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antibiotics

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136601. Reduction in antibiotic use among US children, 1996-2000. (Abstract)

for these trends, and changes in the use of first-line antimicrobial agents.We analyzed claims data for dispensed medications and physician visits from 9 health plans. Each provided data on 25,000 children aged 3 months to <18 years enrolled between September 1, 1995, and August 31, 2000. Antibiotic dispensings were linked with an ambulatory visit claim to assign diagnosis. Antibiotic dispensings per person-year (antibiotics/p-y) were calculated for the age groups 3 months to <3 years, 3 years to <6 years (...) Reduction in antibiotic use among US children, 1996-2000. High rates of antibiotic prescribing to children contribute to antibiotic resistance in the community. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, in collaboration with other national and state level organizations, have actively promoted more judicious prescribing for children.We sought to assess changes in the rate of antibiotic prescribing from 1996-2000 in 9 US health plans, patterns of diagnosis and treatment responsible

2003 Pediatrics

136602. Treatment of osteomyelitis with local antibiotics delivered via bioabsorbable polymer. (Abstract)

Treatment of osteomyelitis with local antibiotics delivered via bioabsorbable polymer. The purpose of the current study was to show the efficacy and safety of an absorbable polymer (polycaprolactone) as an antibiotic delivery vehicle for treatment of osteomyelitis. An intramedullary osteomyelitis was induced in the femur of adult rabbits by Staphylococcus aureus inoculation after use of a sclerosing agent, and then treatment was done with intramedullary irrigation and implantation of a rod made (...) treated with antibiotic-laden rods of polycaprolactone or polymethylmethacrylate. There was no difference between the antibiotic rod types. No histologic evidence of toxicity was found. Bioabsorbable rods of polycaprolactone are a safe and effective means of antibiotic delivery for treatment of osteomyelitis.

2003 Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research

136603. Antibiotic therapy in gunshot wound injuries. (Abstract)

Antibiotic therapy in gunshot wound injuries. Protocols for antibiotic prophylaxis in the treatment of fractures caused by gunshots have not been delineated clearly in the literature to date. The current review of the literature reveals that antibiotic therapy for treatment of these fractures is predicated on the muzzle velocity of the weapon used to inflict the fracture. General consensus has been reached regarding the requirement of at least 24 hours of intravenous antibiotic treatment (...) in fractures caused by high-velocity weapons in conjunction with the appropriate wound and fracture care. Similarly, in fractures caused by shotguns, thorough wound debridement and 24- to 48-hour administration of intravenous antibiotics is necessary. However, in fractures caused by low-velocity weapons, there is not a preponderance of the evidence showing that there is a distinct advantage to using antibiotic prophylaxis in these injuries. Special clinical consideration must be given regarding the use

2003 Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research

136604. Treatment of experimental osteomyelitis with a fibrin sealant antibiotic implant. (Abstract)

Treatment of experimental osteomyelitis with a fibrin sealant antibiotic implant. Two methods currently are available for the delivery of antibiotics: intravenous injection with a long-term indwelling catheter and local implant of antibiotic-containing polymethylmethacrylate beads. Both of these methods have significant disadvantages. A fibrin sealant implant, impregnated with tobramycin, was evaluated in a rabbit model of osteomyelitis to determine whether it has the potential of supplying (...) a basis for bone reconstruction and providing an improved treatment method for the delivery of antibiotics to orthopaedic infections. Localized tibial osteomyelitis, with methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus, was developed surgically in female New Zealand White rabbits. After 2 weeks, rabbits with evidence of osteomyelitis were treated with debridement alone, debridement plus systemic tobramycin, debridement plus fibrin sealant, debridement plus fibrin sealant loaded with tobramycin

2002 Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research

136605. Mechanical characteristics of antibiotic-laden bone cement. (Abstract)

Mechanical characteristics of antibiotic-laden bone cement. We studied the mechanical characteristics of cement-antibiotic combinations in vitro. Palacos R was tested without antibiotics, with gentamicin alone and with gentamicin plus vancomycin or flucloxacillin. Palacos LV was studied only with gentamicin added. CMW 1 was studied with gentamicin added, with gentamicin plus vancomycin, and with gentamicin plus flucloxacillin. We performed four-point bending tests on beams of cement

