How to Trip Rapid Review

Step 1: Select articles relevant to your search (remember the system is only optimised for single intervention studies)

Step 2: press

Step 3: review the result, and maybe amend the or if you know better! If we're unsure of the overall sentiment of the trial we will display the conclusion under the article title. We then require you to tell us what the correct sentiment is.

44,522 results for

antibiotic resistance

by
...
Latest & greatest
Alerts

Export results

Use check boxes to select individual results below

SmartSearch available

Trip's SmartSearch engine has discovered connected searches & results. Click to show

121. Ribosome-mediated attenuation of <i>vga(A</i>) expression is shaped by the antibiotic resistance specificity of Vga(A) protein variants. (Abstract)

Ribosome-mediated attenuation of vga(A) expression is shaped by the antibiotic resistance specificity of Vga(A) protein variants. Vga(A) protein variants confer different levels of resistance to lincosamides, streptogramins A and pleuromutilins (LSAP) by displacing antibiotics from the ribosome. Here we show that expression of vga(A) variants from Staphylococcus haemolyticus is regulated by cis-regulatory RNA in response to the LSAP antibiotics by the mechanism of ribosome-mediated (...) attenuation. The specificity of induction depends on the Vga(A)-mediated resistance rather than on the sequence of the riboregulator. Fine-tuning between Vga(A) activity and its expression in response to the antibiotics may contribute to the selection of more potent Vga(A) variants because newly acquired mutation can be immediately phenotypically manifested.Copyright © 2020 American Society for Microbiology.

2020 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

122. Epidemiological, and Clinical Characteristics of International Travelers with Enteric Fever and Antibiotic Resistance Profiles of their Isolates: A GeoSentinel Analysis. (Abstract)

Epidemiological, and Clinical Characteristics of International Travelers with Enteric Fever and Antibiotic Resistance Profiles of their Isolates: A GeoSentinel Analysis. Background. Enteric fever, caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) and Paratyphi (S. Paratyphi), is a common travel-related illness. Limited data are available on their antimicrobial resistance (AMR) patterns among travelers. Methods. Records with a culture-confirmed diagnosis seen during or after travel from (...) January 2007 to December 2018 were obtained from GeoSentinel. Traveler demographics and antimicrobial susceptibility data were analyzed. Isolates were classified as 'non-susceptible' if intermediate or resistant, or 'susceptible' in accordance with participating site's national guidelines. Results. A total of 889 travelers (S. Typhi, n=474; S. Paratyphi, n=414; co-infection, n=1) were included; 114 (13%) were children <18 years. Most (41%) traveled to visit friends and relatives (VFRs) and acquired

2020 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

123. Genomic Analysis Reveals Antibiotic-Susceptible Clones and Emerging Resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae in Saskatchewan, Canada. (Abstract)

Genomic Analysis Reveals Antibiotic-Susceptible Clones and Emerging Resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae in Saskatchewan, Canada. Whole-genome sequencing was used to identify mutations in antibiotic resistance-conferring genes to compare susceptibility predictions with MICs and to ascertain strain types in 99 isolates of Neisseria gonorrhoeae Genotypes associated with susceptibility, as well as MIC creep or emerging resistance, were noted. Phylogenomic analysis revealed three distinctive clades (...) and putative gonococcal transmission linkages involving a tetracycline-resistant N. gonorrhoeae outbreak and the clonal spread of susceptible isolates in men.Copyright © 2020 American Society for Microbiology.

2020 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

124. Bacteriophage-Antibiotic Combination Strategy: an Alternative against Methicillin-Resistant Phenotypes of Staphylococcus aureus. (Abstract)

Bacteriophage-Antibiotic Combination Strategy: an Alternative against Methicillin-Resistant Phenotypes of Staphylococcus aureus. Comparative time-kill experiments with Staphylococcus aureus bacteriophage (phage) Sb-1 alone and phage-antibiotic combinations (PACs) against two methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains have shown synergy with both daptomycin-phage and vancomycin-phage combinations. PACs prevented development of phage resistance and demonstrated bactericidal activity for all

2020 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

125. Strong Environment-Genotype Interactions Determine the Fitness Costs of Antibiotic Resistance <i>In Vitro</i> and in an Insect Model of Infection. (Abstract)

Strong Environment-Genotype Interactions Determine the Fitness Costs of Antibiotic Resistance In Vitro and in an Insect Model of Infection. The acquisition of antibiotic resistance commonly imposes fitness costs, a reduction in the fitness of bacteria in the absence of drugs. These costs have been quantified primarily using in vitro experiments and a small number of in vivo studies in mice, and it is commonly assumed that these diverse methods are consistent. Here, we used an insect (...) model of infection to compare the fitness costs of antibiotic resistance in vivo to those in vitro Experiments explored diverse mechanisms of resistance in a Gram-positive pathogen, Bacillus thuringiensis, and a Gram-negative intestinal symbiont, Enterobacter cloacae Rifampin resistance in B. thuringiensis showed fitness costs that were typically elevated in vivo, although these were modulated by genotype-environment interactions. In contrast, resistance to cefotaxime via derepression of AmpC β

