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136541. Antibacterial activity of coumermycin alone and in combination with other antibiotics. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Antibacterial activity of coumermycin alone and in combination with other antibiotics. Coumermycin has been shown to inhibit Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis strains that are susceptible and those that are resistant to methicillin at concentrations less than or equal to 0.05 micrograms/ml. Listeria monocytogenes and Corynebacterium spp. resistant to cephalosporins were inhibited by less than or equal to 1.6 micrograms of coumermycin ml, and streptococcal species

1984 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

136542. Comparative in vitro antibacterial activity of Sch 34343, a novel penem antibiotic. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Comparative in vitro antibacterial activity of Sch 34343, a novel penem antibiotic. Using agar and broth dilutions, Sch 34343 was found to be highly active against gram-positive and gram-negative aerobic, facultatively anaerobic, and anaerobic bacteria, with the exceptions of enterococci, methicillin-resistant staphylococci, and Pseudomonas spp., which were resistant. Comparisons were made with imipenem, cefuroxime, cefotaxime, gentamicin, clindamycin, and metronidazole.

1985 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

136543. In vitro and in vivo antibacterial activities of carumonam (AMA-1080), a new N-sulfonated monocyclic beta-lactam antibiotic. Full Text available with Trip Pro

In vitro and in vivo antibacterial activities of carumonam (AMA-1080), a new N-sulfonated monocyclic beta-lactam antibiotic. The in vitro and in vivo antibacterial activities of carumonam (AMA-1080), a synthetic sulfazecin derivative, were compared with those of aztreonam, cefoperazone, ceftazidime, and cefsulodin. Carumonam was highly active in vitro against members of the family Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Haemophilus influenzae and weakly active against Streptococcus (...) pneumoniae, but it was not active against Staphylococcus aureus. The MICs of carumonam for 90% of 1,156 clinical Enterobacteriaceae isolates were between 0.013 and 25 micrograms/ml, which were the lowest MICs of the antibiotics tested. The MIC of carumonam for 90% of Klebsiella oxytoca was 0.2 micrograms/ml, whereas that of aztreonam was 50 micrograms/ml. The superiority of carumonam to aztreonam and the reference cephalosporins was also demonstrated by their activities against Klebsiella pneumoniae

1985 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

136544. In vitro and in vivo antibacterial properties of FK 027, a new orally active cephem antibiotic. Full Text available with Trip Pro

In vitro and in vivo antibacterial properties of FK 027, a new orally active cephem antibiotic. FK 027 was more active than cefaclor, cephalexin, and amoxicillin against stock strains of a wide variety of gram-negative bacteria, including such opportunistic pathogens as Citrobacter and Enterobacter species and Serratia marcescens. FK 027 was significantly more active than the three reference drugs against clinical isolates of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, indole-positive

1984 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

136545. Antibiotic resistance of fecal coliforms after long-term withdrawal of therapeutic and subtherapeutic antibiotic use in a swine herd. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Antibiotic resistance of fecal coliforms after long-term withdrawal of therapeutic and subtherapeutic antibiotic use in a swine herd. Tetracycline resistance of fecal coliforms isolated from swine decreased from 82 to 42%, a decrease of less than 50%, after the use of all forms of antimicrobial agents were discontinued in the herd for 126 months.

1983 Applied and environmental microbiology

136546. Antibacterial activity of mupirocin (pseudomonic acid), a new antibiotic for topical use. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Antibacterial activity of mupirocin (pseudomonic acid), a new antibiotic for topical use. Mupirocin (pseudomonic acid A), an antibiotic produced by Pseudomonas fluorescens, showed a high level of activity against staphylococci and streptococci and against certain gram-negative bacteria, including Haemophilus influenzae and Neisseria gonorrhoeae, but was much less active against most gram-negative bacilli an anaerobes. Nearly all clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus (...) epidermidis, including multiply resistant strains, were susceptible (mupirocin MIC, less than or equal to 0.5 microgram/ml). There was no cross-resistance between mupirocin and clinically available antibiotics, and the selection of resistant variants in vitro occurred at a low frequency. Mupirocin was highly bound (95% bound) to the protein of human serum, and activity was reduced 10- to 20-fold in the presence of human serum. The activity of mupirocin was not greatly influenced by inoculum size

