How to Trip Rapid Review

Step 1: Select articles relevant to your search (remember the system is only optimised for single intervention studies)

Step 2: press

Step 3: review the result, and maybe amend the or if you know better! If we're unsure of the overall sentiment of the trial we will display the conclusion under the article title. We then require you to tell us what the correct sentiment is.

136,833 results for

antibiotics

by
...
Latest & greatest
Alerts

Export results

Use check boxes to select individual results below

SmartSearch available

Trip's SmartSearch engine has discovered connected searches & results. Click to show

136581. Failure of antibiotic therapy in acute otitis media. (Abstract)

Failure of antibiotic therapy in acute otitis media. The aim of this retrospective study was to determine the possible causes of failure of antibiotic therapy in children with acute otitis media (AOM). Thirty-nine samples of middle-ear fluid were obtained by myringotomy from 31 children suffering from AOM, unrelieved by antibiotic therapy administered for over 48 hours. The samples were analysed by the usual microbiological techniques, including cultures, tests for beta-lactamase producing (...) of antibiotic therapy in AOM appears to be related to the increased resistance of Haemophilus influenzae and to the reduced susceptibility of Streptococcus pneumoniae to penicillin. Other factors contributing to the failure of antibiotic therapy in AOM may be the viruses or the bacteria that produce multiple pathogens in the middle ear.

2003 Journal of Laryngology & Otology

136582. Prophylactic antibiotics alter the bacteriology of infected necrosis in severe acute pancreatitis. (Abstract)

Prophylactic antibiotics alter the bacteriology of infected necrosis in severe acute pancreatitis. Use of appropriate prophylactic antibiotics has been shown to decrease infectious complications and mortality rate in patients with severe acute pancreatitis, but its influence on the bacteriology of secondary pancreatic infection is poorly defined.Operative cultures from 61 consecutive patients with pancreatic necrosis treated during routine prophylactic antibiotic use (1993-2001) were compared (...) with 34 consecutive patients with necrosis treated before routine antibiotic use (1977-1992).The two groups of patients were similar in demographics, etiology of pancreatitis, and severity of illness. All patients in the antibiotic group received prophylactic antibiotics compared with only 38% (13 of 34) in the control group. Routine broad-spectrum prophylactic antibiotics altered the bacteriology of secondary pancreatic infection in severe acute pancreatitis from predominantly gram-negative coliforms

2002 Journal of the American College of Surgeons

136583. Perinatal antibiotic usage and changes in colonization and resistance rates of group B streptococcus and other pathogens. (Abstract)

Perinatal antibiotic usage and changes in colonization and resistance rates of group B streptococcus and other pathogens. To quantify current antibiotic usage during the perinatal period and impact on vaginal-rectal colonizing organism resistance rates.Swabs were obtained for culture of group B streptococcus and other bacteria from a cohort of 1207 pregnant women in Calgary, Alberta, at 36 weeks' gestation. Those women who received antibiotics during labor or after pregnancy and a 10% subset (...) who received no antibiotics had repeat cultures at 6 weeks postpartum. Cultured organisms were tested for sensitivity to several antibiotics.Group B streptococcus was identified in 235 women (19.5%) in the antepartum period. Fifty-one percent of all participants received antibiotics (31.4% intrapartum). Group B streptococcus prophylaxis was given to 215 (17.8%), whereas 83 (6.9%) group B streptococcus-negative women without fever during labor received antibiotics. Ampicillin (49%), cefazolin (28

2002 Obstetrics and Gynecology

136584. Placental passage of clarithromycin surpasses other macrolide antibiotics. (Abstract)

Placental passage of clarithromycin surpasses other macrolide antibiotics. Infection of the amnion cavity with Ureaplasma urealyticum continues to be a therapeutic challenge. The transplacental transfer rates of macrolide antibiotics are low, and tetracyclines and quinolones are contraindicated in pregnancy. The aim of this study was to investigate placental transfer of clarithromycin in a well-studied placental perfusion model to determine whether clarithromycin surpasses the transfer rate (...) of other macrolide antibiotics in similar models.Ten placentas that were obtained immediately after delivery were perfused with clarithromycin (3 microg/mL) plus a reference substance (antipyrine). Open circulation placental preparations were used to evaluate steady-state pharmacodynamics and transplacental gradient formation. Drug concentrations were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography.The mean transplacental transfer of clarithromycin was 6.1% (95% CI, 1.8%).Because of its enhanced

2003 American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology

136585. ACOG practice bulletin number 47, October 2003: Prophylactic Antibiotics in Labor and Delivery. (Abstract)

ACOG practice bulletin number 47, October 2003: Prophylactic Antibiotics in Labor and Delivery. The use of antibiotics to prevent infections during pregnancy and the puerperium is clearly different from the use of antibiotics to treat established infections. Prophylactic antibiotics are frequently prescribed on an "empiric" basis, which for many years was thought to have few adverse consequences. Concerns about the emergence of resistant strains of common bacteria, in addition to the emergence (...) of strains with increased virulence, have resulted in increased scrutiny of the use of antibiotics, particularly in the hospital setting. Cost considerations also affect the use and choice of prophylactic agents. The purpose of this Practice Bulletin is to present a review of clinical situations in which prophylactic antibiotics are frequently prescribed and to weigh the evidence supporting the use of antibiotics in these scenarios.