2020 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

126. Radial Expansion Facilitates the Maintenance of Double Antibiotic Resistances. (Abstract)

Radial Expansion Facilitates the Maintenance of Double Antibiotic Resistances. Most microbes live in spatially confined subpopulations. Under spatial structure conditions, the efficacy of natural selection is often reduced (relative to homogeneous conditions) due to the increased importance of genetic drift and local competition. Additionally, under spatial structure conditions, the fittest genotype may not always be the one with better access to the heterogeneous distribution of nutrients (...) . The effect of radial expansion may be particularly relevant for the elimination of antibiotic resistance mutations, as their dynamics within bacterial populations are strongly dependent on their growth rate. Here, we use Escherichia coli to systematically compare the allele frequency of streptomycin, rifampin, and fluoroquinolone single and double resistance mutants after 24 h of coexistence with a susceptible strain under radial expansion (local competition) and homogeneous (global competition

2020 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

127. Application of combined genomic and transfer analyses to identify factors mediating regional spread of antibiotic resistant bacterial lineages. (Full text)

Application of combined genomic and transfer analyses to identify factors mediating regional spread of antibiotic resistant bacterial lineages. Patients entering nursing facilities (NFs) are frequently colonized with antibiotic resistant organisms (AROs). To understand the determinants of ARO colonization on NF admission we applied whole-genome sequencing to track the spread of four ARO species across regional NFs and evaluated patient-level characteristics and transfer acute-care hospitals (...) (ACHs) as risk factors for colonization.584 patients from six NFs were surveyed for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis/faecium (VREfc/VREfm) and ciprofloxacin-resistant Escherichia coli (CipREc) colonization. Genomic analysis was performed to quantify ARO spread between NFs and compared to patient-transfer networks. The association between admission colonization and patient-level variables and recent ACH exposures was examined using

2020 Clinical Infectious Diseases PubMed abstract

128. Assessment of data supporting the efficacy of new antibiotics for treating infections caused by multidrug resistant bacteria. (Abstract)

Assessment of data supporting the efficacy of new antibiotics for treating infections caused by multidrug resistant bacteria. Infections caused by multidrug resistant (MDR) bacteria are major public health threat. We aimed to assess the data supporting US Food and Drug (FDA) approval of new agents aimed to treat MDR bacterial infections, and the data provided by post-marketing studies.We identified all drugs with in-vitro activity against MDR bacteria initially approved by FDA between January (...) 2010- December 2018. Characteristics of trials supporting approval and regulatory pathways were collected from Drugs@FDA. Characteristics of post-marketing studies were extracted from drug labels and ClinicalTrials.gov entries effective on June 1, 2019.Initial approval of 11 newly approved antibiotics with anti-MDR activity was supported by 20 trials, all with non-inferiority design. All initially approved indications were for common infections, mostly acute bacterial skin and skin-structure

2020 Clinical Infectious Diseases

129. Do Inpatient Antimicrobial Stewardship Programs help us in the Battle against Antimicrobial Resistance? (Abstract)

Do Inpatient Antimicrobial Stewardship Programs help us in the Battle against Antimicrobial Resistance? Antibiotic stewardship programs (ASPs) have demonstrated success at reducing costs, yet there is limited quality evidence of their effectiveness to reduce infections of high-profile drug-resistant organisms.This retrospective cohort study included all Kaiser Permanente Southern California (KPSC) members hospitalized in 9 KPSC hospitals aged ≥18 years from January 1, 2008 to December 31, 2016 (...) . We measured the impact of staggered ASP implementation on consumption of 18 ASP-targeted antibiotics using generalized linear mixed effects models. We used multivariable generalized linear mixed effects models to estimate the adjusted effect of ASP on rates of infection with drug-resistant organisms. Analyses were adjusted for confounding by time, cluster effects, and patient-level and hospital-level characteristics.We included 765,111 hospitalizations (288,257 pre-ASP, 476,854 post-ASP

2020 Clinical Infectious Diseases

130. Gut microbiota features on nursing home admission are associated with subsequent acquisition of antibiotic resistant organism colonization. (Full text)

Gut microbiota features on nursing home admission are associated with subsequent acquisition of antibiotic resistant organism colonization. Nursing home (NH) patients often acquire colonization with antibiotic-resistant organisms (AROs). We show that patients exposed to broad-spectrum antibiotics during previous hospitalizations have elevated enterococcal relative abundances on NH admission and higher risk of subsequent ARO acquisition. Our findings suggest that interventions preventing ARO

