How to Trip Rapid Review

Step 1: Select articles relevant to your search (remember the system is only optimised for single intervention studies)

Step 2: press

Step 3: review the result, and maybe amend the or if you know better! If we're unsure of the overall sentiment of the trial we will display the conclusion under the article title. We then require you to tell us what the correct sentiment is.

136,833 results for

antibiotics

by
...
Latest & greatest
Alerts

Export results

Use check boxes to select individual results below

SmartSearch available

Trip's SmartSearch engine has discovered connected searches & results. Click to show

136421. Variant Salmonella genomic island 1 antibiotic resistance gene cluster in Salmonella enterica serovar Albany. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Variant Salmonella genomic island 1 antibiotic resistance gene cluster in Salmonella enterica serovar Albany. Salmonella genomic island 1 (SGI1) contains an antibiotic resistance gene cluster and has been previously identified in multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serovars Typhimurium DT104, Agona, and Paratyphi B. We identified a variant SGI1 antibiotic-resistance gene cluster in a multidrug-resistant strain of S. enterica serovar Albany isolated from food fish from Thailand and imported (...) to France. In this strain, the streptomycin resistance aadA2 gene cassette in one of the SGI1 integrons was replaced by a dfrA1 gene cassette, conferring resistance to trimethoprim and an open reading frame of unknown function. Thus, this serovar Albany strain represents the fourth S. enterica serovar in which SGI1 has been identified and the first SGI1 example where gene cassette replacement took place in one of its integron structures. The antibiotic resistance gene cluster of serovar Albany strain

2003 Emerging Infectious Diseases

136422. An ounce of prevention is a ton of work: mass antibiotic prophylaxis for anthrax, New York City, 2001. Full Text available with Trip Pro

An ounce of prevention is a ton of work: mass antibiotic prophylaxis for anthrax, New York City, 2001. Protocols for mass antibiotic prophylaxis against anthrax were under development in New York City beginning in early 1999. This groundwork allowed the city's Department of Health to rapidly respond in 2001 to six situations in which cases were identified or anthrax spores were found. The key aspects of planning and lessons learned from each of these mass prophylaxis operations are reviewed (...) . Antibiotic distribution was facilitated by limiting medical histories to issues relevant to prescribing prophylactic antibiotic therapy, formatting medical records to facilitate rapid decision making, and separating each component activity into discrete work stations. Successful implementation of mass prophylaxis operations was characterized by clarity of mission and eligibility criteria, well-defined lines of authority and responsibilities, effective communication, collaboration among city agencies

2003 Emerging Infectious Diseases

136423. Using hospital antibiogram data to assess regional pneumococcal resistance to antibiotics. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Using hospital antibiogram data to assess regional pneumococcal resistance to antibiotics. Antimicrobial resistance to penicillin and macrolides in Streptococcus pneumoniae has increased in the United States over the past decade. Considerable geographic variation in susceptibility necessitates regional resistance tracking. Traditional active surveillance is labor intensive and costly. We collected antibiogram reports from North Carolina hospitals and assessed pneumococcal susceptibility (...) to multiple agents from 1996 through 2000. Susceptibility in North Carolina was consistently lower than the national average. Aggregating antibiogram data is a feasible and timely method of monitoring regional susceptibility patterns and may also prove beneficial in measuring the effects of interventions to decrease antimicrobial resistance.

2003 Emerging Infectious Diseases

136424. Failure of macrolide antibiotic treatment in patients with bacteremia due to erythromycin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Failure of macrolide antibiotic treatment in patients with bacteremia due to erythromycin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae. The rate of macrolide resistance among Streptococcus pneumoniae is increasing, but some investigators have questioned its clinical relevance. We conducted a matched case-control study of patients with bacteremic pneumococcal infection at 4 hospitals to determine whether development of breakthrough bacteremia during macrolide treatment was related to macrolide

2002 Clinical Infectious Diseases

136425. The battle against emerging antibiotic resistance: should fluoroquinolones be used to treat children? Full Text available with Trip Pro

The battle against emerging antibiotic resistance: should fluoroquinolones be used to treat children? Inappropriate use of antibiotic drugs in humans and animals has led to widespread resistance among microbial pathogens. Resistance is the phenotypic expression corresponding to genetic changes caused by either mutation or acquisition of new genetic information. In some cases, multidrug resistance occurs. Streptococcus pneumoniae is one of the most important respiratory pathogens, playing (...) a major role in both upper and lower respiratory tract infections. Pneumococcal resistance to antimicrobials may be acquired by means of horizontal transfer followed by homologous recombination of genetic material from the normal flora of the human oral cavity or by means of mutation. Resistance to penicillins and macrolides has been increasing for some time, but, recently, fluoroquinolone resistance has become an issue as well. We are concerned that, if fluoroquinolones are approved for use

