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antibiotic resistance

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161. Do Antibiotics Improve Outcomes in Patients With Acute Asthma Exacerbations? Full Text available with Trip Pro

with inhaled β-agonists and corticosteroids. A minority of asthma exacerbations are due to bacterial infection. Antibiotics stewardship means being judicious about their use to limit adverse events, resistance, and unnecessary cost. Although the guidance is clear on administering antibiotics for asthma only when physical examination signs or ancillary testing is suggestive of bacterial infection, x 2 British Thoracic Society; Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network. British guideline on the management (...) . There was significant clinical heterogeneity between studies and patient populations (despite low statistical heterogeneity), including different treatment settings and different antibiotic regimens (type of drug and route). Furthermore, one of the aims of the meta-analysis was to assess adverse events, but too few were reported, rendering the studies underpowered. Also, there is no mechanism to identify the effect of antibiotics given in these studies on development of drug-resistant organisms. This review

2020 Annals of Emergency Medicine Systematic Review Snapshots

162. What Is the Utility of Prophylactic Antibiotics for Patients After Cardiac Arrest? Full Text available with Trip Pro

on Resuscitation; the American Heart Association Emergency Cardiovascular Care Committee; the Council on Cardiovascular Surgery and Anesthesia; the Council on Cardiopulmonary, Perioperative, and Critical Care; the Council on Clinical Cardiology; the Council on Stroke. Resuscitation . 2008 ; 79 : 350–379 | | | | | Consequently, prophylactic antibiotics may seem reasonable in this population. However, it is important to balance this against the need for antimicrobial stewardship. Although this study demonstrated (...) . The duration of antibiotic administration was not available for any of the studies. It is also possible that the infection may have been resistant to the chosen antibiotic and that a different antibiotic may have been more effective. Moreover, studies were conducted over a wide range of time, with several of them conducted before modern advances in resuscitation, including therapeutic hypothermia. There was also significant statistical heterogeneity for all of the outcomes except overall mortality. Studies

2020 Annals of Emergency Medicine Systematic Review Snapshots

163. Cefiderocol (Fetcroja) - antibiotic

involved 152 adults with various serious infections caused by bacteria that were resistant to carbapenems (could not be killed by antibiotics called carbapenems). For lung infections, 50% of patients treated with Fetcroja were cured based on a lack of symptoms, compared with 53% of Fetcroja (cefiderocol) EMA/115665/2020 Page 2/2 those treated with the best alternative treatment. For bloodstream infections, these figures were 44% and 43%, respectively. For complicated urinary tract infections, 53 (...) Cefiderocol (Fetcroja) - antibiotic Official address Domenico Scarlattilaan 6 ? 1083 HS Amsterdam ? The Netherlands An agency of the European Union Address for visits and deliveries Refer to www.ema.europa.eu/how-to-find-us Send us a question Go to www.ema.europa.eu/contact Telephone +31 (0)88 781 6000 © European Medicines Agency, 2020. Reproduction is authorised provided the source is acknowledged. EMA/115665/2020 EMEA/H/C/004829 Fetcroja (cefiderocol) An overview of Fetcroja and why

2020 European Medicines Agency - EPARs

164. Prevalence of antimicrobial resistance and potential pathogenicity, and possible spread of third generation cephalosporin resistance, in Escherichia coli isolated from healthy chicken farms in the region of Dakar, Senegal. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Prevalence of antimicrobial resistance and potential pathogenicity, and possible spread of third generation cephalosporin resistance, in Escherichia coli isolated from healthy chicken farms in the region of Dakar, Senegal. Escherichia coli is a normal inhabitant of the intestinal microbiota of chickens, a small proportion of which may be avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC) or potential extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC), capable of causing disease in humans. These E. coli may also (...) be resistant to antimicrobials of critical importance in human or veterinary health. This study aims to 1) determine the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and resistance genes, multidrug resistance (MDR), chromosomal mechanisms of quinolone-resistance and virulence profiles of E. coli isolated from healthy chicken farms in the region of Dakar, Senegal, 2) investigate the spread of third-generation cephalosporins (3GC) resistance in E. coli isolated from healthy chicken farms with respect

2019 PLoS ONE

165. Prospective multi-center evaluation on risk factors, clinical characteristics and outcomes due to carbapenem resistance in <i>Acinetobacter baumannii</i> complex bacteraemia: experience from the Chinese Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance of Nosocomial (Abstract)

