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136521. Faropenem, a new oral penem: antibacterial activity against selected anaerobic and fastidious periodontal isolates. (Abstract)

(five), Actinomyces spp. (25), Fusobacterium nucleatum (14), Peptostreptococcus spp. (11), Bacteroides ureolyticus (five) and Bacteroides forsythus (two). The antimicrobial properties of faropenem were investigated by studying MICs, MBCs, time-kill kinetics and post-antibiotic effect (PAE). Faropenem was highly active against all the anaerobes tested (MIC(90) < or = 0.5 mg/L) and was bactericidal against both beta-lactamase-positive and -negative anaerobes, with a maximum bactericidal effect at 10 x (...) Faropenem, a new oral penem: antibacterial activity against selected anaerobic and fastidious periodontal isolates. The in vitro activity of faropenem, an oral penem, was compared with those of penicillin, co-amoxiclav, cefoxitin, clindamycin, erythromycin and metronidazole against 106 isolates of anaerobic pathogens involved in systemic infections. The organisms tested comprised Porphyromonas gingivalis (29), Prevotella spp. (eight), Prevotella melaninogenica (seven), Prevotella intermedia

2003 Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy

136522. Hospitalization, a risk factor for antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli in the community? Full Text available with Trip Pro

Hospitalization, a risk factor for antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli in the community? The impact of hospitalization on the prevalence of resistant Escherichia coli in the intestinal flora of patients admitted to the surgical wards of three Dutch university-affiliated hospitals was analysed prospectively.Faecal samples were obtained on admission to the hospital, at the time of discharge, and 1 and 6 months after discharge. All samples were examined for resistance to nine antibiotic (...) characteristics and the marked variations in antibiotic use, no significant differences in the prevalence of antibiotic resistance were observed between the three hospitals, except for the overall higher prevalence of cefazolin-resistant E. coli in azM patients (P < 0.05).In this study, hospitalization did not seem to have any substantial effect on the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant E. coli at the different time intervals. However, as our study population consisted of surgical patients with a relatively

2003 Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy

136523. Antibiotic susceptibility and serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates from Hungary. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Antibiotic susceptibility and serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates from Hungary. Hungary has reported one of the highest incidences of penicillin resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae in Europe since the 1970s and is still cited accordingly. However, since the end of the 1990s the resistance of pneumococci in Hungary has not been investigated. In this study we assessed the current situation, particularly to establish whether the incidence of resistance is increasing and if this could (...) be related to the spread of specific strain types.Isolates of S. pneumoniae (n = 304) were collected by five diagnostic laboratories in Hungary in 2000-2002. Their identity was confirmed and their susceptibilities to 16 antibiotics were determined by the agar dilution method according to NCCLS guidelines. Representative strains were serotyped (n = 112).We found significantly lower resistance rates for penicillin compared with the data previously reported from Hungary, but the intermediate resistance

2003 Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy

136524. Stability and in vitro efficacy of antibiotic-heparin lock solutions potentially useful for treatment of central venous catheter-related sepsis. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Stability and in vitro efficacy of antibiotic-heparin lock solutions potentially useful for treatment of central venous catheter-related sepsis. Increasing numbers of patients for whom infection is a major risk are dependent on central venous catheters. Antibiotic-anticoagulant locks may have a role in preventing or treating catheter-related infections. The aim of this study was to determine the in vitro stability and efficacy of antibiotic-heparin lock solutions.Candidate antibiotics (amikacin (...) , ciprofloxacin, flucloxacillin, gentamicin, linezolid, teicoplanin) were investigated in vitro, either individually or in combination, in solution with heparin. The solutions were initially tested for visual precipitation. The efficacy of stable solutions and taurolidine was then tested in a catheter model bioassay system against microorganisms commonly encountered in catheter-related septicaemia.In general, lower concentrations of heparin (antibiotics resulted in precipitation

2003 Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy

136525. AUC(0-t)/MIC is a continuous index of fluoroquinolone exposure and predictive of antibacterial response for Streptococcus pneumoniae in an in vitro infection model. Full Text available with Trip Pro

