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139721. Agricultural use of antibiotics and the evolution and transfer of antibiotic-resistant bacteria Full Text available with Trip Pro

Agricultural use of antibiotics and the evolution and transfer of antibiotic-resistant bacteria Microbial Resistance to antibiotics is on the rise, in part because of inappropriate use of antibiotics in human medicine but also because of practices in the agricultural industry. Intensive animal production involves giving livestock animals large quantities of antibiotics to promote growth and prevent infection. These uses promote the selection of antibiotic resistance in bacterial populations (...) . The resistant bacteria from agricultural environments may be transmitted to humans, in whom they cause disease that cannot be treated by conventional antibiotics. The author reviews trends in antibiotic use in animal husbandry and agriculture in general. The development of resistance is described, along with the genetic mechanisms that create resistance and facilitate its spread among bacterial species. Particular aspects of resistance in bacterial species common to both the human population

1998 CMAJ: Canadian Medical Association Journal

139722. Resistance to antibiotics : Prescribing of antibiotics needs to be rational Full Text available with Trip Pro

Resistance to antibiotics : Prescribing of antibiotics needs to be rational 9831591 1999 01 07 2018 11 13 0959-8138 317 7171 1998 Nov 28 BMJ (Clinical research ed.) BMJ Resistance to antibiotics. Prescribing of antibiotics needs to be rational. 1521 Pearson P P McWhinney P P Stanley P P eng Comment Letter England BMJ 8900488 0959-8138 AIM IM BMJ. 1998 Apr 25;316(7140):1255-6 9554890 BMJ. 1998 Apr 25;316(7140):1261 9599047 Advertising as Topic Drug Resistance, Microbial Humans Periodicals

1998 BMJ : British Medical Journal

139723. Contributors to antibiotic resistance : Antibiotics should not be first treatment for acne Full Text available with Trip Pro

Contributors to antibiotic resistance : Antibiotics should not be first treatment for acne 10066222 1999 04 22 2018 11 13 0959-8138 318 7184 1999 Mar 06 BMJ (Clinical research ed.) BMJ Contributors to antibiotic resistance. Antibiotics should not be first treatment for acne. 669 Cheesbrough M J MJ Royal Infirmary, Huddersfield HD3 3EA. eng Letter England BMJ 8900488 0959-8138 0 Anti-Bacterial Agents AIM IM Acne Vulgaris drug therapy Anti-Bacterial Agents therapeutic use Drug Resistance

1999 BMJ : British Medical Journal

139724. In Vitro Antibacterial Activities of Platelet Microbicidal Protein and Neutrophil Defensin against Staphylococcus aureus Are Influenced by Antibiotics Differing in Mechanism of Action Full Text available with Trip Pro

In Vitro Antibacterial Activities of Platelet Microbicidal Protein and Neutrophil Defensin against Staphylococcus aureus Are Influenced by Antibiotics Differing in Mechanism of Action Thrombin-induced platelet microbicidal protein-1 (tPMP-1) and human neutrophil defensin-1 (HNP-1) are small, cationic antimicrobial peptides. These peptides exert potent in vitro microbicidal activity against a broad spectrum of human pathogens, including Staphylococcus aureus. Evidence suggests that tPMP-1 (...) and HNP-1 target and disrupt the bacterial membrane. However, it is not yet clear whether membrane disruption itself is sufficient to kill the bacterium or whether subsequent, presumably intracellular, events are also involved in killing. We investigated the staphylocidal activities of tPMP-1 and HNP-1 in the presence or absence of pretreatment with antibiotics that differ in their mechanisms of action. The staphylocidal effects of tPMP-1 and HNP-1 on control cells (no antibiotic pretreatment) were

1999 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

139725. Controlling antibiotic resistance by quelling the epidemic of overuse and misuse of antibiotics. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Controlling antibiotic resistance by quelling the epidemic of overuse and misuse of antibiotics. 9789653 1998 11 16 2018 11 13 0008-350X 44 1998 Sep Canadian family physician Medecin de famille canadien Can Fam Physician Controlling antibiotic resistance by quelling the epidemic of overuse and misuse of antibiotics. 1769-73, 1780-4 Conly J J eng fre Comment Editorial Review Canada Can Fam Physician 0120300 0008-350X 0 Anti-Bacterial Agents IM Can Fam Physician. 1998 Sep;44:1881-8 9789668 Anti

1998 Canadian Family Physician

139726. In Vitro Antibacterial Activity of LJC 11,036, an Active Metabolite of L-084, a New Oral Carbapenem Antibiotic with Potent Antipneumococcal Activity Full Text available with Trip Pro