2003 Obstetrics and Gynecology

136586. Correlates of antibiotic-resistant group B streptococcus isolated from pregnant women. (Abstract)

%) and clindamycin (21%) but was susceptible to all other antimicrobials tested. A stepwise logistic regression model revealed that black ethnicity (P =.02) and carriage of a serotype V strain (P =.01) were associated with group B streptococcus resistance. Among this population of pregnant women, black ethnicity and serotype V were the strongest predictors of colonization with an erythromycin- or clindamycin-resistant group B streptococcus strain. A better understanding of factors associated with antibiotic (...) Correlates of antibiotic-resistant group B streptococcus isolated from pregnant women. Despite antibiotic prophylaxis for at-risk mothers during labor and delivery, group B streptococcus still causes substantial morbidity and mortality among newborns. Resistance to antibiotics recommended for penicillin-allergic pregnant women, such as erythromycin and clindamycin, has increased. A better understanding of factors associated with group B streptococcus resistance is essential to effectively

2003 Obstetrics and Gynecology

136587. Presence and antibiotic resistance of Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, and Prevotella nigrescens in children. (Abstract)

Presence and antibiotic resistance of Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, and Prevotella nigrescens in children. Only limited information exists about the prevalence in children of pathogens associated with periodontitis. The aim of the present study was to determine by culture whether 8-11-year-old children carry Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, and/or P. nigrescens in samples from the gingiva and/or the buccal mucosa taken before, and after caries treatment (...) and oral hygiene instruction. A second aim was to assess the proportion of subjects who had gram-negative anaerobes carrying the tet(Q) and erm(F) genes, suggesting antibiotic resistance to tetracycline or erythromycin.A total of 150 children provided gingival and buccal swab bacterial samples that were cultured for P. gingivalis, P. intermedia, and P. nigrescens. The species was verified using DNA-DNA hybridization with species-specific probes made from the variable region of the 16S rRNA sequences

2002 Journal of Clinical Periodontology

136588. Change of antibiotic susceptibility following periodontal therapy. A pilot study in aggressive periodontal disease. (Abstract)

antimicrobial therapy. Following identification of five selected pathogens with the Rapid ID 32 A system, their susceptibilities towards amoxicillin/clavulanate potassium, metronidazole, and tetracycline were examined with the E-test. Antibiotics were administered according to the test results, and the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC90) were reevaluated after 1 year. Statistical analysis was performed on a patient basis, with the site data used for evaluation of the MIC levels.Bacterial MIC levels (...) the treatment groups. Single tetracycline MICs were 1.5- to 6-fold enhanced compared to amoxicillin/clavulanate potassium and metronidazole.The periodontal pathogens investigated prior to and 1 year after periodontal therapy are tested sensitive to the antimicrobial agents. In aggressive periodontitis, changes in bacterial susceptibility upon the administration of systemic antibiotics are associated with the limited number of isolates tested following therapy.

2003 Journal of Clinical Periodontology

136589. Intravenous antibiotic regimens and prophylaxis of odontogenic bacteraemia. (Abstract)

Intravenous antibiotic regimens and prophylaxis of odontogenic bacteraemia. This study retrospectively examines the efficacy of prophylactic intravenous antibiotic regimens in the prevention of odontogenic bacteraemia in children with severe congenital heart defects receiving comprehensive dental treatment under general anaesthesia.Blood cultures were taken from children with congenital cardiac defects 30 seconds after completion of dental treatment under general anaesthesia. Antibiotic (...) prophylaxis had been given intravenously immediately before dental treatment. The choice of antibiotics and the extent of dental treatment were recorded. The percentage prevalence of bacteraemia was compared with published data following multiple dental extractions using the same clinical and microbiological methodology.The overall percentage prevalence of positive cultures in children receiving intravenous prophylactic antibiotics was 16%. The percentage of positive blood cultures in cardiac children who

