How to Trip Rapid Review

Step 1: Select articles relevant to your search (remember the system is only optimised for single intervention studies)

Step 2: press

Step 3: review the result, and maybe amend the or if you know better! If we're unsure of the overall sentiment of the trial we will display the conclusion under the article title. We then require you to tell us what the correct sentiment is.

43,438 results for

antibiotic resistance

by
...
Latest & greatest
Alerts

Export results

Use check boxes to select individual results below

SmartSearch available

Trip's SmartSearch engine has discovered connected searches & results. Click to show

101. Do Inpatient Antimicrobial Stewardship Programs help us in the Battle against Antimicrobial Resistance? (Abstract)

Do Inpatient Antimicrobial Stewardship Programs help us in the Battle against Antimicrobial Resistance? Antibiotic stewardship programs (ASPs) have demonstrated success at reducing costs, yet there is limited quality evidence of their effectiveness to reduce infections of high-profile drug-resistant organisms.This retrospective cohort study included all Kaiser Permanente Southern California (KPSC) members hospitalized in 9 KPSC hospitals aged ≥18 years from January 1, 2008 to December 31, 2016 (...) . We measured the impact of staggered ASP implementation on consumption of 18 ASP-targeted antibiotics using generalized linear mixed effects models. We used multivariable generalized linear mixed effects models to estimate the adjusted effect of ASP on rates of infection with drug-resistant organisms. Analyses were adjusted for confounding by time, cluster effects, and patient-level and hospital-level characteristics.We included 765,111 hospitalizations (288,257 pre-ASP, 476,854 post-ASP

2020 Clinical Infectious Diseases

102. Gut microbiota features on nursing home admission are associated with subsequent acquisition of antibiotic resistant organism colonization. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Gut microbiota features on nursing home admission are associated with subsequent acquisition of antibiotic resistant organism colonization. Nursing home (NH) patients often acquire colonization with antibiotic-resistant organisms (AROs). We show that patients exposed to broad-spectrum antibiotics during previous hospitalizations have elevated enterococcal relative abundances on NH admission and higher risk of subsequent ARO acquisition. Our findings suggest that interventions preventing ARO

2020 Clinical Infectious Diseases

103. Antibiotic Resistance and Epigenetics: More to It than Meets the Eye. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Antibiotic Resistance and Epigenetics: More to It than Meets the Eye. The discovery of antibiotics in the last century is considered one of the most important achievements in the history of medicine. Antibiotic usage has significantly reduced morbidity and mortality associated with bacterial infections. However, inappropriate use of antibiotics has led to emergence of antibiotic resistance at an alarming rate. Antibiotic resistance is regarded as a major health care challenge of this century (...) . Despite extensive research, well-documented biochemical mechanisms and genetic changes fail to fully explain mechanisms underlying antibiotic resistance. Several recent reports suggest a key role for epigenetics in the development of antibiotic resistance in bacteria. The intrinsic heterogeneity as well as transient nature of epigenetic inheritance provides a plausible backdrop for high-paced emergence of drug resistance in bacteria. The methylation of adenines and cytosines can influence mutation

2020 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

104. Determining the Development of Persisters in Extensively Drug-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii upon Exposure to Polymyxin B-Based Antibiotic Combinations Using Flow Cytometry. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Determining the Development of Persisters in Extensively Drug-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii upon Exposure to Polymyxin B-Based Antibiotic Combinations Using Flow Cytometry. Polymyxin B-based combinations are increasingly prescribed as a last-line option against extensively drug-resistant (XDR) Acinetobacter baumannii It is unknown if such combinations can result in the development of nondividing persister cells in XDR A. baumannii We investigated persister development upon exposure of XDR (...) A. baumannii to polymyxin B-based antibiotic combinations using flow cytometry. Time-kill studies (TKSs) were conducted in three nonclonal XDR A. baumannii strains with 5 log10 CFU/ml bacteria against polymyxin B alone and polymyxin B-based two-drug combinations over 24 h. At different time points, samples were obtained and enumerated by viable plating and flow cytometry. Propidium iodide and carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester dyes were used to differentiate between live and dead cells and between

2020 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

105. Ability of Bicarbonate Supplementation To Sensitize Selected Methicillin-Resistant <i>Staphylococcus aureus</i> Strains to β-Lactam Antibiotics in an <i>Ex Vivo</i> Simulated Endocardial Vegetation Model. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Ability of Bicarbonate Supplementation To Sensitize Selected Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Strains to β-Lactam Antibiotics in an Ex Vivo Simulated Endocardial Vegetation Model. Supplementation of standard growth media (cation-adjusted Mueller-Hinton Broth [CAMHB]) with bicarbonate (NaHCO3) increases β-lactam susceptibility of selected methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains ("NaHCO3 responsive"). This "sensitization" phenomenon translated (...) % for both CFZ and OXA in the responsive MRSA strains. Also, in media containing RPMI plus 10% Luria-Bertani broth (proposed as a more host-mimicking microenvironment and containing 25 mM NaHCO3), both CFZ and OXA exhibited enhanced bactericidal activity against NaHCO3-responsive strains in the SEV model. Neither CFZ nor OXA exposures selected for emergence of high-level β-lactam-resistant mutants within SEVs. Thus, in this ex vivo model of endocarditis, in the presence of NaHCO3 supplementation, both