In Vitro Antibacterial Activity of LJC 11,036, an Active Metabolite of L-084, a New Oral Carbapenem Antibiotic with Potent Antipneumococcal Activity LJC 11,036 is the active metabolite of L-084, a novel oral carbapenem that exhibits potent broad-spectrum activity. Antibacterial activities of LJC 11,036 against clinical isolates from respiratory infections, such as Streptococcus pneumoniae (n = 52), Streptococcus pyogenes (n = 19), Haemophilus influenzae (n = 50), Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 53

1999 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

139727. Stability of Antibiotics Used for Antibiotic-Lock Treatment of Infections of Implantable Venous Devices (Ports) Full Text available with Trip Pro

Stability of Antibiotics Used for Antibiotic-Lock Treatment of Infections of Implantable Venous Devices (Ports) Antibiotic-lock is a treatment for catheter-related bloodstream infections in which a solution containing heparin and an antibiotic dwells in the lumen of the catheter or port. We tested the stability of vancomycin, cefazolin, ticarcillin-clavulanic acid, ceftazidime, or ciprofloxacin combined with heparin after incubation in vitro at 25 or 37 degrees C for intervals of up to 10 days (...) by bioassay. All the antibiotic solutions except ceftazidime retained >/=90% activity at both 25 and 37 degrees C. Thus, studies of antibiotic-heparin lock solutions with dwell times of up to 10 days are feasible.

1999 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

139728. Antibiotic prescribing and antibiotic resistance in community practice: retrospective study, 1996-8 Full Text available with Trip Pro

Antibiotic prescribing and antibiotic resistance in community practice: retrospective study, 1996-8 10550088 1999 12 17 2018 11 13 0959-8138 319 7219 1999 Nov 06 BMJ (Clinical research ed.) BMJ Antibiotic prescribing and antibiotic resistance in community practice: retrospective study, 1996-8. 1239-40 Magee J T JT Department of Medical Microbiology, University Hospital of Wales, Cardiff CF14 4XW. Pritchard E L EL Fitzgerald K A KA Dunstan F D FD Howard A J AJ eng Journal Article Research

1999 BMJ : British Medical Journal

139729. Antibiotic resistance correlates with use of antibiotics by local practices Full Text available with Trip Pro

Antibiotic resistance correlates with use of antibiotics by local practices 10550124 1999 11 18 1756-1833 319 7219 1999 Nov 06 BMJ (Clinical research ed.) BMJ Antibiotic resistance correlates with use of antibiotics by local practices F eng Journal Article England BMJ 8900488 0959-8138 1999 11 5 1999 11 5 1999 11 5 0 0 ppublish 10550124 PMC1116996

1999 BMJ : British Medical Journal

139730. Excretion of β-Lactam Antibiotics in Sweat—a Neglected Mechanism for Development of Antibiotic Resistance? Full Text available with Trip Pro

Excretion of β-Lactam Antibiotics in Sweat—a Neglected Mechanism for Development of Antibiotic Resistance? The concentrations of beta-lactam antibiotics after standard doses were measured in blood and apocrine (axilla) and eccrine (forearm) sweat from six adult healthy persons. All persons had ceftazidime (axilla, 28.4 microg/ml; forearm, 11 microg/ml) and ceftriaxone (axilla, 8.9 microg/ml; forearm, 2.5 microg/ml) in sweat, and one person had cefuroxime in sweat (axilla, 7.8 microg/ml) (all (...) data are mean peaks). Three persons had benzylpenicillin (axilla, 2.6 to 0.1 microg/ml) and one had phenoxymethylpenicillin (axilla, 0.4 microg/ml) in sweat. Excretion of beta-lactam antibiotics in the sweat may explain why staphylococci so rapidly become resistant to these drugs.

2000 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

139731. Competition of Various β-Lactam Antibiotics for the Major Penicillin-Binding Proteins of Helicobacter pylori: Antibacterial Activity and Effects on Bacterial Morphology Full Text available with Trip Pro

Competition of Various β-Lactam Antibiotics for the Major Penicillin-Binding Proteins of Helicobacter pylori: Antibacterial Activity and Effects on Bacterial Morphology The penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) of helical (log-phase) Helicobacter pylori ATCC 43579 were identified by using biotinylated ampicillin. The major PBPs had apparent molecular masses of 47, 60, 63, and 66 kDa; an additional minor PBP of 95 to 100 kDa was also detected. The relative affinities of various beta-lactams (...) for these PBPs were tested by competitive-binding assays. Only PBP63 appeared to be significantly bound to each of the competing antibiotics, whereas PBP66 strongly bound mezlocillin, oxacillin, amoxicillin, and ceftriaxone. Whereas most of the beta-lactams significantly bound two or more PBPs, aztreonam specifically targeted PBP63. The influence of sub-MICs of these beta-lactams on the morphologies of log-phase H. pylori was observed at both the phase-contrast and transmission electron microscopy levels