AUC(0-t)/MIC is a continuous index of fluoroquinolone exposure and predictive of antibacterial response for Streptococcus pneumoniae in an in vitro infection model. To conduct a comprehensive pharmacodynamic analysis of moxifloxacin and levofloxacin against Streptococcus pneumoniae in an in vitro infection model.In dose escalation studies, single doses with peak concentrations equivalent to 1 x, 2 x, 4 x, 8 x, 16 x and 32 x MIC against two isolates of S. pneumoniae were studied over 24 h (...) . Traditional pharmacodynamic indices, including peak concentration divided by MIC (peak/MIC), time of concentration above MIC (T > MIC) and AUC24/MIC, were estimated for all regimens. As a continuous index of fluoroquinolone exposure, AUC0-t/MIC was also calculated, as AUC from time 0 to 1, 2 and 6 h divided by MIC. Correlations between pharmacodynamic indices and antibacterial effects were examined using linear and non-linear methods. In validation experiments, the pharmacodynamic model was used

2003 Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy

136526. Antimicrobial resistance amongst isolates of Streptococcus pyogenes and Staphylococcus aureus in the PROTEKT antimicrobial surveillance programme during 1999-2000. (Abstract)

Antimicrobial resistance amongst isolates of Streptococcus pyogenes and Staphylococcus aureus in the PROTEKT antimicrobial surveillance programme during 1999-2000. The pattern of susceptibility to a range of antimicrobials was tested for 1485 isolates of Streptococcus pyogenes and 1547 isolates of Staphylococcus aureus included in the international PROTEKT (Prospective Resistant Organism Tracking and Epidemiology for the Ketolide Telithromycin) surveillance study (1999-2000). Overall, almost 10

2002 Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy

136527. Additive, indifferent and antagonistic effects in combinations of epigallocatechin gallate with 12 non-beta-lactam antibiotics against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. (Abstract)

Additive, indifferent and antagonistic effects in combinations of epigallocatechin gallate with 12 non-beta-lactam antibiotics against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Additive, indifferent and antagonistic effects were observed in combinations of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCg, a main constituent of tea catechins) with12 non-beta-lactam antibiotics against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The combinations of EGCg with the inhibitors of either protein or nucleic (...) acid synthesis showed additive or indifferent effects. These antibiotics included tetracycline, minocycline, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, gentamicin, kanamycin, erythromycin, rifampicin and ofloxacin. In contrast, EGCg showed an antagonistic tendency against glycopeptide antibiotics (vancomycin, teicoplanin and polymyxin B). The common property of these antibiotics is the peptide backbone structure, suggesting a direct binding of EGCg with the antibiotics. The above results indicate that tea

2002 Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy

136528. A population study of first exposure to community antibacterials in children and the suitability of routine urine samples for study of the acquisition of drug resistance. (Abstract)

A population study of first exposure to community antibacterials in children and the suitability of routine urine samples for study of the acquisition of drug resistance. The study objectives were to measure time from birth to first exposure to antibacterials in children and compare the characteristics of children who submit urine samples with the general population. Antibacterials were dispensed to 63% of children within 1 year of birth, increasing to 75% within 2 years after birth. Boys had (...) earlier exposure to antibacterials than girls. Children submitting urine samples were more likely to be socio-economically deprived, have prior exposure to antibacterials and have prior hospital admission. In conclusion, urine samples are unsuitable for a prospective cohort study of the relationship between antibacterial exposure and resistance in children.

2002 Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy

136529. Phenotypes of macrolide resistance of group A streptococci isolated from outpatients in Bavaria and susceptibility to 16 antibiotics. (Abstract)

Phenotypes of macrolide resistance of group A streptococci isolated from outpatients in Bavaria and susceptibility to 16 antibiotics. The purpose of the present study was to determine the antimicrobial resistance among Streptococcus pyogenes in Bavaria, Germany. Five hundred and forty isolates of S. pyogenes were collected from patients with tonsillopharyngitis. Of these, 425 isolates were obtained from children and 115 from adult patients. All isolates were tested for susceptibility (...) to macrolides, clindamycin, penicillin and 10 other commonly prescribed antimicrobial agents, using broth microdilution tests. All isolates were fully susceptible to penicillin, amoxicillin and cephalosporins; 16.1% of the isolates were resistant to tetracycline. MIC(90) values of erythromycin, clarithromycin, azithromycin and josamycin were 16, 4, 16 and 0.5 mg/L. The overall resistance rate of S. pyogenes to erythromycin, clarithromycin and azithromycin was 13.3%. All isolates resistant to erythromycin