2002 British Dental Journal

136590. Antibiotic microspheres: preliminary testing for potential treatment of osteomyelitis. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Antibiotic microspheres: preliminary testing for potential treatment of osteomyelitis. Osteomyelitis is a difficult problem for orthopaedic surgeons. The current standard of treatment requires high doses of antibiotic to be administered parenterally, which can damage vital organs. A local drug delivery system, which targets only the infected tissues, would eliminate some of the complications associated with extended courses of parenteral antibiotic treatment. In the current study, biodegradable (...) microspheres were manufactured from a high molecular weight copolymer of 50% lactic and 50% glycolic acid and the antibiotic tobramycin. Various formulations of microspheres were tested for in vitro elution characteristics to determine the optimum formulation for linear release of antibiotic for at least 4 weeks. The optimal formulation then was implanted into a pouch created in the quadriceps muscle of mice to evaluate the in vivo elution of the antibiotic and the inflammatory response elicited

2003 Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research

136591. Antibacterial efficacy of a new chlorhexidine slow release device to disinfect dentinal tubules. (Abstract)

Antibacterial efficacy of a new chlorhexidine slow release device to disinfect dentinal tubules. Dentinal tubules of 27 cylindrical bovine root specimens were infected with Enterococcus faecalis. In nine specimens, 5% chlorhexidine was placed in a slow-release device (Activ Point) for 7 days, in another nine irrigation with 10 ml of 0.2% chlorhexidine was used, and the remaining nine served as positive control. Powder dentin samples obtained from within the canal lumina using ISO 025 to 033

2003 Journal of Endodontics

136592. Effectiveness of selected materials against Enterococcus faecalis: part 3. The antibacterial effect of calcium hydroxide and chlorhexidine on Enterococcus faecalis. (Abstract)

Effectiveness of selected materials against Enterococcus faecalis: part 3. The antibacterial effect of calcium hydroxide and chlorhexidine on Enterococcus faecalis. It has been found that Enterococcus faecalis is most commonly isolated in failed endodontic treatment. Irrigation with chlorhexidine gluconate has been suggested based on its antimicrobial effect and substantivity. Calcium hydroxide also is an effective antimicrobial agent because of its high alkalinity. The purpose of this study

2003 Journal of Endodontics

136593. Inactivation of the antibacterial activity of iodine potassium iodide and chlorhexidine digluconate against Enterococcus faecalis by dentin, dentin matrix, type-I collagen, and heat-killed microbial whole cells. (Abstract)

Inactivation of the antibacterial activity of iodine potassium iodide and chlorhexidine digluconate against Enterococcus faecalis by dentin, dentin matrix, type-I collagen, and heat-killed microbial whole cells. The antibacterial activity of chlorhexidine digluconate and iodine potassium iodide on Enterococcus faecalis A197A was tested in the presence of dentin, dentin matrix, dentin pretreated by EDTA and citric acid, collagen, and heat-killed cells of Enterococcus faecalis and Candida (...) albicans. Medications were preincubated for 1 h with each of the potential inhibitors and tested for their antibacterial activity against E. faecalis, strain A197A. Surviving bacteria were sampled after 1 and 24 h of incubation. Dentin matrix and heat-killed microbial cells were the most effective inhibitors of chlorhexidine, whereas dentin pretreated by citric acid or EDTA showed only slight inhibition. Dentin and skin collagen showed some inhibition at 1 h but not after 24 h. Iodine potassium iodide

2002 Journal of Endodontics

136594. An in vitro evaluation of the antibacterial properties of barriers used in guided tissue regeneration. (Abstract)

An in vitro evaluation of the antibacterial properties of barriers used in guided tissue regeneration. The inhibition of growth of Prevotella nigrescens and Enterococcus faecalis by three barriers membrane, (a) polylactic acid (Atrisorb), (b) laminar bone, and (c) calcium sulfate, was compared using an agar diffusion test. The first group of 20 plates were inoculated with P. nigrescens in a prereduced anaerobically-sterilized brain-heart infusion broth, while the second group of 20 plates were (...) of inhibition of P. nigrescens was significantly greater than the zone of inhibition of E. faecalis. The hydrophobicity of Atrisorb and its N-methyl-2-pyrolidine component were suggested as the sources of its antibacterial activity.

2003 Journal of Endodontics

136595. Antibiotic susceptibility of bacteria associated with endodontic abscesses. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Antibiotic susceptibility of bacteria associated with endodontic abscesses. Antibiotics to treat endodontic infections are routinely prescribed based on previously published susceptibility tests. There is increased concern that bacteria have increased resistance to the currently recommended antibiotics. The purpose of this investigation was to perform antibiotic susceptibility tests on a panel of bacteria recently isolated from endodontic infections. The bacteria in this study were aseptically (...) aspirated with a needle from endodontic abscesses, cultivated, and identified at the species level. Each of the 98 species of bacteria was tested for antibiotic susceptibility to a panel of six antibiotics using the Etest. The antibiotics were penicillin V, amoxicillin, amoxicillin + clavulanic acid, clindamycin, metronidazole, and clarithromycin. The percentages of susceptibility for the 98 species were penicillin V: 83/98 (85%), amoxicillin: 89/98 (91%), amoxicillin + clavulanic acid: 98/98 (100