Prospective multi-center evaluation on risk factors, clinical characteristics and outcomes due to carbapenem resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii complex bacteraemia: experience from the Chinese Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance of Nosocomial Introduction. Increasing evidence demonstrates unfavourable outcomes in bloodstream infections (BSI) due to the carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii complex (CRAB).Aim. To investigate the differences in risk factors, clinical (...) characteristics and outcomes in patients with A. baumannii complex BSI stratified by carbapenem resistance, a prospective multi-center study was conducted.Methodology. Information was collected in a predefined form. A total of 317 cases was included for comparison between CRAB BSI vs. carbapenem-susceptible A. baumannii complex (CSAB) BSI. Among these cases, 229 cases were defined as CRAB BSI and 88 cases as CSAB BSI.Results. Univariable analysis showed that male gender, underlying neurologic disease, prior

2020 Journal of Medical Microbiology

166. Antimicrobial Resistance in Clinical <i>Ureaplasma</i> spp. and Mycoplasma hominis and Structural Mechanisms Underlying Quinolone Resistance. (Abstract)

Antimicrobial Resistance in Clinical Ureaplasma spp. and Mycoplasma hominis and Structural Mechanisms Underlying Quinolone Resistance. Antibiotic resistance is a global concern; however, data on antibiotic-resistant Ureaplasma spp. and Mycoplasma hominis are limited in comparison to similar data on other microbes. A total of 492 Ureaplasma spp. and 13 M. hominis strains obtained in Hangzhou, China, in 2018 were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing for levofloxacin (...) with gyrase or topoisomerase IV and quinolones. The novel mutations S21A in the L4 protein and G2654T and T2245C in 23S rRNA and the ermB gene were identified in erythromycin-resistant Ureaplasma spp. As fluoroquinolone resistance in Ureaplasma spp. and Mycoplasma hominis remains high in China, the rational use of antibiotics needs to be further enhanced.Copyright © 2020 American Society for Microbiology.

2020 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

167. Multidrug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae in hospital-acquired infections: Concomitant analysis of antimicrobial resistant strains. (Abstract)

Multidrug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae in hospital-acquired infections: Concomitant analysis of antimicrobial resistant strains. Hospital-acquired infections caused by K pneumoniae are difficult to eradicate since K pneumoniae carries resistance genes for many antimicrobials, including carbapenems. The study aimed to determine the prevalence of hospital-acquired infections caused by multiple drug-resistant K pneumoniae and identify carbapenem and fluoroquinolone resistance by phenotypic (...) and genotypic methods amongst hospitalised patients.Two hundred and fifty samples from patients with hospital-acquired infections were included. Identification and susceptibility testing for K pneumoniae isolates was performed by standard methods. The detection of carbapenemase resistance (blaKPC , blaVIM-1 and blaOXA-48 ) and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR; qnrA, qnrB and qnrS) genes was performed using PCR assay.Out of 250 samples, 42 (16.8%) were multiple drug-resistant K pneumoniae

2020 International journal of clinical practice

168. Antibiotic resistance thresholds and empiric antibiotic treatment: When do we consider switching?

Antibiotic resistance thresholds and empiric antibiotic treatment: When do we consider switching? Print | PDF PROSPERO This information has been provided by the named contact for this review. CRD has accepted this information in good faith and registered the review in PROSPERO. The registrant confirms that the information supplied for this submission is accurate and complete. CRD bears no responsibility or liability for the content of this registration record, any associated files or external

2020 PROSPERO

169. Antibiotic resistance rates and physician antibiotic prescription patterns of uncomplicated urinary tract infections in southern Chinese primary care. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Antibiotic resistance rates and physician antibiotic prescription patterns of uncomplicated urinary tract infections in southern Chinese primary care. Uncomplicated urinary tract infections (UTI) are common in primary care. Whilst primary care physicians are called to be antimicrobial stewards, there is limited primary care antibiotic resistance surveillance and physician antibiotic prescription data available in southern Chinese primary care. The study aimed to investigate the antibiotic (...) resistance rate and antibiotic prescription patterns in female patients with uncomplicated UTI. Factors associated with antibiotic resistance and prescription was explored. A prospective cohort study was conducted in 12 primary care group clinics in Hong Kong of patients presenting with symptoms of uncomplicated UTI from January 2012 to December 2013. Patients' characteristics such as age, comorbidity, presenting symptoms and prior antibiotic use were recorded by physicians, as well as any empirical

2017 PLoS ONE

170. The effects of antibiotic cycling and mixing on antibiotic resistance in intensive care units: a cluster-randomised crossover trial. (Abstract)

The effects of antibiotic cycling and mixing on antibiotic resistance in intensive care units: a cluster-randomised crossover trial. Whether antibiotic rotation strategies reduce prevalence of antibiotic-resistant, Gram-negative bacteria in intensive care units (ICUs) has not been accurately established. We aimed to assess whether cycling of antibiotics compared with a mixing strategy (changing antibiotic to an alternative class for each consecutive patient) would reduce the prevalence (...) of antibiotic-resistant, Gram-negative bacteria in European intensive care units (ICUs).In a cluster-randomised crossover study, we randomly assigned ICUs to use one of three antibiotic groups (third-generation or fourth-generation cephalosporins, piperacillin-tazobactam, and carbapenems) as preferred empirical treatment during 6-week periods (cycling) or to change preference after every consecutively treated patient (mixing). Computer-based randomisation of intervention and rotated antibiotic sequence