1999 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

139732. Saccharomicins, Novel Heptadecaglycoside Antibiotics Produced by Saccharothrix espanaensis: Antibacterial and Mechanistic Activities Full Text available with Trip Pro

Saccharomicins, Novel Heptadecaglycoside Antibiotics Produced by Saccharothrix espanaensis: Antibacterial and Mechanistic Activities Saccharomicins A and B, two new heptadecaglycoside antibiotics, were isolated from the fermentation broth of the rare actinomycete Saccharothrix espanaensis. They represent a novel class of bactericidal antibiotics that are active both in vitro and in vivo against bacteria and yeast (MICs: Staphylococcus aureus, <0.12 to 0. 5; vancomycin-resistant enterococci (...) biosynthesis within 10 min of drug treatment. Microscopic examination of drug-treated cells also suggested cell lysis. These data are consistent with a strong membrane-disruptive activity. The antibacterial activities of the saccharomicins against gram-positive bacteria were unaffected by the presence of Ca(2+) or Mg(2+), but activity against gram-negative bacteria was substantially reduced.

2000 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

139733. Prophylactic treatment of anthrax with antibiotics : Indiscriminate use of antibiotics will lead to resistance in organisms Full Text available with Trip Pro

Prophylactic treatment of anthrax with antibiotics : Indiscriminate use of antibiotics will lead to resistance in organisms 11691746 2001 12 05 2018 11 13 0959-8138 323 7320 2001 Nov 03 BMJ (Clinical research ed.) BMJ Prophylactic treatment of anthrax with antibiotics. 1017-8 Hart C A CA Beeching N J NJ eng Editorial England BMJ 8900488 0959-8138 AIM IM BMJ. 2002 Feb 9;324(7333):364 11858182 Anthrax prevention & control Antibiotic Prophylaxis Bioterrorism Drug Resistance, Bacterial Humans

2001 BMJ : British Medical Journal

139734. Desire for Antibiotics and Antibiotic Prescribing for Adults with Upper Respiratory Tract Infections Full Text available with Trip Pro

Desire for Antibiotics and Antibiotic Prescribing for Adults with Upper Respiratory Tract Infections Prior studies have shown that 60% to 75% of adults with upper respiratory tract infections want antibiotics. More recent research indicates declines in antibiotic prescribing for upper respiratory tract infections. To investigate whether there has been a comparable decrease in patients' desire for antibiotics, we measured the proportion of adults with upper respiratory tract infections who (...) wanted antibiotics in the winter of 2001-2002. We also sought to identify factors independently associated with wanting antibiotics and antibiotic prescribing.Prospective survey of adults with upper respiratory tract infections prior to visiting an acute care clinic from November 2001 to February 2002.Thirty-nine percent of 310 patients wanted antibiotics. Many patients wanted relief from symptoms (43%) or pain (24%) and many patients expected to receive a diagnosis (49%) or reassurance during

2003 Journal of General Internal Medicine

139735. Pharmacodynamic effects of antibiotics and antibiotic combinations on growing and nongrowing Staphylococcus epidermidis cells. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Pharmacodynamic effects of antibiotics and antibiotic combinations on growing and nongrowing Staphylococcus epidermidis cells. The pharmacodynamic effects of amikacin, imipenem, ofloxacin, rifampin, and vancomycin were studied on the slime-producing, oxacillin-resistant strain Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 35984 growing in Mueller Hinton broth or, in order to inhibit growth, incubated in phosphate-buffered saline. The investigated parameters were postantibiotic effect (PAE) and control (...) -related effective regrowth time (CERT), which were determined by bioluminescence assay of bacterial ATP. PAE describes the delayed regrowth after drug removal, and CERT describes the combined effects of initial change in bacterial density during antibiotic exposure and delayed regrowth after drug removal. In growth cultures, PAE and CERT were drug concentration dependent for all antibiotics. The length of the PAE and CERT in the growing cultures were as follows: ofloxacin > rifampin > amikacin

1997 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

139736. In vitro evaluation of antibiotic diffusion from antibiotic-impregnated biodegradable beads and polymethylmethacrylate beads. Full Text available with Trip Pro

