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antibiotic resistance

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141. Comparison of clinical manifestations and antibiotic resistances among three genospecies of the Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-Acinetobacter baumannii complex. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Comparison of clinical manifestations and antibiotic resistances among three genospecies of the Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-Acinetobacter baumannii complex. The Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-Acinetobacter baumannii (ACB) complex has emerged as a high priority among hospital-acquired pathogens in intensive care units (ICUs), posing a challenge to infection management practices. In this study, the clinical characteristics, antimicrobial susceptibility patterns, and patients outcome among (...) that the distribution of infection and colonization among the three genospecies were the same, while A. baumannii was more resistant to common antibiotics than A. nosocomialis and A. pittii. Advanced age, a long stay in the ICU, acute physiology and chronic health evaluation (APACHE) II score, the use of a mechanical ventilator, and previous antibiotic use were risk factors for patient infection. The APACHE II score was a risk factor for mortality in patients with ACB complex isolated from tracheal secretions. Poor

2018 PLoS ONE

142. Pneumococcal carriage among sickle cell disease patients in Accra, Ghana: Risk factors, serotypes and antibiotic resistance. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Pneumococcal carriage among sickle cell disease patients in Accra, Ghana: Risk factors, serotypes and antibiotic resistance. Pneumococcal carriage is the precursor for development of pneumococcal disease, and is also responsible for transmission of the organism from person-to-person. Individuals with Sickle Cell Disease (SCD) are more likely to develop invasive disease with S. pneumoniae compared to their healthy counterparts and the presentation of disease in the former is usually abrupt (...) antibiotics ranged from 2.5% (levofloxacin) to 85% (cotrimoxazole). Multidrug resistance occurred among 34.3% (34/99) of the pneumococcal isolates.Pneumococcal carriage was four-fold higher in SCD children than adults and was characterized by predominance of non-vaccine serotypes and considerable level of multidrug resistance, though penicillin, cefotaxime and levofloxacin resistance appeared to be very low.

2018 PLoS ONE

143. Public knowledge and perception about antimicrobials and antimicrobial resistance in Japan: A national questionnaire survey in 2017. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Public knowledge and perception about antimicrobials and antimicrobial resistance in Japan: A national questionnaire survey in 2017. Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a threat to global health. To increase public awareness about AMR and encourage the prudent use of antimicrobials is one of the goals of the National Action Plan in Japan.A nationwide online cross-sectional survey was conducted to evaluate the existing knowledge and perception of AMR in Japan, based on the Antimicrobial Resistance (...) Eurobarometer Survey. Participants included Japanese adults aged 20-69 years, who were not medical professionals.Among a total of 3,390 participants, about half had taken antibiotics over the past 12 months, and majority of them obtained the antimicrobials from healthcare institutions for the common cold. While 11.7% of the participants kept leftover antibiotics, 23.6% of them have adjusted doses by themselves. About 10% of the participants have requested antibiotics from their doctors, and nearly 30

2018 PLoS ONE

144. Acquisition and transfer of antibiotic resistance genes in association with conjugative plasmid or class 1 integrons of Acinetobacter baumannii. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Acquisition and transfer of antibiotic resistance genes in association with conjugative plasmid or class 1 integrons of Acinetobacter baumannii. Conjugation is a type of horizontal gene transfer (HGT) that serves as the primary mechanism responsible for accelerating the spread of antibiotic resistance genes in Gram-negative bacteria. The present study aimed to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the conjugation-mediated gene transfer from the extensively drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (...) were characterized by PCR-based replicon typing and S1-nuclease pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (S1-PFGE). Detection of antibiotic resistance genes and integrase genes (int) was performed using PCR. Results revealed that the donor AB364 strain can transfer the blaOXA-23 and blaPER-1 genes to both recipients in association with int1. A 240-kb plasmid was successfully transferred from the donor AB364 to recipients. In addition, the aphA6 and blaPER-1 genes were co-transferred with the int1 gene from

2018 PLoS ONE

145. Staphylococcus aureus from ocular and otolaryngology infections are frequently resistant to clinically important antibiotics and are associated with lineages of community and hospital origins. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Staphylococcus aureus from ocular and otolaryngology infections are frequently resistant to clinically important antibiotics and are associated with lineages of community and hospital origins. Staphylococcus aureus is an important human pathogen that causes serious antibiotic-resistant infections. Its population structure is marked by the appearance and dissemination of successful lineages across different settings. To begin understanding the population structure of S. aureus causing ocular (...) and otolaryngology infections, we characterized 262 isolates by antimicrobial sensitivity testing and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Methicillin-resistant S. aureus were subjected to SCCmec typing and Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) screening. Although we detected a high level of genetic diversity among methicillin-sensitive (MSSA) isolates, (63 sequence types-STs), the population was dominated by five lineages: ST30, ST5, ST8, ST15 and ST97. Resistance to penicillin, erythromycin and clindamycin