1985 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

136547. In vitro and in vivo antibacterial activities of dactimicin, a novel pseudodisaccharide aminoglycoside, compared with those of other aminoglycoside antibiotics. Full Text available with Trip Pro

In vitro and in vivo antibacterial activities of dactimicin, a novel pseudodisaccharide aminoglycoside, compared with those of other aminoglycoside antibiotics. When compared with astromicin, amikacin, gentamicin, and sisomicin, dactimicin was similar to astromicin in in vitro activity and was more active than amikacin and gentamicin against the clinical isolates of Serratia marcescens, but less active against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Dactimicin and astromicin were active against many gentamicin

1985 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

136548. In Vitro and In Vivo Antibacterial Activities of OPC-20011, a Novel Parenteral Broad-Spectrum 2-Oxaisocephem Antibiotic Full Text available with Trip Pro

In Vitro and In Vivo Antibacterial Activities of OPC-20011, a Novel Parenteral Broad-Spectrum 2-Oxaisocephem Antibiotic OPC-20011, a new parenteral 2-oxaisocephem antibiotic, has an oxygen atom at the 2- position of the cephalosporin frame. OPC-20011 had the best antibacterial activities against gram-positive bacteria, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Enterococcus faecalis, and penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae: MICs at which 90% of the isolates were (...) inhibited were 6.25, 6.25, and 0.05 microg/ml, respectively. Its activity is due to a high affinity of the penicillin-binding protein 2' in MRSA, an affinity which was approximately 1,050 times as high as that for flomoxef. Against gram-negative bacteria, OPC-20011 also showed antibacterial activities similar to those of ceftazidime. The in vivo activities of OPC-20011 were comparable to or greater than those of reference compounds in murine models of systemic infection caused by gram-positive

1998 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

136549. In Vivo Antibacterial Activities of Sanfetrinem Cilexetil, a New Oral Tricyclic Antibiotic Full Text available with Trip Pro

In Vivo Antibacterial Activities of Sanfetrinem Cilexetil, a New Oral Tricyclic Antibiotic The in vivo antibacterial activities of a new oral trinem, sanfetrinem cilexetil (a prodrug of sanfetrinem), were evaluated in comparison with those of cefdinir and amoxicillin. Sanfetrinem cilexetil showed potent efficacy against experimental murine septicemia caused by Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Escherichia coli and against murine respiratory infections caused by Streptococcus

1998 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

136550. Detection of bacteria in the presence of antibiotics by using specific monoclonal antibodies to neutralize the antibiotics. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Detection of bacteria in the presence of antibiotics by using specific monoclonal antibodies to neutralize the antibiotics. Inactivation of penicillin and gentamicin in cultures was achieved by using monoclonal antibodies against these antibiotics. A viridans group streptococcus (penicillin MIC, less than or equal to 0.06 micrograms/ml) and Escherichia coli ATCC 35218 (gentamicin MIC, less than or equal to 1 microgram/ml) were able to grow in broth containing 0.25 micrograms of penicillin per (...) ml and 4 micrograms of gentamicin per ml, respectively, when the specific antibodies were added. This procedure may be useful to increase the yield of bacteria from body fluid specimens that contain antibiotics.