2020 Clinical Infectious Diseases PubMed abstract

131. Antibiotic Resistance and Epigenetics: More to It than Meets the Eye. (Full text)

Antibiotic Resistance and Epigenetics: More to It than Meets the Eye. The discovery of antibiotics in the last century is considered one of the most important achievements in the history of medicine. Antibiotic usage has significantly reduced morbidity and mortality associated with bacterial infections. However, inappropriate use of antibiotics has led to emergence of antibiotic resistance at an alarming rate. Antibiotic resistance is regarded as a major health care challenge of this century (...) . Despite extensive research, well-documented biochemical mechanisms and genetic changes fail to fully explain mechanisms underlying antibiotic resistance. Several recent reports suggest a key role for epigenetics in the development of antibiotic resistance in bacteria. The intrinsic heterogeneity as well as transient nature of epigenetic inheritance provides a plausible backdrop for high-paced emergence of drug resistance in bacteria. The methylation of adenines and cytosines can influence mutation

2020 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy PubMed abstract

132. Determining the Development of Persisters in Extensively Drug-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii upon Exposure to Polymyxin B-Based Antibiotic Combinations Using Flow Cytometry. (Full text)

Determining the Development of Persisters in Extensively Drug-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii upon Exposure to Polymyxin B-Based Antibiotic Combinations Using Flow Cytometry. Polymyxin B-based combinations are increasingly prescribed as a last-line option against extensively drug-resistant (XDR) Acinetobacter baumannii It is unknown if such combinations can result in the development of nondividing persister cells in XDR A. baumannii We investigated persister development upon exposure of XDR (...) A. baumannii to polymyxin B-based antibiotic combinations using flow cytometry. Time-kill studies (TKSs) were conducted in three nonclonal XDR A. baumannii strains with 5 log10 CFU/ml bacteria against polymyxin B alone and polymyxin B-based two-drug combinations over 24 h. At different time points, samples were obtained and enumerated by viable plating and flow cytometry. Propidium iodide and carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester dyes were used to differentiate between live and dead cells and between

2020 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy PubMed abstract

133. Ability of Bicarbonate Supplementation To Sensitize Selected Methicillin-Resistant <i>Staphylococcus aureus</i> Strains to β-Lactam Antibiotics in an <i>Ex Vivo</i> Simulated Endocardial Vegetation Model. (Full text)

Ability of Bicarbonate Supplementation To Sensitize Selected Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Strains to β-Lactam Antibiotics in an Ex Vivo Simulated Endocardial Vegetation Model. Supplementation of standard growth media (cation-adjusted Mueller-Hinton Broth [CAMHB]) with bicarbonate (NaHCO3) increases β-lactam susceptibility of selected methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains ("NaHCO3 responsive"). This "sensitization" phenomenon translated (...) % for both CFZ and OXA in the responsive MRSA strains. Also, in media containing RPMI plus 10% Luria-Bertani broth (proposed as a more host-mimicking microenvironment and containing 25 mM NaHCO3), both CFZ and OXA exhibited enhanced bactericidal activity against NaHCO3-responsive strains in the SEV model. Neither CFZ nor OXA exposures selected for emergence of high-level β-lactam-resistant mutants within SEVs. Thus, in this ex vivo model of endocarditis, in the presence of NaHCO3 supplementation, both

2020 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy PubMed abstract

134. Comparative Evaluation of the <i>In Vitro</i> Activities of WCK 5222 (Cefepime-Zidebactam) and Combination Antibiotic Therapies against Carbapenem-Resistant <i>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</i>. (Full text)

Comparative Evaluation of the In Vitro Activities of WCK 5222 (Cefepime-Zidebactam) and Combination Antibiotic Therapies against Carbapenem-Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The in vitro activity of WCK 5222 (cefepime-zidebactam) was compared to that of several available combination therapies among 30 clinical carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (CRP) strains using gradient diffusion strips. The combinations included nonsusceptible β-lactams (cefepime, ceftolozane

2020 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy PubMed abstract

135. Equations To Predict Antimicrobial MICs in Neisseria gonorrhoeae Using Molecular Antimicrobial Resistance Determinants. (Full text)

Equations To Predict Antimicrobial MICs in Neisseria gonorrhoeae Using Molecular Antimicrobial Resistance Determinants. The emergence of Neisseria gonorrhoeae strains that are resistant to azithromycin and extended-spectrum cephalosporins represents a public health threat, that of untreatable gonorrhea infections. Multivariate regression modeling was used to determine the contributions of molecular antimicrobial resistance determinants to the overall antimicrobial MICs for ceftriaxone, cefixime (...) comparison studies. The ability to acquire detailed antimicrobial resistance information directly from molecular data will facilitate the transition to whole-genome sequencing analysis from phenotypic testing and can fill the surveillance gap in an era of increased reliance on nucleic acid assay testing (NAAT) diagnostics to better monitor the dynamics of N. gonorrhoeae.© Crown copyright 2020.