2003 Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy

136530. A comparison of antibiotic regimens in the treatment of acute melioidosis in a mouse model. (Abstract)

A comparison of antibiotic regimens in the treatment of acute melioidosis in a mouse model. Melioidosis is caused by the Gram-negative bacillus Burkholderia pseudomallei. Most clinical reports of disease are from south-east Asia and northern Australia. The organism is intrinsically resistant to most commonly available antibiotics. Standard therapy includes ceftazidime either alone or in combination with co-trimoxazole. The clinical advantage in adding co-trimoxazole has never been determined (...) ; nor has the activity of newer, fourth-generation cephalosporins, such as cefepime, been studied in the treatment of this condition. BALB/c mice have been shown to represent an animal model of melioidosis. This animal model was used in this study to compare the efficacy of ceftazidime and cefepime alone or with co-trimoxazole, in the therapy of melioidosis. Antibiotic levels in the mice were determined by HPLC, and dosing was modified to keep plasma antibiotic levels at or above the MIC

2003 Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy

136531. Antibacterial effect of beta-thujaplicin on staphylococci isolated from atopic dermatitis: relationship between changes in the number of viable bacterial cells and clinical improvement in an eczematous lesion of atopic dermatitis. (Abstract)

Antibacterial effect of beta-thujaplicin on staphylococci isolated from atopic dermatitis: relationship between changes in the number of viable bacterial cells and clinical improvement in an eczematous lesion of atopic dermatitis. Beta-thujaplicin (hinokitiol) is a tropolone-related compound purified from the wood of Chamaecyparis obtusa, SIEB: et Zucc. and Thuja plicata D. Don. All Staphylococcus aureus isolates were inhibited by beta-thujaplicin with MICs of 1.56-3.13 mg/L. However (...) , a paradoxical zone phenomenon occurred, with each isolate producing regrowth at higher beta-thujaplicin concentrations. Other antimicrobial agents showed a wide range of MICs. The combination of beta-thujaplicin and zinc oxide inhibited the paradoxical zone phenomenon, and enhanced killing activity against clinically isolated staphylococci. Large numbers of viable bacterial cells, especially S. aureus cells, were detected in the skin surface of atopic dermatitis, in comparison with those in healthy

2003 Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy

136532. Antibacterial poly(D,L-lactic acid) coating of medical implants using a biodegradable drug delivery technology. (Abstract)

Antibacterial poly(D,L-lactic acid) coating of medical implants using a biodegradable drug delivery technology. Biomaterial-associated bacterial infections present common and challenging complications with medical implants. The purpose of this study was to determine the antibacterial properties of a low molecular weight biodegradable poly(D,L-lactic acid) coating with integrated antibiotics gentamicin and teicoplanin.Coating of Kirschner-wires was carried out by a solvent casting technique (...) under aseptic conditions with and without incorporated antibiotics. Release kinetics of gentamicin and teicoplanin were studied in phosphate-buffered saline. Initial bacterial adhesion of Staphylococcus epidermidis on coated and bare implants was determined by radiolabelling and counts of detached viable organisms.The incorporated antibiotics showed a continuous release over a period of at least 96 h with an initial peak of release in the first 6 h. Attachment of non-viable microorganisms, detected

2003 Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy

136533. Antibiotic resistance genes and Salmonella genomic island 1 in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium isolated in Italy. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Antibiotic resistance genes and Salmonella genomic island 1 in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium isolated in Italy. Fifty-four epidemiologically unrelated multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium isolates, collected between 1992 and 2000 in Italy, were analyzed for the presence of integrons. Strains were also tested for Salmonella genomic island 1 (SGI1), carrying antibiotic resistance genes in DT104 strains. A complete SGI1 was found in the majority of the DT104

2002 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

136534. Method for estimation of low outer membrane permeability to beta-lactam antibiotics. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Method for estimation of low outer membrane permeability to beta-lactam antibiotics. The outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria plays a major role in beta-lactam resistance as it slows down antibiotic entry into the periplasm and therefore acts in synergy with beta-lactamases and efflux systems. Up to now, the quantitative estimation of low outer membrane permeability by the method of Zimmermann and Rosselet was difficult because of the secreted and cell surface-associated beta-lactamases