2002 Acta Orthopaedica Scandinavica

136606. Electromagnetic augmentation of antibiotic efficacy in infection of orthopaedic implants. (Abstract)

Electromagnetic augmentation of antibiotic efficacy in infection of orthopaedic implants. Infection of orthopaedic implants is a significant problem, with increased antibiotic resistance of adherent 'biofilm' bacteria causing difficulties in treatment. We have investigated the in vitro effect of a pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) on the efficacy of antibiotics in the treatment of infection of implants. Five-day biofilms of Staphylococcus epidermidis were grown on the tips of stainless-steel (...) pegs. They were exposed for 12 hours to varying concentrations of gentamicin or vancomycin in microtitre trays at 37 degrees C and 5% CO2. The test group were exposed to a PEMF. The control tray was not exposed to a PEMF. After exposure to antibiotic the pegs were incubated overnight, before standard plating onto blood agar for colony counting. Exposure to a PEMF increased the effectiveness of gentamicin against the five-day biofilms of Staphylococcus epidermidis. In three of five experiments

2003 The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery British Volume

136607. Endophthalmitis caused by enterococcus faecalis: antibiotic selection and treatment outcomes. (Abstract)

Endophthalmitis caused by enterococcus faecalis: antibiotic selection and treatment outcomes. To investigate clinical settings, treatment strategies, and visual acuity outcomes of endophthalmitis caused by Enterococcus faecalis and to determine antibiotic sensitivity and resistance patterns.Retrospective, noncomparative, consecutive case series.Records were reviewed of all patients with culture-positive endophthalmitis caused by E. faecalis evaluated at the Bascom Palmer Eye Institute between (...) January 1, 1990, and December 31, 2001.Associated prior surgical procedures, clinical features, treatments administered, antibiotic sensitivity and resistance patterns, and final visual outcomes.Endophthalmitis caused by E. faecalis was identified in 29 eyes of 29 patients. The mean follow-up was 17.8 months (range, 0.1-86.7 months). Endophthalmitis caused by E. faecalis was associated with, in order of decreasing frequency, cataract surgery in 12 of 29 eyes (41.4%), trabeculectomy in 8 of 29 eyes

2003 Ophthalmology

136608. Antibiotic resistance patterns of ocular bacterial flora: a prospective study of patients undergoing anterior segment surgery. (Abstract)

Antibiotic resistance patterns of ocular bacterial flora: a prospective study of patients undergoing anterior segment surgery. To determine the antibiotic susceptibility patterns of conjunctival bacterial flora isolated preoperatively from patients undergoing anterior segment surgery.Prospective observational study.One hundred fifty-six eyes from 139 patients scheduled for anterior segment surgery were enrolled over a 6-month period from August 2001 to February 2002.Conjunctival cultures were (...) obtained on the day of surgery before povidone-iodine or antibiotic application.Bacterial isolates were identified and tested for antibiotic susceptibility using the Kirby-Bauer disc-diffusion technique.Among the 156 eyes studied, 36 were from patients who had undergone either bilateral surgery or more than one surgery in the same eye. Only the first eyes of the 120 patients that underwent initial ocular surgery were included in our analysis. Of these 120 eyes, 21 (18%) showed no bacterial growth

2003 Ophthalmology

136609. Investigation of prevalence of MRSA in referrals to neurosurgery: implications for antibiotic prophylaxis. (Abstract)

Investigation of prevalence of MRSA in referrals to neurosurgery: implications for antibiotic prophylaxis. In order to establish the appropriateness of our current prophylactic antibiotic regimen we analysed the prevalence of MRSA in emergency referrals to our unit. MRSA screening records for all emergency admissions for a 3-month period were analysed. One-hundred-and-seventy-five patients were admitted as transfers from another hospital. Evidence of screening was found in 61% (107 patients (...) compared with cefuroxime alone. Vancomycin had minimal additional benefit over cefuroxime plus gentamicin (NNT: 1684). We conclude that MRSA carriage is common in patients referred as emergencies from other hospitals. Cefuroxime plus gentamicin can be used as antibiotic prophylaxis in this group. Vancomycin can be reserved for patients known to be colonized with MRSA (NNT: 51).