2020 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy PubMed abstract

136. Suppression of β-Lactam Resistance by Aspergillomarasmine A Is Influenced by both the Metallo-β-Lactamase Target and the Antibiotic Partner. (Full text)

Suppression of β-Lactam Resistance by Aspergillomarasmine A Is Influenced by both the Metallo-β-Lactamase Target and the Antibiotic Partner. The rise of Gram-negative pathogens expressing metallo-β-lactamases (MBLs) is a growing concern, threatening the efficacy of β-lactam antibiotics, in particular, the carbapenems. There are no inhibitors of MBLs in current clinical use. Aspergillomarasmine A (AMA) is an MBL inhibitor isolated from Aspergillus versicolor with the ability to rescue meropenem (...) activity in MBL-producing bacteria both in vitro and in vivo Here, we systematically explored the pairing of AMA with six β-lactam antibiotic partners against 19 MBLs from three subclasses (B1, B2, and B3). Cell-based assays performed with Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae showed that bacteria producing NDM-1 and VIM-2 of subclass B1 were the most susceptible to AMA inhibition, whereas bacteria producing CphA2 and AIM-1 of subclasses B2 and B3, respectively, were the least sensitive

2020 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy PubMed abstract

137. Using Genetic Distance from Archived Samples for the Prediction of Antibiotic Resistance in <i>Escherichia coli</i>. (Full text)

Using Genetic Distance from Archived Samples for the Prediction of Antibiotic Resistance in Escherichia coli. The rising rates of antibiotic resistance increasingly compromise empirical treatment. Knowing the antibiotic susceptibility of a pathogen's close genetic relative(s) may improve empirical antibiotic selection. Using genomic and phenotypic data for Escherichia coli isolates from three separate clinically derived databases, we evaluated multiple genomic methods and statistical (...) of every 3 patients while maintaining high treatment adequacy (∼90%). Methods based on genetic relatedness to archived samples of E. coli could be used to predict antibiotic resistance and improve antibiotic selection.Copyright © 2020 MacFadden et al.

2020 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy PubMed abstract

138. Exebacase Demonstrates <i>In Vitro</i> Synergy with a Broad Range of Antibiotics against both Methicillin-Resistant and Methicillin-Susceptible Staphylococcus aureus. (Full text)

Exebacase Demonstrates In Vitro Synergy with a Broad Range of Antibiotics against both Methicillin-Resistant and Methicillin-Susceptible Staphylococcus aureus. In vitro synergy between an antimicrobial protein lysin (cell wall hydrolase) called exebacase and each of 12 different antibiotics was examined against Staphylococcus aureus isolates using a nonstandard medium approved for exebacase susceptibility testing by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. In the checkerboard

2020 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy PubMed abstract

139. BceAB-Type Antibiotic Resistance Transporters Appear To Act by Target Protection of Cell Wall Synthesis. (Full text)

BceAB-Type Antibiotic Resistance Transporters Appear To Act by Target Protection of Cell Wall Synthesis. Resistance against cell wall-active antimicrobial peptides in bacteria is often mediated by transporters. In low-GC-content Gram-positive bacteria, a common type of such transporters is BceAB-like systems, which frequently provide high-level resistance against peptide antibiotics that target intermediates of the lipid II cycle of cell wall synthesis. How a transporter can offer protection (...) bacitracin. Moreover, we present evidence that the critical factor driving transport activity is not the drug itself but instead the concentration of drug-target complexes in the cell. Our results, together with previously reported findings, lead us to propose that BceAB-type transporters act by transiently freeing lipid II cycle intermediates from the inhibitory grip of antimicrobial peptides and thus provide resistance through target protection of cell wall synthesis. Target protection has so far only

2020 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy PubMed abstract

140. US Immigration Is Associated With Rapid and Persistent Acquisition of Antibiotic Resistance Genes in the Gut. (Abstract)

US Immigration Is Associated With Rapid and Persistent Acquisition of Antibiotic Resistance Genes in the Gut. Little is known about the effect of human migration on gut microbiome antibiotic resistance gene (ARG) carriage. Using deep shotgun stool metagenomics analysis, we found a rapid increase in gut microbiome ARG richness and abundance in women from 2 independent ethnic groups relocating from Thailand to the United States.© The Author(s) 2019. Published by Oxford University Press

2020 Clinical Infectious Diseases

To help you find the content you need quickly, you can filter your results via the categories on the right-hand side >>>>