2018 PLoS ONE

146. Characterization of the antibacterial activity of Bald's eyesalve against drug resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Characterization of the antibacterial activity of Bald's eyesalve against drug resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Bald's eyesalve is an Anglo-Saxon medicinal remedy that has been used through ancient times to treat eye sty infections and may represent a source of ancientbiotics. This study assessed the efficacy of Bald's eyesalve against several strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, including a multi-drug resistant phenotype, and identified (...) . Ancientbiotics may provide a source of promising antibacterials; however, identifying the source of activity and assessing distinct formulations for cooperative effects are essential to using ancient remedies, such as Bald's eyesalve, effectively against drug resistant pathogens.

2018 PLoS ONE

147. Elevated antibiotic resistance of Sudanese urinary tract infection bacteria Full Text available with Trip Pro

Elevated antibiotic resistance of Sudanese urinary tract infection bacteria This study determined the prevalence of urinary tract infections in the Sudanese state of Khartoum and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of isolated bacterial species. 200 adult patient urine specimens were collected and cultivated to identify the growing bacteria and their susceptibility to antibiotics. 35 % of specimens had significant bacterial growth. The most frequent isolates in this study were E. coli, E (...) . faecalis and S. aureus. Most of the isolates were resistant to many antibiotics; Gram-negative and Gram-positive isolates were resistant to 67 % and 44 % of the examined antibiotics, respectively. E. coli was the most frequent bacterium in the studied samples and it was highly resistant to first-line antibiotics. The most resistant bacteria isolated were Pseudomonas species and the lowest was for S. saprophyticus. The results highlighted the need for knowledge about antibiotic susceptibility profile

2017 EXCLI journal

148. Computational approaches to the in vitro antibacterial activity of Allium hirtifolium Boiss against gentamicin-resistant Escherichia coli: focus on ribosome recycling factor Full Text available with Trip Pro

Computational approaches to the in vitro antibacterial activity of Allium hirtifolium Boiss against gentamicin-resistant Escherichia coli: focus on ribosome recycling factor Persian shallot, Allium hirtifolium Boiss. (AH), is an Iranian native medicinal plant belongs to Alliaceae family. Here, we investigated in vitro antibacterial activity of hydro-alcoholic extract derived from bulbs of AH. We also employed in silico molecular docking to decipher mechanisms of its antibacterial effects (...) . Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) against E. coli ATCC 25922 were determined. Molecular docking was performed for major phytochemicals of AH against ribosome recycling factor (RRF). E. coli ATCC 25922 was gentamicin-resistant while AH showed MIC (42 ± 18 μg/ml) and MBC (106 ± 36 μg/ml) against E. coli. In silico results reported all phytochemicals of AH shown acceptable negative binding affinity (kcal/mol) with RRF. In essence, the binding affinities

2017 In silico pharmacology

149. Deconstructing a multiple antibiotic resistance regulation through the quantification of its input function Full Text available with Trip Pro

Deconstructing a multiple antibiotic resistance regulation through the quantification of its input function Many essential bacterial responses present complex transcriptional regulation of gene expression. To what extent can the study of these responses substantiate the logic of their regulation? Here, we show how the input function of the genes constituting the response, i.e., the information of how their transcription rates change as function of the signals acting on the regulators, can serve (...) as a quantitative tool to deconstruct the corresponding regulatory logic. To demonstrate this approach, we consider the multiple antibiotic resistance (mar) response in Escherichia coli. By characterizing the input function of its representative genes in wild-type and mutant bacteria, we recognize a dual autoregulation motif as main determinant of the response, which is further adjusted by the interplay with other regulators. We show that basic attributes, like its reaction to a wide range of stress or its

2017 NPJ systems biology and applications

150. Antibiotic resistance in Campylobacter and other diarrheal pathogens isolated from US military personnel deployed to Thailand in 2002–2004: a case–control study Full Text available with Trip Pro

Antibiotic resistance in Campylobacter and other diarrheal pathogens isolated from US military personnel deployed to Thailand in 2002–2004: a case–control study Campylobacter continues to be an important cause of diarrheal disease worldwide and a leading cause in Southeast Asia. Studies of US soldiers and marines deployed to Thailand for a 2 to 3 week field exercise provide a unique population in which to study traveler's diarrhea.A case-control study of 217 deployed military personnel (...) was conducted from 2002 through 2004. Of these, 155 subjects who presented to a field medical unit with acute diarrhea were enrolled as cases. These subjects referred an additional 62 diarrhea-free colleagues who served as controls. Frequencies of isolation of Campylobacter spp. and other enteric pathogens were compared in cases and controls, and antibiotic resistance of isolates was described.Of the 155 subjects with diarrhea, Campylobacter spp. was the most commonly identified pathogen, found in 54 (35