2002 British Journal of Neurosurgery

136610. Biocide use and antibiotic resistance: the relevance of laboratory findings to clinical and environmental situations. (Abstract)

resistance may be stable or unstable and may be accompanied by a low-level increase in antibiotic resistance. Laboratory studies are useful for examining stress responses and basic mechanisms of action and of bacterial insusceptibility to antibacterial agents. Translation of such findings to the clinical and environmental situations to provide evidence of a possible relation between biocide use and clinical antibiotic resistance is difficult and should be viewed with caution. (...) Biocide use and antibiotic resistance: the relevance of laboratory findings to clinical and environmental situations. Antibiotics are used as chemotherapeutic drugs, and biocides are used as antiseptics, disinfectants, and preservatives. Several factors affect biocidal activity, notably concentration, period of contact, pH, temperature, the presence of interfering material, and the types, numbers, location, and condition of microorganisms. Bacterial cells as part of natural or artificial

2003 Lancet infectious diseases

136611. Phase I and pharmacokinetic study of docetaxel in combination with epirubicin and cyclophosphamide in advanced cancer: dose escalation possible with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, but not with prophylactic antibiotics. (Abstract)

Phase I and pharmacokinetic study of docetaxel in combination with epirubicin and cyclophosphamide in advanced cancer: dose escalation possible with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, but not with prophylactic antibiotics. The objective of this phase I trial was to determine the maximally tolerated doses of the combination of docetaxel, epirubicin and cyclophosphamide.Patients with advanced cancer, World Health Organization (WHO) performance status 0 to 2, who had received up to one prior

2002 Annals of Oncology

136612. Early-life exposure to antibacterials and the subsequent development of hayfever in childhood in the UK: case-control studies using the General Practice Research Database and the Doctors' Independent Network. (Abstract)

Early-life exposure to antibacterials and the subsequent development of hayfever in childhood in the UK: case-control studies using the General Practice Research Database and the Doctors' Independent Network. Theoretically, antibacterial agents in early life might influence allergic sensitization in two ways: (i) as an indicator of infectious illness, they might be expected to protect against allergy; (ii) alternatively they might increase the risk through effects on the commensal bowel flora (...) . Epidemiological evidence linking the prescription of antibacterial agents in early life to the subsequent development of hayfever is conflicting.To establish definitively whether an association exists between early-life antibacterial exposure and childhood hayfever diagnosis.Nested case-control studies were based on birth cohorts of children identified within two large UK general practice databases of electronic patient records. One hundred and sixteen thousand and four hundred and ninety-three children from

2003 Clinical and Experimental Allergy

136613. The economic burden of antibiotic treatment of penicillin-allergic patients in internal medicine wards of a general tertiary care hospital. (Abstract)

The economic burden of antibiotic treatment of penicillin-allergic patients in internal medicine wards of a general tertiary care hospital. Penicillin allergy poses a major problem in the management of infectious diseases.We estimated the costs and usage of antibiotic treatment of 'penicillin-allergic' patients in comparison to non-allergic patients in a tertiary care hospital.The study was based on the records of 118 randomly chosen in-hospital patients labelled as being 'allergic (...) to penicillin' and who were treated with antibiotics. The antibiotic selection and cost of the patients with alleged penicillin allergy were compared to 118 matched patients without an antibiotic allergy (controls).During in-hospital treatment, the mean antibiotic cost for penicillin-allergic patients was 63% higher than the cost for the controls. In addition, there was a 38% higher cost of the recommended anti-microbial treatment regimen to be followed upon discharge by the former compared

2003 Clinical and Experimental Allergy

136614. Kuwanon G: an antibacterial agent from the root bark of Morus alba against oral pathogens. (Abstract)

Kuwanon G: an antibacterial agent from the root bark of Morus alba against oral pathogens. Kuwanon G was isolated from the ethyl acetate fraction of methanol extract of Morus alba and its structure was elucidated by 13C-NMR, 1H-NMR and FAB-MS. Antibacterial activity of kuwanon G was investigated by the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) test and the viable cell count method. MIC of kuwanon G against Streptococcus mutans causing dental caries was determined to be 8.0 microg/ml

