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136561. The proton channel is the minimal structure of ATP synthase necessary and sufficient for microcin h47 antibiotic action. (Abstract)

The proton channel is the minimal structure of ATP synthase necessary and sufficient for microcin h47 antibiotic action. It had been previously determined that the presence of F(o)F(1) ATP synthase was required for microcin H47 antibiotic action. In this work, microcin-resistant atp mutants were genetically analyzed. Their mutations, originated by Tn5 insertion, in all cases were found to affect determinants for the F(o) portion of ATP synthase. To discern if microcin action required (...) was missing, total resistance to the antibiotic ensued. Complementation analysis between atp::Tn5 chromosomal mutations and recombinant atp plasmid constructions further supported the idea that the proton channel would be the minimal structure of the ATP synthase complex needed for microcin H47 antibiotic action.

2003 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

136562. Isolation of antibiotic hypersusceptibility mutants of Acinetobacter spp. by selection for DNA release. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Isolation of antibiotic hypersusceptibility mutants of Acinetobacter spp. by selection for DNA release. Isolation of bacterial mutants hypersusceptible to antibiotics can reveal novel targets for antibiotic potentiators. However, identification of such mutants is a difficult task which normally requires laborious replica plating of thousands of colonies. The technique proposed here allows for the positive selection of genetic knockout mutants leading to hypersusceptibility. This technique (...) , designated SDR (selection for DNA release), involves introduction of random insertions of a marker gene into the chromosome of a highly transformable bacterial species, followed by treatment of the obtained library with an antibiotic at subinhibitory concentrations. DNA released by lysing bacteria is collected and used to transform fresh bacteria, selecting for insertion of the marker gene. These selection cycles are repeated until variants with a hypersusceptibility phenotype caused by insertion

2003 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

136563. Integron-associated antibiotic resistance in Salmonella enterica serovar typhi from Asia. (Abstract)

Integron-associated antibiotic resistance in Salmonella enterica serovar typhi from Asia. Eighteen of 25 isolates of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi were multidrug resistant and contained class 1 integrons with a single cassette, dfrVII or aadA1. The dfrVII-containing integron was likely borne on an IncHI1 plasmid. Salmonella serovar Typhi could become resistant to broad-spectrum cephalosporins by integrating cassettes, such as veb-1, a common cassette in Asia.

2003 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

136564. Antibiotic resistance in bacteria isolated from subgingival plaque in a norwegian population with refractory marginal periodontitis. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Antibiotic resistance in bacteria isolated from subgingival plaque in a norwegian population with refractory marginal periodontitis. The prevalence of beta-lactamase-producing bacteria in subgingival plaque from patients with refractory periodontitis in Norway was assessed by the chromogenic nitrocefin method. beta-Lactamase activity was detected in 68% of the patients. Enzyme-producing strains belonged predominantly to the genus Prevotella; others were staphylococci, enteric gram-negative rods

2003 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

136565. In vitro activity of a new antibiotic, NVP-PDF386 (VRC4887), against Chlamydia pneumoniae. Full Text available with Trip Pro

In vitro activity of a new antibiotic, NVP-PDF386 (VRC4887), against Chlamydia pneumoniae. The in vitro activity of NVP-PDF386 (VRC4887), a novel new peptide deformylase inhibitor, and those of levofloxacin and clarithromycin were tested against 21 isolates of Chlamydia pneumoniae. The MIC at which 90% of the isolates were inhibited and the minimal bactericidal concentration at which 90% of the isolates were killed by NVP-PDF386 for all isolates of C. pneumoniae were 0.008 micro g/ml (range

2003 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

136566. Genetic basis of antibiotic resistance in Streptococcus agalactiae strains isolated in a French hospital. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Genetic basis of antibiotic resistance in Streptococcus agalactiae strains isolated in a French hospital. The genetic basis of antibiotic resistance in 113 unrelated group B streptococci was studied by PCR. Ninety-four strains were resistant to tetracycline-minocycline, and tet(M) was detected in 85% of these isolates. Seventeen erythromycin-resistant strains contained the erm(B), erm(TR), or mef(A) gene. Eleven strains exhibited high-level resistance to kanamycin due to the presence

2003 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

136567. Chlamydia pneumoniae resists antibiotics in lymphocytes. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Chlamydia pneumoniae resists antibiotics in lymphocytes. Chlamydia pneumoniae infection of lymphocytes in blood has been well documented, and it is apparent that control of this pathogen in these cells may be critical in the development of chronic inflammatory diseases associated with infection by this bacterium. The activity of antibiotics against C. pneumoniae in lymphocytes was assessed in this study by utilizing an in vitro infection model with lymphoid cells. The results obtained indicated (...) that although all of the antibiotics tested showed remarkable activity against bacterial growth in epithelial cells, C. pneumoniae in lymphocytes was less susceptible to antibiotics than was bacterial growth in epithelial cells, which are widely used for the evaluation of anti-C. pneumoniae antibiotics.