2017 Tropical diseases, travel medicine and vaccines

151. Norgestimate inhibits staphylococcal biofilm formation and resensitizes methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus to β-lactam antibiotics Full Text available with Trip Pro

Norgestimate inhibits staphylococcal biofilm formation and resensitizes methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus to β-lactam antibiotics Formation of bacterial biofilms on medical devices can cause severe or fatal infectious diseases. In particular, biofilm-associated infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus are difficult to eradicate because the biofilm is strongly resistant to antibiotics and the host immune response. There is no effective treatment for biofilm (...) -associated infectionss, except for surgical removal of contaminated medical devices followed by antibiotic therapy. Here we show that norgestimate, an acetylated progestin, effectively inhibits biofilm formation by staphylococcal strains, including methicillin-resistant S. aureus, without inhibiting their growth, decreasing the selective pressure for emergence of resistance. 17-Deacetyl norgestimate, a metabolite of norgestimate, shows much weaker inhibitory activity against staphylococcal biofilm

2017 NPJ biofilms and microbiomes

152. Molecular characterization and antibiotic resistance profiles of Salmonella isolated from fecal matter of domestic animals and animal products in Nairobi Full Text available with Trip Pro

products in Kenya as well as determine their antibiotic resistance profiles.A total of 740 fecal samples were collected from cows (n = 150), pigs (n = 182), chicken (n = 191) and chicken eggs (n = 217) from various markets and abattoirs in Nairobi. The prevalence of NTS serovars using culture techniques and biochemical tests, antimicrobial sensitivity testing using disc diffusion method of the commonly prescribed antibiotics and phylogenetic relationships using 16S rRNA were determined.The results (...) Molecular characterization and antibiotic resistance profiles of Salmonella isolated from fecal matter of domestic animals and animal products in Nairobi Salmonella has significant public health implications causing food borne and zoonotic diseases in humans. Treatment of infections due to Salmonella is becoming difficult due to emergence of drug resistant strains. There is therefore need to characterize the circulating non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) serovars in domestic animals and animal

2017 Tropical diseases, travel medicine and vaccines

153. Prevalence of antibiotic resistance in commensal Escherichia coli among the children in rural hill communities of Northeast India. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Prevalence of antibiotic resistance in commensal Escherichia coli among the children in rural hill communities of Northeast India. Commensal bacteria are the representative of the reservoir of antibiotic resistance genes present in a community. The usage of antibiotics along with the demographic factors is generally associated with an increase in antibiotics resistance in pathogens. Northeast (NE) India is untapped with regard to antibiotic resistance prevalence and spread. In the current study (...) , the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant commensal Escherichia coli in pre-school and school-going children (n = 550, 1-14 years old) from the rural areas of the state of Sikkim-an NE Indian state, with respect to associated demographic factors was investigated. A total of 550 fecal E. coli isolates were collected during July 2015 to June 2017. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data to ascertain the potential factors associated with the carriage of antibiotic resistance E. coli among the children

2018 PLoS ONE

154. Antimicrobial susceptibility of gram-negative bacilli isolated from intra-abdominal and urinary-tract infections in Mexico from 2009 to 2015: Results from the Study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends (SMART). Full Text available with Trip Pro

Antimicrobial susceptibility of gram-negative bacilli isolated from intra-abdominal and urinary-tract infections in Mexico from 2009 to 2015: Results from the Study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends (SMART). Antimicrobial resistance is an increasing worldwide concern, which poses unique challenges for the effective prevention and treatment of several infections, especially the ones triggered by organisms producing extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL). Here, we present (...) the surveillance results of the Study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends (SMART) of Gram-negative bacilli isolated from intra-abdominal infections (IAI, n = 1,235) and urinary-tract infections (UTI, n = 2,682), collected in Mexico from 2009 to 2015. Susceptibility and ESBL status were determined according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) broth microdilution method. Both E. coli (57%) and K. pneumoniae (12%) were the most frequently reported organisms, as well as the ones

2018 PLoS ONE

155. Interplay of a non-conjugative integrative element and a conjugative plasmid in the spread of antibiotic resistance via suicidal plasmid transfer from an aquaculture Vibrio isolate. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Interplay of a non-conjugative integrative element and a conjugative plasmid in the spread of antibiotic resistance via suicidal plasmid transfer from an aquaculture Vibrio isolate. The capture of antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs) by mobile genetic elements (MGEs) plays a critical role in resistance acquisition for human-associated bacteria. Although aquaculture environments are recognized as important reservoirs of ARGs, intra- and intercellular mobility of MGEs discovered in marine

