logistic regression analysis, prescription of 2 antibiotics or more (OR = 0.168, 95% IC = 0.037-0.758, p < 0.05), 85 years of age and more (OR = 0.375, 95% IC = 0.151

2019 BMC Geriatrics

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