In vitro evaluation of antibiotic diffusion from antibiotic-impregnated biodegradable beads and polymethylmethacrylate beads. Antibiotic-impregnated beads are used in the dead bone space following debridement surgery to deliver local, high concentrations of antibiotics. Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA), 2,000-molecular-weight (MW) polylactic acid (PLA), Poly(DL-lactide)-coglycolide (PL:CG; 90:10, 80:20, and 70:30), and the combination 2,000-MW PLA-70:20 PL:CG were individually mixed (...) with clindamycin, tobramycin, or vancomycin. Beads were placed in 1 ml of phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) and incubated at 37 degrees C. The PBS was changed daily, and the removed PBS samples were stored at -70 degrees C until the antibiotic in each sample was determined by microbiological disk diffusion assay. Nondissolving PMMA beads with tobramycin and clindamycin had concentrations well above breakpoint sensitivity concentrations (i.e., the antibiotic concentrations at the transition point between

1997 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

139737. The transmission dynamics of antibiotic-resistant bacteria: the relationship between resistance in commensal organisms and antibiotic consumption. Full Text available with Trip Pro

The transmission dynamics of antibiotic-resistant bacteria: the relationship between resistance in commensal organisms and antibiotic consumption. We propose a mathematical model of the transmission dynamics of colonization by commensal bacteria within a human community subject to varying levels of antibiotic use designed to control morbidity induced by pathogenic strains of the normally commensal organisms. Colonization is assumed not to induce morbidity in the majority of cases (...) , and antibiotic use is assumed to be related to the arrival and growth of pathogenic strains that give rise to infections including clinical symptoms of disease. In the absence of antibiotic resistance, the model shows how the pattern of antibiotic prescription and use can eliminate the non-pathogenic commensal strains from the host community if the fraction of people taking antibiotics with a defined efficacy exceeds some critical level. The model is extended to take account of the evolution of antibiotic

1997 Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences

139738. Prophylactic antibiotics and no antibiotics compared in penetrating chest trauma. (Abstract)

Prophylactic antibiotics and no antibiotics compared in penetrating chest trauma. Conflicting data exist concerning the value of antimicrobial prophylaxis in chest trauma. In a prospective and randomized study, we assessed the value of antibiotic prophylaxis in 80 consecutive relatively young, predominantly male patients admitted for gunshot or knife injuries of the chest. Forty patients received intravenous doxycycline and 40 received no antibiotic. Between the two groups we found (...) no difference in the incidence of postoperative infections: we conclude that routine antibiotic prophylaxis is not recommended in penetrating chest trauma in patients such as ours.

1985 Journal of Trauma Controlled trial quality: uncertain

139739. A comparison of the new topical antibiotic mupirocin ('Bactroban') with oral antibiotics in the treatment of skin infections in general practice. (Abstract)

A comparison of the new topical antibiotic mupirocin ('Bactroban') with oral antibiotics in the treatment of skin infections in general practice. A trial was carried out in general practice in 200 patients presenting with skin infections to compare topical antibiotic treatment with mupirocin ointment with orally administered flucloxacillin or erythromycin. Patients were assigned at random to receive 4 to 10 days' treatment with either mupirocin applied 3-times daily or one of the oral (...) antibiotics in the dosage normally used by the general practitioner for skin infections. The majority of infections were impetigo and infected wounds/lacerations; the main organisms isolated initially from 127 of the patients were either Staphylococcus aureus or beta-haemolytic Group A streptococci. Clinical response to mupirocin ointment (86% cured, 13% improved) was significantly better than that seen with erythromycin (47% cured, 26% improved) and similar to that with flucloxacillin (76% cured, 23

1986 Current medical research and opinion Controlled trial quality: uncertain

139740. ["Single shot" prevention in abdominal surgery. Antibiotics with long half-life (ceftriaxone, ornidazole) vs. antibiotics with short half-life (cefazolin, metronidazole, clindamycin)]. (Abstract)

["Single shot" prevention in abdominal surgery. Antibiotics with long half-life (ceftriaxone, ornidazole) vs. antibiotics with short half-life (cefazolin, metronidazole, clindamycin)]. Single-shot antibiotic prophylaxis is well established in abdominal surgery. There is evidence suggesting that it prevents wound infections and some authors report also prevention against postoperative urinary tract infection and pneumonia. From April 1988 to December 1990 we randomly assigned 429 patients (...) . There was no statistically significant difference in pulmonary or urinary tract infections in all groups. Although the protocol for antibiotics with a short half-life included a second dose of antibiotics in cases of operations with a duration of more than four hours, this was forgotten in 19 of 39 concerned patients (49%!).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

1994 Helvetica chirurgica acta Controlled trial quality: uncertain

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