2018 Lancet infectious diseases Controlled trial quality: uncertain

171. Knowledge, attitude and views of migrants in western Europe on antibiotic use and antibiotic resistance: a mixed methods systematic review

Knowledge, attitude and views of migrants in western Europe on antibiotic use and antibiotic resistance: a mixed methods systematic review Print | PDF PROSPERO This information has been provided by the named contact for this review. CRD has accepted this information in good faith and registered the review in PROSPERO. The registrant confirms that the information supplied for this submission is accurate and complete. CRD bears no responsibility or liability for the content of this registration

2020 PROSPERO

172. Antibiotic pressure on the acquisition and loss of antibiotic resistance genes in Klebsiella pneumoniae. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Antibiotic pressure on the acquisition and loss of antibiotic resistance genes in Klebsiella pneumoniae. In this study, we characterize a concurrent disseminated infection with a virulent hypermucoviscous (HMV) Klebsiella pneumoniae and an OXA-181-producing XDR K. pneumoniae from a patient with recent hospitalization in India. During exposure to meropenem therapy, the highly susceptible HMV K. pneumoniae became resistant to carbapenems, consistent with the acquisition of blaOXA-181.Twelve K (...) . pneumoniae belonged to ST147 and possessed two MDR plasmids (IncR and IncFII), the blaOXA-181-bearing ColKP3 plasmid and chromosomal mutations conferring the XDR phenotype. Sequential isolates demonstrated plasmid diversification (fusion of the IncR and IncFII plasmids), mobilization of resistance elements (ompK35 inactivation by ISEcp1-blaCTX-M-15 mobilization, varying numbers of resistance genes on plasmid scaffolds) and chromosomal mutations (mutations in mgrB) leading to further antibiotic resistance

2018 Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy

173. Empiric antibiotic therapy in urinary tract infection in patients with risk factors for antibiotic resistance in a German emergency department. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Empiric antibiotic therapy in urinary tract infection in patients with risk factors for antibiotic resistance in a German emergency department. The aim of this study was to identify clinical risk factors for antimicrobial resistances and multidrug resistance (MDR) in urinary tract infections (UTI) in an emergency department in order to improve empirical therapy.UTI cases from an emergency department (ED) during January 2013 and June 2015 were analyzed. Differences between patients (...) was less than 85% for standard antimicrobial agents. Logistic regression identified residence in nursing homes, male gender, hospitalization within the last 30 days, renal transplantation, antibiotic treatment within the last 30 days, indwelling urinary catheter and recurrent UTI as risk factors for MDR or any of these resistances. For patients with no risk factors Ciprofloxacin had 90%, Pip/taz 88%, Gentamicin 95%, Cefuroxime 98%, Cefpodoxime 98% and Ceftazidime 100% susceptibility. For patients

2018 BMC Infectious Diseases

174. Prevalence of Antibiotic Residues and Antibiotic Resistance in Isolates of Chicken Meat in Korea Full Text available with Trip Pro

Prevalence of Antibiotic Residues and Antibiotic Resistance in Isolates of Chicken Meat in Korea The aim of study was to investigate the correlation between the level of 17 antibiotic residues and 6 antibiotic resistances of Escherichia coli isolates in chicken meats. A total of 58 chicken meats were collected from retail grocery stores in five provinces in Korea. The total detection rate of antibiotic residues was 45% (26 out of 58). Ten out of 17 antibiotics were detected in chicken meats (...) . None of the antibiotics exceeded the maximum residue level (MRLs) in chicken established by the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety (MFDS). The most detected antibiotics were amoxicillin (15.5%), followed by enrofloxacin (12.1%) and sulfamethoxazole (10.3%). In a total of 58 chicken meats, 51 E. coli strains were isolated. E. coli isolates showed the highest resistance to ampicillin (75%), followed by tetracycline (69%), ciprofloxacin (65%), trimethoprim/ sulfamethoxazole (41%), ceftiofur (22

2018 Korean journal for food science of animal resources

176. Functional Repertoire of Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Antibiotic Manufacturing Effluents and Receiving Freshwater Sediments Full Text available with Trip Pro