2002 Clinical Infectious Diseases

136426. Successful use of oral linezolid as a single active agent in endocarditis unresponsive to conventional antibiotic therapy. (Abstract)

Successful use of oral linezolid as a single active agent in endocarditis unresponsive to conventional antibiotic therapy. Treatment of resistant gram-positive endocarditis is difficult. We report a case of resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis endocarditis that failed to respond to conventional antibiotic therapy but was treated successfully with an oral regimen of a new antibiotic, linezolid as a single active agent. This case report demonstrates the use of linezolid as an effective (...) alternative to conventional antibiotics in such cases.

2003 Journal of Infection

136427. Do resident physicians use antibiotics appropriately in treating upper respiratory infections? A survey of 11 programs. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Do resident physicians use antibiotics appropriately in treating upper respiratory infections? A survey of 11 programs. We surveyed resident physicians of 11 primary care programs regarding the management of upper respiratory infections and antibiotic resistance. Although they viewed excess antibiotic use as the most important factor increasing resistance, they had little knowledge regarding antimicrobial resistance and were willing to prescribe antibiotics for common viral illnesses.

2003 Clinical Infectious Diseases

136428. An international prospective study of pneumococcal bacteremia: correlation with in vitro resistance, antibiotics administered, and clinical outcome. Full Text available with Trip Pro

An international prospective study of pneumococcal bacteremia: correlation with in vitro resistance, antibiotics administered, and clinical outcome. We performed a prospective, international, observational study of 844 hospitalized patients with blood cultures positive for Streptococcus pneumoniae. Fifteen percent of isolates had in vitro intermediate susceptibility to penicillin (minimum inhibitory concentration [MIC], 0.12-1 microg/mL), and 9.6% of isolates were resistant (MIC, >or=2 microg (...) /mL). Age, severity of illness, and underlying disease with immunosuppression were significantly associated with mortality; penicillin resistance was not a risk factor for mortality. The impact of concordant antibiotic therapy (i.e., receipt of a single antibiotic with in vitro activity against S. pneumoniae) versus discordant therapy (inactive in vitro) on mortality was assessed at 14 days. Discordant therapy with penicillins, cefotaxime, and ceftriaxone (but not cefuroxime) did not result

2003 Clinical Infectious Diseases

136429. Neisseria meningitidis strains isolated from invasive infections in France (1999-2002): phenotypes and antibiotic susceptibility patterns. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Neisseria meningitidis strains isolated from invasive infections in France (1999-2002): phenotypes and antibiotic susceptibility patterns. Infections due to Neisseria meningitidis are a major public health concern. In France, during 1999-2002, a total of 2167 clinical isolates of N. meningitidis from invasive infections were studied at the National Reference Center for Meningococci (Paris). Serogroup B strains were the most common (58%), followed by serogroup C strains (29%) and serogroup W135 (...) strains (8%). Various phenotypes were observed, reflecting heterogeneity in the meningococcal population. Strains were susceptible to antibiotics currently used for treatment and chemoprophylaxis of meningococcal infections. However, the prevalence of meningococci with reduced susceptibility to penicillin is increasing. Such strains were heterogeneous and accounted for approximately 30% of isolates during this period, warranting continued surveillance of this phenomenon.

2003 Clinical Infectious Diseases

136430. Outcomes analysis of delayed antibiotic treatment for hospital-acquired Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Outcomes analysis of delayed antibiotic treatment for hospital-acquired Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of delayed therapy on morbidity and mortality associated with nosocomial Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia. The study included all episodes of S. aureus bacteremia that developed >2 days after hospital admission during 1999 to 2001. Classification and regression tree analysis (CART) was used to select the mortality breakpoint between

2003 Clinical Infectious Diseases

136431. The inventory of antibiotics in Russian home medicine cabinets. Full Text available with Trip Pro

The inventory of antibiotics in Russian home medicine cabinets. The objective of this study was to inventory the stock of antimicrobials in the home medicine cabinets (HMCs) of the general population in Russia and to find out for which indications people report that they would use antibiotics without a physician's recommendation. The research was performed in 9 Russian cities by physicians who visited households. An inventory of antibiotics in HMCs was made, and respondents were asked about (...) instances in which they would choose automedication with antibiotics. We found that 83.6% of families had antibiotics for systemic use in HMCs. The most common antibiotics in HMCs were trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (46.3% of HMCs), ampicillin (45.1%), chloramphenicol (32.7%), erythromycin (25.5%), and tetracycline (21.8%). The major indications for automedication with antibiotics were acute viral respiratory tract infections (12.3% of total indications), cough (11.8%), intestinal disorders (11.3