2003 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

136568. Stability and antibacterial activity of cefepime during continuous infusion. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Stability and antibacterial activity of cefepime during continuous infusion. The stability of cefepime during simulated continuous infusion was determined with a motorized portable infusion pump worn over a period of 24 to 36 h. Susceptibility testing on cefepime solutions over time indicates that the degradation products do not exhibit antibacterial activity. Cefepime stability at 24 h following continuous infusion was 94.3% +/- 1.0%, which supports the use of continuous infusion.

2003 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

136569. Evolution of antibiotic resistance in Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium strains isolated in the Czech Republic between 1984 and 2002. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Evolution of antibiotic resistance in Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium strains isolated in the Czech Republic between 1984 and 2002. In a collection of 66 Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strains isolated between 1984 and 2002 in the Czech Republic, genes coding for antibiotic resistance were determined by using specific PCRs. We found that the pentadrug-resistant ACSSuT clone first appeared in the Czech Republic in 1990. A new variant of the aadA gene designated aadA21

2003 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

136570. Inhibitors of pantothenate kinase: novel antibiotics for staphylococcal infections. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Inhibitors of pantothenate kinase: novel antibiotics for staphylococcal infections. Pantothenate kinase (CoaA) catalyzes the first step of the coenzyme A biosynthetic pathway. Here we report the identification of the Staphylococcus aureus coaA gene and characterization of the enzyme. We have also identified a series of low-molecular-weight compounds which are effective inhibitors of S. aureus CoaA.

2003 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

136571. High-efficiency generation of antibiotic-resistant strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae by PCR and transformation. Full Text available with Trip Pro

High-efficiency generation of antibiotic-resistant strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae by PCR and transformation. We designed a method by which to generate antibiotic-resistant strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae at frequencies 4 orders of magnitude greater than the spontaneous mutation rate. The method is based on the natural ability of this organism to be genetically transformed with PCR products carrying sequences homologous to its chromosome. The genes encoding the targets of ciprofloxacin

2003 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

136572. Genome-wide screening of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to identify genes required for antibiotic insusceptibility of eukaryotes. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Genome-wide screening of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to identify genes required for antibiotic insusceptibility of eukaryotes. The adverse reactions provoked by many antibiotics in humans are well documented but are generally poorly understood at the molecular level. To elucidate potential genetic defects that could give rise to susceptibility to prokaryote-specific antibiotics in eukaryotes, we undertook genome-wide screens using the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model of eukaryotes; our (...) previous work with a small number of yeast mutants revealed some specific gene functions required for oxytetracycline resistance. Here, the complete yeast deletion strain collection was tested for growth in the presence of a range of antibiotics. The sensitivities of mutants revealed by these screens were validated in independent tests. None of the approximately 4,800 defined deletion strains tested were found to be sensitive to amoxicillin, penicillin G, rifampin, or vancomycin. However, two

2003 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

136573. Increasing antibiotic resistance among urinary tract isolates. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Increasing antibiotic resistance among urinary tract isolates. A five year retrospective study was performed to identify organisms isolated from the urinary tract of 2815 children in the community and 1314 children with underlying renal problems and their antimicrobial susceptibilities. Isolates from children in the latter group were generally more resistant to commonly used antibiotics. In particular, up to a third of E coli isolates from children in the community and almost two thirds of E

2003 Archives of Disease in Childhood

136574. Bacterial susceptibility to oral antibiotics in community acquired urinary tract infection. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Bacterial susceptibility to oral antibiotics in community acquired urinary tract infection. The most common oral antibiotics used in the treatment of urinary tract infection (UTI) are sulphonamides and cephalosporins, but emerging resistance is not unusual.To assess the change in susceptibility of urinary pathogens to oral antibiotics during the past decade in children with community acquired UTI.The study sample included two groups of children with a first community acquired UTI: 142 children (...) enrolled in 1991 and 124 enrolled in 1999. UTI was diagnosed by properly collected urine specimen (suprapubic aspiration, transurethral catheterisation, or midstream specimen in circumcised males) in symptomatic patients. Antimicrobial susceptibility of the isolates was compared between the two groups.The pathogens recovered in the two groups were similar: in 1991--E coli 86%, Klebsiella 6%, others 8%; in 1999--E coli 82%, Klebsiella 13%, and others 5%. A slight but generalised decrease in bacterial

2003 Archives of Disease in Childhood

136575. Impact of acid secretion, gastritis, and mucus thickness on gastric transfer of antibiotics in rats. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Impact of acid secretion, gastritis, and mucus thickness on gastric transfer of antibiotics in rats. The success of Helicobacter pylori eradication regimens depends on gastric pH, inflammation, and mucus thickness. Our aim was to investigate the effects of acid secretion, inflammation, and mucolysis on gastric antibiotic transfer.A total of 134 anaesthetised rats were given metronidazole, amoxicillin, or clarithromycin intravenously and gastric contents were aspirated via an indwelling cannula