2003 Journal of Endodontics

136596. Antibacterial effect of a hydraulic calcium phosphate cement for dental applications. (Abstract)

Antibacterial effect of a hydraulic calcium phosphate cement for dental applications. Calcium hydroxide is currently used in dentistry for endodontic treatment where its main advantage consists of its antibacterial and anti-inflammatory potency. However, it also has some drawbacks such as pulp necrosis, slight solubility, slow and low hardening, and retraction on drying. Since the studies conducted by Brown and Chow (IADR 1983, abst. 207), calcium phosphate-based cements (CPC) have attracted (...) a priori confers antibacterial properties to this cement, which were investigated in agar plates (diffusion method) against Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Candida albicans (clinical isolates) and a preparation of polymicrobial flora isolated from dental plaque. The cement samples tested were prepared at calcium-to-phosphate molar ratios (Ca/P) ranging from 1.67 to 2.75. A pure calcium hydroxide paste was used as reference material. Clear and reproducible bacterial growth inhibition

2003 Journal of Endodontics

136597. Antibacterial effects of resinous retrograde root filling materials. (Abstract)

Antibacterial effects of resinous retrograde root filling materials. The effect of three resinous retrograde root filling materials on the growth of four obligate anaerobic bacteria associated with endodontic infections was determined by using the agar diffusion inhibitory test. Samples of the following resinous materials (resin-modified, glass-ionomer cement, Fuji II LC; compomer, Dyract; and composite resin, Spectrum) were incubated for 1 week with the following anaerobic bacteria (...) Bacteroides species (p > 0.05). For F. nucleatum, Spectrum had more antibacterial effect against this bacteria than Dyract (p < 0.05). Additionally, Fuji II LC was ineffective against F. nucleatum (p < 0.05). However, positive control plates showed bacterial growth in all cases. Our data suggest that the antibacterial potency of polymerized materials varied considerably, depending on the type and the product tested.

2003 Journal of Endodontics

136598. Medically administered antibiotics, dietary habits, fluoride intake and dental caries experience in the primary dentition. (Abstract)

Medically administered antibiotics, dietary habits, fluoride intake and dental caries experience in the primary dentition. Dental caries continues to be a major public health problem in the US and other nations, particularly among younger children. Unfortunately, understanding of factors contributing to caries in this age group is incomplete and further studies are necessary. The purpose of this study was to assess factors related to extensive caries experience among children aged 4-7 years (...) , including antibiotic use, dietary patterns, fluoride intakes, and tooth brushing habits.The case-control study was nested within a longitudinal cohort study of children's oral health. The larger cohort study collected data on fluoride intakes and behavioral factors, including antibiotic use and dietary patterns of children periodically from birth. A single dental examination was completed for each child at a time between the ages of 4-7 years. A case-control design was used to compare children

2003 Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology

136599. Antibiotic prophylaxis for dental patients with total joint replacements. (Abstract)

Antibiotic prophylaxis for dental patients with total joint replacements. In 1997, the American Dental Association and the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons convened an expert panel of dentists, orthopaedic surgeons and infectious disease specialists and published their first Advisory Statement on Antibiotic Prophylaxis for Dental Patients with Prosthetic Joints. This represented the first time that national health organizations had gone on record on this topic. This 2003 advisory (...) modifications of the classification of patients at potential risk and of the incidence stratification of bacteremic dental procedures, but no changes in terms of suggested antibiotics and antibiotic regimens. The statement concludes that antibiotic prophylaxis is not indicated for dental patients with pins, plates or screws, nor is it routinely indicated for most dental patients with total joint replacements. However, it is advisable to consider premedication in a small number of patients who may

2003 Journal of the American Dental Association

136600. Treatment of otitis media with observation and a safety-net antibiotic prescription. (Abstract)

Treatment of otitis media with observation and a safety-net antibiotic prescription. Several studies have demonstrated that acute otitis media (AOM) in children can be managed without antibiotics. Because children with AOM have traditionally been treated with antibiotics in the United States, there are concerns that parents may not be comfortable with their children being treated with pain control alone. Recently, Cates in England showed that antibiotic usage for AOM could be decreased (...) by prescribing a safety-net antibiotic prescription (SNAP) to be filled if symptoms do not resolve with observation after 48 hours. It is not clear whether a SNAP will be acceptable to parents in other settings such as the United States. The objective of our study was to determine whether parents in the United States find a SNAP for AOM acceptable and whether antibiotic usage could be decreased by its use.A pediatric practice-based research network in a midwestern community of 1.8 million was the setting

2003 Pediatrics

To help you find the content you need quickly, you can filter your results via the categories on the right-hand side >>>>