2003 Clinical Infectious Diseases

136432. Pre-hospital parenteral antibiotic treatment of meningococcal disease and case fatality: a Danish population-based cohort study. (Abstract)

Pre-hospital parenteral antibiotic treatment of meningococcal disease and case fatality: a Danish population-based cohort study. Studies about the efficiency of pre-hospital antibiotic treatment of meningococcal disease are conflicting. We examined the case fatality rate in patients with meningococcal disease treated with pre-hospital antibiotics.A cohort study of 534 patients hospitalized with meningococcal disease from two Danish counties. Clinical data were obtained from referral letters (...) from general practitioners and hospital records. Complete follow-up for all patient until death or discharge.Seventy-seven patients (16% of the patients seen by a general practitioner) received parenteral antibiotics before hospital admission; 9 (12%) of them died. Of 402 patients who did not receive pre-hospital parenteral antibiotics, 26 (7%) died. The overall risk of case fatality among antibiotic-treated patients was increased with adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 2.4 (95% CI, 1.0-5.6). Meningococcus

2002 Journal of Infection

136433. Antibiotic prophylaxis for dental or urological procedures following hip or knee replacement. (Abstract)

Antibiotic prophylaxis for dental or urological procedures following hip or knee replacement. Reports of prosthetic joint infection associated with urological or dental procedures have prompted suggestions that these patients require antibiotic prophylaxis, but no guidelines have been agreed. We have polled orthopaedic surgeons, urologists, and dentists on this issue.The questions asked were: could infection of a joint prosthesis result from a dental or urological procedure; does the risk (...) of infection warrant patients informing their dentist or urologist about their joint replacement; should these patients have prophylactic antibiotics for (a) routine procedures and (b) lengthy procedures.Urologists and orthopaedic surgeons agreed that infection could probably result from urological procedures and that patients should definitely inform their urologist about their prosthesis. Orthopaedic surgeons thought that antibiotics were definitely indicated for routine and lengthy urological procedures

2002 Journal of Infection

136434. Antibiotic prescribing and penicillin-resistant pneumococci in a Merseyside Health District. (Abstract)

Antibiotic prescribing and penicillin-resistant pneumococci in a Merseyside Health District. To measure the effects of antibiotic prescribing changes in the community on the prevalence of penicillin-resistant pneumococci.Penicillin-resistant pneumococci were isolated from clinical samples taken from 549 patients between January 1987 and December 2000. Changes in the percentage of penicillin-resistant pneumococci isolated over the 14-year period and changes in prescribing practices were (...) determined.Between January 1987 and December 2000, the prevalence of penicillin resistant pneumococci increased from 1.4% to a peak of 12.9% in 1997, subsequently falling to 8.9% after changes in antibiotic prescribing practices in the community. Over 65% of isolates were community acquired with 53% of patients having received antibiotics in the 3 months prior to their first isolate. Thirteen patients had a history of recent travel abroad.Reduction in antibiotic prescribing in general practice was followed

2003 Journal of Infection

136435. Assessment of antibiotic prescription in hospitalised patients at a Chinese university hospital. (Abstract)

Assessment of antibiotic prescription in hospitalised patients at a Chinese university hospital. To describe and understand antibiotic prescribing in hospitalised patients in a university hospital.Retrospective study using clinical data on antibiotic prescriptions in 1025 inpatient cases chosen from 21,000 inpatients in our hospital in 1997 by systematic sampling.Antibiotics were prescribed to 77.8% of inpatients, among which 55.2% were prescribed two or more kinds of antibiotics. In 58.5 (...) % of cases, antibiotic prescriptions were given therapeutically. Only 39 specimens in 1025 cases were taken for microbiological investigation.Few microbiological investigations were undertaken prior to antibiotic prescribing. The main challenges in the antibiotic prescribing are to make rational choices for antibiotic use and recognise the potential problems of abuse of antibiotics.