2002 Gut

136576. Antibiotics with a selective aerobic or anaerobic spectrum have different therapeutic activities in various regions of the colon in interleukin 10 gene deficient mice. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Antibiotics with a selective aerobic or anaerobic spectrum have different therapeutic activities in various regions of the colon in interleukin 10 gene deficient mice. Multiple rodent models implicate resident intestinal bacteria in the pathogenesis of chronic immune mediated intestinal inflammation. Specific pathogen free (SPF) interleukin 10 gene deficient (IL-10(-/-)) mice develop colitis, which does not occur in the germ free (GF) state. We investigated whether broad or narrow spectrum (...) antibiotics affect onset and progression of disease in various regions of IL-10(-/-) mice.Metronidazole, ciprofloxacin, vancomycin-imipenem (50 mg/kg/day), or water (control) was administered orally before (prevention) or two weeks after (treatment) colonisation of GF IL-10(-/-) mice with SPF bacteria. After four weeks, colonic histology scores and cytokine production by colonic explants were determined. Caecal and colonic contents were collected for quantitative bacterial analysis.In the prevention study

2003 Gut

136577. Lactobacillus GG prevents recurrence of colitis in HLA-B27 transgenic rats after antibiotic treatment. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Lactobacillus GG prevents recurrence of colitis in HLA-B27 transgenic rats after antibiotic treatment. Bacteroides vulgatus induces colitis in gnotobiotic HLA-B27 transgenic (TG) rats while broad spectrum antibiotics prevent and treat colitis in specific pathogen free (SPF) TG rats although disease recurs after treatment ends. Lactobacilli treat human pouchitis and experimental colitis. We investigated if Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (L GG) can prevent colitis in TG rats monoassociated with B (...) vulgatus and if L GG or Lactobacillus plantarum 299v (LP 299v) can treat established colitis in SPF TG rats and prevent recurrent disease after antibiotics were stopped.Germfree B27 TG rats were monoassociated with B vulgatus for four weeks following two weeks of colonisation with L GG or no bacteria. SPF B27 TG rats received oral vancomycin and imipenem for two weeks, or water alone, followed by four weeks of treatment with oral L GG, LP 299v, or water only. Disease activity was quantified by blinded

2003 Gut

136578. Pneumonia: the demented patient's best friend? Discomfort after starting or withholding antibiotic treatment. (Abstract)

Pneumonia: the demented patient's best friend? Discomfort after starting or withholding antibiotic treatment. To assess suffering in demented nursing home patients with pneumonia treated with antibiotics or without antibiotics. This study should provide the first empirical data on whether pneumonia is a "friend" or an "enemy" of demented patients and promote a debate on appropriate palliative care.Prospective cohort study.Psychogeriatric wards of 61 nursing homes in the Netherlands.Six hundred (...) sixty-two demented patients with pneumonia treated with (77%) or without (23%) antibiotics.Using an observational scale (Discomfort Scale-Dementia of Alzheimer Type), discomfort was assessed at the time of the pneumonia treatment decision and periodically thereafter for 3 months or until death. (Thirty-nine percent of patients treated with antibiotics and 93% of patients treated without antibiotics died within 3 months.) Physicians also offered a retrospective judgment of discomfort 2 weeks before

2002 Journal of the American Geriatrics Society

136579. The effect of high single dose parenteral vitamin A in addition to antibiotic therapy on healing of maxillary sinusitis in experimental acute sinusitis. (Abstract)

The effect of high single dose parenteral vitamin A in addition to antibiotic therapy on healing of maxillary sinusitis in experimental acute sinusitis. The aim of this study is to investigate the therapeutic role of vitamin A in addition to standard antibiotic treatment on healing of experimental acute maxillary sinusitis.Experimental maxillary sinusitis in rabbits was induced by blocking the left noses and direct inoculation of Staphylococcus aureus into the left maxillary sinuse cavities (...) . Right maxillary sinuses were exposed to serum physiologic as the control group. Animals were divided into two groups. Forty-eight hours after the inoculation, Group A received only parenteral ampicilline-sulbactam (50 mg/kg), Group B were treated with same antibiotic regimen and parenteral a dose of 100.000 IU vitamin A in palmitate form. Animals were killed at 10th day and mucosas of each sinuses were examined histopathologically. Inflammation and sinus epithelium integrity were assessed. Groups

2002 International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology

136580. Intravenous antibiotic therapy for deep neck abscesses defined by computed tomography. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Intravenous antibiotic therapy for deep neck abscesses defined by computed tomography. To determine the effectiveness of using intravenous antibiotics alone to treat clinically stable children with clearly defined deep neck abscesses diagnosed by contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT).Retrospective chart and CT scan review.Tertiary care children's hospital.The study comprised clinically stable pediatric patients who presented with signs and symptoms of a deep neck infection and who had CT (...) of deep neck abscess and no clinical evidence of severe symptoms or significant airway compromise were initially treated with intravenous antibiotics. Ten (91%) of the 11 children responded to intravenous antibiotic therapy as their only treatment. All 10 responders began to improve clinically by 48 hours. The symptoms resolved in 5 children by treatment day 3. Five to 8 days of treatment were required to completely resolve the symptoms in the other 5 patients. The 1 child who did not respond

2003 Archives of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery

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