1988 Journal of clinical microbiology

136551. In vitro and in vivo antibacterial activities of T-2588, a new oral cephalosporin, compared with those of other oral beta-lactam antibiotics. Full Text available with Trip Pro

In vitro and in vivo antibacterial activities of T-2588, a new oral cephalosporin, compared with those of other oral beta-lactam antibiotics. T-2588, the pivaloyloxymethyl ester of T-2525, [6R, 7R]-7-[(z)-2-(2-aminothiazol-4-yl)-2-methoxyiminoacetoamido] -3- [(5-methyl-2H-tetrazol-2-yl)methyl]-3-cephem-4-carboxylic acid, is a new oral cephalosporin. T-2525 had a widely expanded antibacterial spectrum against gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. T-2525 was more active in vitro than cefaclor

1987 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

136552. Change of glutamic acid to lysine in a 13-residue antibacterial and hemolytic peptide results in enhanced antibacterial activity without increase in hemolytic activity. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Change of glutamic acid to lysine in a 13-residue antibacterial and hemolytic peptide results in enhanced antibacterial activity without increase in hemolytic activity. A 13-residue peptide corresponding to a hydrophobic segment of the antimicrobial 47-residue peptide seminalplasmin, PKLLETFLSKWIG (SPF), has been shown to have antibacterial and hemolytic activities (N. Sitaram and R. Nagaraj, J. Biol. Chem. 265:10438-10442, 1990). In an effort to get an insight into the structural and charge (...) requirements for these biological activities, an analog of SPF in which Glu has been replaced with Lys has been synthesized and its antibacterial and hemolytic properties have been examined. It has been demonstrated that the analog, SPFK, exhibits potent antibacterial activity at concentrations at which hemolysis does not occur.

1992 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

136553. In vitro antibacterial activity of SM-7338, a carbapenem antibiotic with stability to dehydropeptidase I. Full Text available with Trip Pro

In vitro antibacterial activity of SM-7338, a carbapenem antibiotic with stability to dehydropeptidase I. SM-7338, a new carbapenem antibiotic, was demonstrated to have potent antibacterial activity against a broad spectrum of aerobes, including Staphylococcus aureus, beta-hemolytic streptococci, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria spp., members of the family Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas spp., and gram-positive and gram-negative anaerobes in a collection of 1,102

1989 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

136554. In vitro antibacterial activity of KP-736, a new cephem antibiotic. Full Text available with Trip Pro

In vitro antibacterial activity of KP-736, a new cephem antibiotic. KP-736, a new cephen antibiotic with a broad antibacterial spectrum and potent antipseudomonal activity, was evaluated for in vitro antibacterial activity in comparison with ceftazidime, cefotaxime, and cefpirome. KP-736 was significantly more active than the test compounds against gram-negative bacteria, including the Pseudomonas group and ceftazidime-, cefotaxime-, or imipenem-resistant strains, but less active against gram

1991 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

136555. [Antibacterial therapy of purulent peritonitis: a prospective randomized study on the effects of antibiotics and taurolin, a new chemotherapeutic and antiendotoxic agent (author's transl)]. (Abstract)

[Antibacterial therapy of purulent peritonitis: a prospective randomized study on the effects of antibiotics and taurolin, a new chemotherapeutic and antiendotoxic agent (author's transl)]. A prospective randomized study on the value of additional antibacterial therapy in surgically treated, purulent peritonitis (69 patients) is presented. A new chemotherapeutic agent Taurolin with antiendotoxin activity is tested against conventional antibiotic therapy. There was an increased rate of secondary (...) wound healing and overall complications in the Taurolin group (especially bronchopneumonia). Local complications and lethality due to peritonitis occur similarly frequently in both groups. The bactericidal and antiendotoxic effects of Taurolin, its lacking toxicity (possibility of higher dosage), and the choice of combination with antibiotics make it a most interesting substance for additional antibacterial therapy for purulent peritonitis following surgical treatment.

1980 Chirurgisches Forum für experimentelle und klinische Forschung Controlled trial quality: uncertain

136556. Antibiotic prophylaxis in pacemaker surgery: a prospective double blind trial with systemic administration of antibiotic versus placebo at implantation of cardiac pacemakers. (Abstract)

Antibiotic prophylaxis in pacemaker surgery: a prospective double blind trial with systemic administration of antibiotic versus placebo at implantation of cardiac pacemakers. In a double blind clinical trial, 106 consecutive patients scheduled for pacemaker implantation were randomly assigned either to a systemic prophylaxis group (SPG) (to be given flucloxacillin) or to a control group who would be given a placebo (CPG). The SPG group received 2 g IV flucloxacillin 1 hour before the operation (...) antibiotic concentration. The mean flucloxacillin concentration of pocket fluid from 23 patients in the SPG was 7.5 micrograms/ml. The bacteriological cultures were positive in 9/32 patients in the SPG group and in 10/34 patients in the CPG group. This study suggests that antibiotic prophylaxis need not routinely be given at implantation of permanent pacemaker systems.