2002 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

136535. Occurrence of antibiotic resistance gene cassettes aac(6')-Ib, dfrA5, dfrA12, and ereA2 in class I integrons in non-O1, non-O139 Vibrio cholerae strains in India. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Occurrence of antibiotic resistance gene cassettes aac(6')-Ib, dfrA5, dfrA12, and ereA2 in class I integrons in non-O1, non-O139 Vibrio cholerae strains in India. Molecular mechanisms of multidrug resistance in Vibrio cholerae belonging to non-O1, non-O139 serogroups isolated during 1997 to 1998 in Calcutta, India, were investigated. Out of the 94 strains examined, 22 strains were found to have class I integrons. The gene cassettes identified were dfrA1, dfrA15, dfrA5, and dfrA12 (...) strains, class I integrons resided either on chromosomes, on plasmids, or on both. Our results indicated that besides class I integrons and plasmids, a conjugative transposon element, SXT, possibly contributed to the multiple antibiotic resistance.

2002 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

136536. Efficacies of quinupristin-dalfopristin combined with vancomycin in vitro and in experimental endocarditis due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in relation to cross-resistance to macrolides, lincosamides, and streptogramin B- type antibiotic Full Text available with Trip Pro

Efficacies of quinupristin-dalfopristin combined with vancomycin in vitro and in experimental endocarditis due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in relation to cross-resistance to macrolides, lincosamides, and streptogramin B- type antibiotic A beneficial effect of the combination of quinupristin-dalfopristin and vancomycin was observed against two methicillin-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus harboring or not harboring the ermC gene, which codes for constitutive macrolide

2002 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

136537. Antibiotic susceptibilities of Parachlamydia acanthamoeba in amoebae. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Antibiotic susceptibilities of Parachlamydia acanthamoeba in amoebae. Parachlamydia acanthamoeba are intracellular bacteria of amoebae and are considered potential etiological agents of human pneumonia. We have determined the in vitro antibiotic susceptibilities of two strains (strain Bn(9) and Hall's coccus) in Acanthamoeba polyphaga. The two strains were susceptible to tetracyclines, macrolides, and rifampin, but resistant to fluoroquinolones.

2002 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

136538. Antibiotic susceptibilities of Anaplasma (Ehrlichia) phagocytophilum strains from various geographic areas in the United States. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Antibiotic susceptibilities of Anaplasma (Ehrlichia) phagocytophilum strains from various geographic areas in the United States. We tested the antibiotic susceptibilities of eight strains of Anaplasma phagocytophilum (the agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis) collected in various geographic areas of the United States, including Minnesota, Wisconsin, California, and New York. The results are homogeneous and show that doxycycline, rifampin, and levofloxacin are the most active antibiotics

2003 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

136539. A glutamate mutase is involved in the biosynthesis of the lipopeptide antibiotic friulimicin in Actinoplanes friuliensis. Full Text available with Trip Pro

A glutamate mutase is involved in the biosynthesis of the lipopeptide antibiotic friulimicin in Actinoplanes friuliensis. Actinoplanes friuliensis produces the lipopeptide antibiotic friulimicin. This antibiotic is active against gram-positive bacteria such as multiresistant Enterococcus and Staphylococcus strains. It consists of 10 amino acids that form a ring structure and 1 exocyclic amino acid to which an acyl residue is attached. By a reverse genetic approach, biosynthetic genes were (...) identified that are required for the nonribosomal synthesis of the antibiotic. In close proximity two genes (glmA and glmB) were found which are involved in the production of methylaspartate, one of the amino acids of the peptide core. Methylaspartate is synthesized by a glutamate mutase mechanism, which was up to now only described for glutamate fermentation in Clostridium sp. or members of the family ENTEROBACTERIACEAE: The active enzyme consists of two subunits, and the corresponding genes overlap

2003 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

136540. MC21-A, a bactericidal antibiotic produced by a new marine bacterium, Pseudoalteromonas phenolica sp. nov. O-BC30(T), against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Full Text available with Trip Pro

MC21-A, a bactericidal antibiotic produced by a new marine bacterium, Pseudoalteromonas phenolica sp. nov. O-BC30(T), against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. We previously reported a new marine bacterium, Pseudoalteromonas phenolica sp. nov. O-BC30(T), which produced a bactericidal antibiotic against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). In the present study, we purified an anti-MRSA substance (MC21-A) from the methanol extract of the cells of P. phenolica O-BC30(T

2003 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

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