2003 Journal of Ethnopharmacology

136615. Antibacterial activity of Leontopodium alpinum (Edelweiss). (Abstract)

Antibacterial activity of Leontopodium alpinum (Edelweiss). Extracts and individual constituents of Leontopodium alpinum Cass. (Asteraceae) were tested for their antimicrobial activity in two different assays. Extracts were screened in agar diffusion assays, whereas the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of single compounds were determined by the microbroth dilution method according to NCCLS criteria. Significant antimicrobial activities were found against various strains of Enterococcus

2003 Journal of Ethnopharmacology

136616. Ethnobotany and antibacterial activity of some plants used in traditional medicine of Zapotitlán de las Salinas, Puebla (México). (Abstract)

Ethnobotany and antibacterial activity of some plants used in traditional medicine of Zapotitlán de las Salinas, Puebla (México). The village of Zapotitlán de las Salinas is situated in the Valley of Tehuacán-Cuicatlán, Puebla, Mexico. Plant species used by the local inhabitants to treat gastrointestinal diseases were identified using ethnobotanical, ethnographic and taxonomic methods. Out of 119 interviews, 44 plant species were registered, of which the following are the most frequently used (...) their antibacterial activity against 14 bacterial strains causing the most common gastrointestinal diseases in Mexican population. All hexane extracts showed antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. There is a correlation between the frequency of mention (of plant use) and the antibacterial activity. In conclusion, the knowledge of plants most frequently used for gastrointestinal infections in Zapotitlán de las Salinas is supported by scientific rationale.

2003 Journal of Ethnopharmacology

136617. Antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activities of some plants used for medicinal purposes in Kenya. (Abstract)

Antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activities of some plants used for medicinal purposes in Kenya. Aqueous, hexane and methanol extracts of 12 plant species, traditionally used in Kenya for treatment of ailments of infectious and/or inflammatory nature were screened for in vitro antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activities. Antibacterial activity was tested using the agar diffusion method while anti-inflammatory activity was tested using the cyclooxygenase (COX-1) assay. All (...) the antibacterial activity was against Gram-positive bacteria with nine plant species showing some activity against Staphylococcus aureus. The highest activity was found in the methanol extracts of Maytenus senegalensis, Plectranthus barbatus, Zanthoxylum chalybeum, Zanthoxylum usambarense and hexane extracts of Spiranthes mauritianum. All the plant species showed some anti-inflammatory activities. In most cases, methanol extracts caused higher inhibition than aqueous and hexane extracts.

2003 Journal of Ethnopharmacology

136618. Antibacterial activity of two plant extracts on eight burn pathogens. (Abstract)

Antibacterial activity of two plant extracts on eight burn pathogens. Antibacterial activity of crude alcoholic extract of Datura alba and Celosia argentea leaves were studied against pathogens isolated from infected burn patients. The disc-diffusion method showed significant zone of lysis against all the pathogens studied and the results are comparable to the conventional antibiotic cream namely Silver Sulphadiazine (SSD). On comparing the efficiency of the two extracts, extract of D. alba (...) exhibited more than 50% increase in antibacterial activity compared to C. argentea.

2003 Journal of Ethnopharmacology

136619. Screening seeds of Scottish plants for antibacterial activity. (Abstract)

Screening seeds of Scottish plants for antibacterial activity. Based on ethnopharmacological and taxonomic information, seeds of 21 Scottish plant species from 14 different families were obtained from authentic seed suppliers. Their n-hexane, dichloromethane and methanol extracts were assessed for antibacterial activity against 11 pathogenic bacterial species. Methanol extracts of 11 plant species showed significant antibacterial activity. Malva moschata and Prunus padus were active against

2002 Journal of Ethnopharmacology

136620. Phenolic antibacterials from Piper betle in the prevention of halitosis. (Abstract)

Phenolic antibacterials from Piper betle in the prevention of halitosis. Piper betle L. (Piperaceae) leaves which are traditionally used in India and China in the prevention of oral malodor was examined by bioassay-guided fractionation to yield allylpyrocatechol (APC) as the major active principle which showed promising activity against obligate oral anaerobes responsible for halitosis. The biological studies with APC indicated that the potential to reduce methylmercaptan and hydrogen sulfide

2002 Journal of Ethnopharmacology

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