2003 Journal of Infection

136436. Population structure and antibiotic resistance of Acinetobacter DNA group 2 and 13TU isolates from hospitals in the UK. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Population structure and antibiotic resistance of Acinetobacter DNA group 2 and 13TU isolates from hospitals in the UK. A total of 287 Acinetobacter isolates belonging to DNA groups 2 (A. baumannii) and 13TU was collected consecutively from 46 hospitals and typed by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA fingerprinting with primers DAF-4 and ERIC-2. With a similarity coefficient of >/=72% as a cut-off value, 37 clusters of genotypically similar isolates (genotypes) were recognised. Four major (...) clusters, found in 15, 12, 12 and 8 hospitals respectively, accounted for 42% of isolates, but only three of these predominant clusters were associated with outbreaks of infection in individual hospitals. Many of the isolates were resistant to multiple antibiotics, including expanded-spectrum beta-lactam agents, aminoglycosides, tetracyclines and fluoroquinolones, but >98% remained susceptible to carbapenems and colistin. Overall, the study demonstrated that a heterogeneous population of Acinetobacter

2002 Journal of Medical Microbiology

136437. Antibiotic resistance among verocytotoxigenic Escherichia coli (VTEC) and non-VTEC isolated from domestic animals and humans. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Antibiotic resistance among verocytotoxigenic Escherichia coli (VTEC) and non-VTEC isolated from domestic animals and humans. Two hundred verocytotoxigenic and 216 non-verocytotoxigenic Escherichia coli (VTEC and non-VTEC), isolated from a variety of sources were tested for their resistances to 11 antimicrobial agents. The strains included isolates from domestic food animals and both symptomatic and asymptomatic infections in man. A much higher level of resistance was found among the non-VTEC (...) than among the VTEC, regardless of source. The resistant VTEC isolated from animals were predominantly from specimens associated with sick animals. Antibiotic resistance was detected in only four of the 59 (6.8 %) VTEC of human origin, whereas more of the human non-VTEC possessed antibiotic resistance determinants. It was particularly noteworthy that 24/87 (28 %) strains isolated from healthy babies, who had neither contact with antibiotics nor had gastrointestinal symptoms for at least 2 weeks

2003 Journal of Medical Microbiology

136438. Species prevalence and antibacterial resistance of enterococci isolated in Kuwait hospitals. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Species prevalence and antibacterial resistance of enterococci isolated in Kuwait hospitals. This study investigated the species prevalence and antibacterial resistance among enterococci isolated in Kuwait hospitals. They consisted of 415 isolates of Enterococcus faecalis (85.3 %), Enterococcus faecium (7.7 %), Enterococcus casseliflavus (4.0 %), Enterococcus avium (1.2 %), Enterococcus durans (1.0 %), Enterococcus gallinarium (0.5 %) and Enterococcus bovis (0.2 %) isolated from urine (36.6

2003 Journal of Medical Microbiology

136439. Effects of sub-MIC concentrations of antibiotics on growth of and toxin production by Clostridium difficile. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Effects of sub-MIC concentrations of antibiotics on growth of and toxin production by Clostridium difficile. Effects on growth and toxin A production of sub-MIC concentrations of six different antibiotics were investigated in three strains of Clostridium difficile: reference strain NCTC 11223, a fully sequenced strain (630) and a locally endemic isolate (strain 338a). The antibiotics chosen for investigation were the agents used to treat C. difficile-associated disease (CDAD), i.e. vancomycin (...) and metronidazole, and four antibiotics that are commonly involved in precipitating CDAD (amoxycillin, clindamycin, cefoxitin and ceftriaxone). Strains were cultured in sublethal concentrations of antibiotics (1/2, 1/4 and 1/8 MIC) over 104 h and growth and toxin A production were measured three times a day. Effects varied between strain and antibiotic. The most common effect on growth of the strains was to increase the initial lag period by approximately 4 h, compared with antibiotic-free controls; however

2003 Journal of Medical Microbiology

136440. Changes in sensitivity patterns to selected antibiotics in Clostridium difficile in geriatric in-patients over an 18-month period. (Abstract)

Changes in sensitivity patterns to selected antibiotics in Clostridium difficile in geriatric in-patients over an 18-month period. Clostridium difficile-associated disease continues to be a major problem in hospitals and long-term care facilities throughout the developed world. Administration of certain antibiotics such as amoxycillin, oral cephalosporins and clindamycin is associated with the greatest risk of developing C. difficile disease. The two antibiotics used for treatment of C (...) ), with no evidence of resistance. All strains were resistant to cefoxitin (MIC 64-256 microg ml(-1)), the antibiotic used in most selective media. All strains were of similar sensitivity to amoxycillin (MIC(90)= 4 microg ml(-1)). Most strains were resistant to ceftriaxone (MIC > or = 64 microg ml(-1)) or of intermediate resistance (MIC > or = 32 microg ml(-1)), with only two sensitive strains (MIC 16 microg ml(-1)). Clindamycin resistance was common, with 67 % of strains resistant (MIC > or = 8 microg ml(-1

2003 Journal of Medical Microbiology

To help you find the content you need quickly, you can filter your results via the categories on the right-hand side >>>>