Functional Repertoire of Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Antibiotic Manufacturing Effluents and Receiving Freshwater Sediments Environments polluted by direct discharges of effluents from antibiotic manufacturing are important reservoirs for antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), which could potentially be transferred to human pathogens. However, our knowledge about the identity and diversity of ARGs in such polluted environments remains limited. We applied functional metagenomics to explore (...) the resistome of two Croatian antibiotic manufacturing effluents and sediments collected upstream of and at the effluent discharge sites. Metagenomic libraries built from an azithromycin-production site were screened for resistance to macrolide antibiotics, whereas the libraries from a site producing veterinary antibiotics were screened for resistance to sulfonamides, tetracyclines, trimethoprim, and beta-lactams. Functional analysis of eight libraries identified a total of 82 unique, often clinically

2018 Frontiers in microbiology

177. Mutations causing low level antibiotic resistance ensure bacterial survival in antibiotic-treated hosts Full Text available with Trip Pro

Mutations causing low level antibiotic resistance ensure bacterial survival in antibiotic-treated hosts In 474 genome sequenced Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from 34 cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, 40% of these harbor mutations in the mexZ gene encoding a negative regulator of the MexXY-OprM efflux pump associated with aminoglycoside and fluoroquinolone resistance. Surprisingly, resistance to aminoglycosides and fluoroquinolones of mexZ mutants was far below the breakpoint of clinical (...) resistance. However, the fitness increase of the mutant bacteria in presence of the relevant antibiotics, as demonstrated in competition experiments between mutant and ancestor bacteria, showed that 1) very small phenotypic changes cause significant fitness increase with severe adaptive consequences, and 2) standardized phenotypic tests fail to detect such low-level variations. The frequent appearance of P. aeruginosa mexZ mutants in CF patients is directly connected to the intense use of the target

2018 Scientific reports

178. The Role of Antibiotic-Target-Modifying and Antibiotic-Modifying Enzymes in Mycobacterium abscessus Drug Resistance Full Text available with Trip Pro

The Role of Antibiotic-Target-Modifying and Antibiotic-Modifying Enzymes in Mycobacterium abscessus Drug Resistance The incidence and prevalence of non-tuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) infections have been increasing worldwide and lately led to an emerging public health problem. Among rapidly growing NTM, Mycobacterium abscessus is the most pathogenic and drug resistant opportunistic germ, responsible for disease manifestations ranging from "curable" skin infections to only "manageable (...) " pulmonary disease. Challenges in M. abscessus treatment stem from the bacteria's high-level innate resistance and comprise long, costly and non-standardized administration of antimicrobial agents, poor treatment outcomes often related to adverse effects and drug toxicities, and high relapse rates. Drug resistance in M. abscessus is conferred by an assortment of mechanisms. Clinically acquired drug resistance is normally conferred by mutations in the target genes. Intrinsic resistance is attributed

2018 Frontiers in microbiology

179. Physicochemical Factors That Favor Conjugation of an Antibiotic Resistant Plasmid in Non-growing Bacterial Cultures in the Absence and Presence of Antibiotics Full Text available with Trip Pro

Physicochemical Factors That Favor Conjugation of an Antibiotic Resistant Plasmid in Non-growing Bacterial Cultures in the Absence and Presence of Antibiotics Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) of antibiotic resistance genes has received increased scrutiny from the scientific community in recent years owing to the public health threat associated with antibiotic resistant bacteria. Most studies have examined HGT in growing cultures. We examined conjugation in growing and non-growing cultures of E (...) . coli using a conjugative multi antibiotic and metal resistant plasmid to determine physiochemical parameters that favor horizontal gene transfer. The conjugation frequency in growing and non-growing cultures was generally greater under shaken than non-shaken conditions, presumably due to increased frequency of cell collisions. Non-growing cultures in 9.1 mM NaCl had a similar conjugation frequency to that of growing cultures in Luria-Bertaini broth, whereas those in 1 mM or 90.1 mM NaCl were much

2018 Frontiers in microbiology

180. Antibacterial and Antibiotic-Potentiating Activities of Thirteen Cameroonian Edible Plants against Gram-Negative Resistant Phenotypes Full Text available with Trip Pro

Antibacterial and Antibiotic-Potentiating Activities of Thirteen Cameroonian Edible Plants against Gram-Negative Resistant Phenotypes This work was designed to investigate the antibacterial activities of methanol extracts from thirteen Cameroonian edible plants and their antibiotic-potentiating effects against Gram-negative multidrug-resistant (MDR) phenotypes. The broth microdilution method was used to evaluate the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (...) (MBC) of the extracts, as well as their antibiotic-potentiating activities. The phytochemical screening of the extracts was carried out according to the standard methods. The results of phytochemical tests revealed the presence of sterols, polyphenols, and tannins in most of the tested extracts, with the other classes of secondary metabolites being selectively distributed. Tested extracts showed variable antibacterial activities with MIC values ranging from 64 to 1024 μg/mL. However, some extracts

2018 The Scientific World Journal

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