1986 Pacing and clinical electrophysiology : PACE Controlled trial quality: uncertain

136557. Prophylactic antibiotics and no antibiotics compared in penetrating chest trauma. (Abstract)

Prophylactic antibiotics and no antibiotics compared in penetrating chest trauma. Conflicting data exist concerning the value of antimicrobial prophylaxis in chest trauma. In a prospective and randomized study, we assessed the value of antibiotic prophylaxis in 80 consecutive relatively young, predominantly male patients admitted for gunshot or knife injuries of the chest. Forty patients received intravenous doxycycline and 40 received no antibiotic. Between the two groups we found (...) no difference in the incidence of postoperative infections: we conclude that routine antibiotic prophylaxis is not recommended in penetrating chest trauma in patients such as ours.

1985 Journal of Trauma Controlled trial quality: uncertain

136558. A comparison of the new topical antibiotic mupirocin ('Bactroban') with oral antibiotics in the treatment of skin infections in general practice. (Abstract)

A comparison of the new topical antibiotic mupirocin ('Bactroban') with oral antibiotics in the treatment of skin infections in general practice. A trial was carried out in general practice in 200 patients presenting with skin infections to compare topical antibiotic treatment with mupirocin ointment with orally administered flucloxacillin or erythromycin. Patients were assigned at random to receive 4 to 10 days' treatment with either mupirocin applied 3-times daily or one of the oral (...) antibiotics in the dosage normally used by the general practitioner for skin infections. The majority of infections were impetigo and infected wounds/lacerations; the main organisms isolated initially from 127 of the patients were either Staphylococcus aureus or beta-haemolytic Group A streptococci. Clinical response to mupirocin ointment (86% cured, 13% improved) was significantly better than that seen with erythromycin (47% cured, 26% improved) and similar to that with flucloxacillin (76% cured, 23

1986 Current medical research and opinion Controlled trial quality: uncertain

136559. Intraincisional antibiotic in addition to systemic antibiotic treatment fails to reduce wound infection rates in contaminated abdominal surgery. A controlled clinical trial. (Abstract)

Intraincisional antibiotic in addition to systemic antibiotic treatment fails to reduce wound infection rates in contaminated abdominal surgery. A controlled clinical trial. One hundred ninety patients with peritonitis at the time of abdominal surgery were allocated at random to systemic antibiotic treatment alone or systemic antibiotic treatment combined with topical application of antibiotics in the wound at the time of wound closure. The overall wound infection rate was 17 percent without

1989 Diseases of the colon and rectum Controlled trial quality: uncertain

136560. Efficacy of oral antibiotics following parenteral antibiotics for serious infections in obstetrics and gynecology. (Abstract)

Efficacy of oral antibiotics following parenteral antibiotics for serious infections in obstetrics and gynecology. Patients with serious soft-tissue infections in obstetrics and gynecology are frequently treated with parenteral antibiotics until afebrile and clinically well for 48-72 hours, and then discharged on a broad-spectrum oral antibiotic. To evaluate the efficacy of this type of management, we designed a prospective, randomized single-blinded study comparing a group of patients who (...) received oral antibiotics after hospital discharge (N = 80) with a group who did not (N = 83). No significant differences in age, race, parity, diagnosis, or pathogen isolated were observed between the patients in the two groups. No significant difference was noted in delayed morbidity between those who did and those who did not take oral antibiotics (P greater than .06). In light of the cost of oral antibiotics and the chance of drug-induced side effects, the data suggest that oral antibiotics after

1989 Obstetrics and Gynecology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

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