2018 PLoS ONE

156. Antibiotic-resistant indicator bacteria in irrigation water: High prevalence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Antibiotic-resistant indicator bacteria in irrigation water: High prevalence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli. Irrigation water is a major source of fresh produce contamination with undesired microorganisms including antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB), and contaminated fresh produce can transfer ARB to the consumer especially when consumed raw. Nevertheless, no legal guidelines exist so far regulating quality of irrigation water with respect to ARB. We (...) therefore examined irrigation water from major vegetable growing areas for occurrence of antibiotic-resistant indicator bacteria Escherichia coli and Enterococcus spp., including extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing E. coli and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus spp. Occurrence of ARB strains was compared to total numbers of the respective species. We categorized water samples according to total numbers and found that categories with higher total E. coli or Enterococcus spp. numbers generally

2018 PLoS ONE

157. Global action plan on antimicrobial resistance: options for establishing a global development and stewardship framework to support the development, control, distribution and appropriate use of new antimicrobial medicines, diagnostic tools, vaccines and ot

Global action plan on antimicrobial resistance: options for establishing a global development and stewardship framework to support the development, control, distribution and appropriate use of new antimicrobial medicines, diagnostic tools, vaccines and ot Global action plan on antimicrobial resistance: options for establishing a global development and stewardship framework to support the development, control, distribution and appropriate use of new antimicrobial medicines, diagnostic tools (...) , vaccines and other interventions: report by the Secretariat JavaScript is disabled for your browser. Some features of this site may not work without it. Toggle navigation Toggle navigation Search Browse Statistics Related Links Global action plan on antimicrobial resistance: options for establishing a global development and stewardship framework to support the development, control, distribution and appropriate use of new antimicrobial medicines, diagnostic tools, vaccines and other interventions

2016 WHO

158. Head-to-head oral prophylactic antibiotic therapy for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. (Abstract)

, but there are concerns about antibiotic resistance and safety.To compare the safety and efficacy of different classes of antibiotics (continuous, intermittent or pulsed) for prophylaxis of exacerbations in patients with COPD.We searched the Cochrane Airways Group Trials Register and bibliographies of relevant studies. The latest literature search was conducted on 6 February 2019.Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) were selected that compared one prophylactic antibiotic with another in patients with COPD.We used (...) of prophylactic antibiotic, given for 12 to 13 weeks to people with COPD. Whilst no head-to-head comparisons of antibiotic resistance were identified, concerns about this continue. The sample size in this review is small and both included studies are of short duration. Thus, there is considerable uncertainty in effects observed and the effects of different prophylactic antibiotics requires further research.

2019 Cochrane

159. Long-term antibiotics for preventing recurrent urinary tract infection in children. (Abstract)

to those without VUR (RR 0.56, 95% CI 0.15 to 2.12) however there was considerable uncertainty due to imprecision from fewer events in the smaller group of children with VUR. There was no consistency in occurrence of adverse events, with one study having more events in the placebo group and a second study having more events in the antibiotics group. Three studies reported data for antibiotic resistance with the analysis estimating the risk of a UTI caused by a bacteria resistant to the prophylactic (...) antibiotic being almost 2.5 times greater in children on antibiotics than for children on placebo or no treatment (RR 2.40, 95% CI 0.62 to 9.26). However the confidence interval is wide, showing imprecision and there may be little or no difference between the two groups.Eight studies involving 659 children compared one antibiotic with another but few studies compared the same combination for the same outcome so little data could be pooled. Two studies reported microbial resistance data and analysis

2019 Cochrane

160. Duration of intravenous antibiotic therapy in people with cystic fibrosis. (Abstract)

some of their side effects. However, some organisms which infect people with cystic fibrosis are known to be multi-resistant to antibiotics, and may require a longer course of treatment. This is an update of previously published reviews.To assess the optimal duration of intravenous antibiotic therapy for treating chest exacerbations in people with cystic fibrosis.We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group Trials Register which comprises references identified from (...) Duration of intravenous antibiotic therapy in people with cystic fibrosis. Progressive lung damage from recurrent exacerbations is the major cause of mortality and morbidity in cystic fibrosis. Life expectancy of people with cystic fibrosis has increased dramatically in the last 40 years. One of the major reasons for this increase is the mounting use of antibiotics to treat chest exacerbations caused by bacterial infections. The optimal duration of intravenous antibiotic therapy is not clearly

2019 Cochrane

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