2020 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

106. Comparative Evaluation of the <i>In Vitro</i> Activities of WCK 5222 (Cefepime-Zidebactam) and Combination Antibiotic Therapies against Carbapenem-Resistant <i>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</i>. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Comparative Evaluation of the In Vitro Activities of WCK 5222 (Cefepime-Zidebactam) and Combination Antibiotic Therapies against Carbapenem-Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The in vitro activity of WCK 5222 (cefepime-zidebactam) was compared to that of several available combination therapies among 30 clinical carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (CRP) strains using gradient diffusion strips. The combinations included nonsusceptible β-lactams (cefepime, ceftolozane

2020 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

107. Equations To Predict Antimicrobial MICs in Neisseria gonorrhoeae Using Molecular Antimicrobial Resistance Determinants. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Equations To Predict Antimicrobial MICs in Neisseria gonorrhoeae Using Molecular Antimicrobial Resistance Determinants. The emergence of Neisseria gonorrhoeae strains that are resistant to azithromycin and extended-spectrum cephalosporins represents a public health threat, that of untreatable gonorrhea infections. Multivariate regression modeling was used to determine the contributions of molecular antimicrobial resistance determinants to the overall antimicrobial MICs for ceftriaxone, cefixime (...) comparison studies. The ability to acquire detailed antimicrobial resistance information directly from molecular data will facilitate the transition to whole-genome sequencing analysis from phenotypic testing and can fill the surveillance gap in an era of increased reliance on nucleic acid assay testing (NAAT) diagnostics to better monitor the dynamics of N. gonorrhoeae.© Crown copyright 2020.

2020 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

108. Suppression of β-Lactam Resistance by Aspergillomarasmine A Is Influenced by both the Metallo-β-Lactamase Target and the Antibiotic Partner. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Suppression of β-Lactam Resistance by Aspergillomarasmine A Is Influenced by both the Metallo-β-Lactamase Target and the Antibiotic Partner. The rise of Gram-negative pathogens expressing metallo-β-lactamases (MBLs) is a growing concern, threatening the efficacy of β-lactam antibiotics, in particular, the carbapenems. There are no inhibitors of MBLs in current clinical use. Aspergillomarasmine A (AMA) is an MBL inhibitor isolated from Aspergillus versicolor with the ability to rescue meropenem (...) activity in MBL-producing bacteria both in vitro and in vivo Here, we systematically explored the pairing of AMA with six β-lactam antibiotic partners against 19 MBLs from three subclasses (B1, B2, and B3). Cell-based assays performed with Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae showed that bacteria producing NDM-1 and VIM-2 of subclass B1 were the most susceptible to AMA inhibition, whereas bacteria producing CphA2 and AIM-1 of subclasses B2 and B3, respectively, were the least sensitive

2020 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

109. Using Genetic Distance from Archived Samples for the Prediction of Antibiotic Resistance in <i>Escherichia coli</i>. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Using Genetic Distance from Archived Samples for the Prediction of Antibiotic Resistance in Escherichia coli. The rising rates of antibiotic resistance increasingly compromise empirical treatment. Knowing the antibiotic susceptibility of a pathogen's close genetic relative(s) may improve empirical antibiotic selection. Using genomic and phenotypic data for Escherichia coli isolates from three separate clinically derived databases, we evaluated multiple genomic methods and statistical (...) of every 3 patients while maintaining high treatment adequacy (∼90%). Methods based on genetic relatedness to archived samples of E. coli could be used to predict antibiotic resistance and improve antibiotic selection.Copyright © 2020 MacFadden et al.

2020 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

110. Exebacase Demonstrates <i>In Vitro</i> Synergy with a Broad Range of Antibiotics against both Methicillin-Resistant and Methicillin-Susceptible Staphylococcus aureus. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Exebacase Demonstrates In Vitro Synergy with a Broad Range of Antibiotics against both Methicillin-Resistant and Methicillin-Susceptible Staphylococcus aureus. In vitro synergy between an antimicrobial protein lysin (cell wall hydrolase) called exebacase and each of 12 different antibiotics was examined against Staphylococcus aureus isolates using a nonstandard medium approved for exebacase susceptibility testing by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. In the checkerboard

2020 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

111. BceAB-Type Antibiotic Resistance Transporters Appear To Act by Target Protection of Cell Wall Synthesis. Full Text available with Trip Pro

BceAB-Type Antibiotic Resistance Transporters Appear To Act by Target Protection of Cell Wall Synthesis. Resistance against cell wall-active antimicrobial peptides in bacteria is often mediated by transporters. In low-GC-content Gram-positive bacteria, a common type of such transporters is BceAB-like systems, which frequently provide high-level resistance against peptide antibiotics that target intermediates of the lipid II cycle of cell wall synthesis. How a transporter can offer protection (...) bacitracin. Moreover, we present evidence that the critical factor driving transport activity is not the drug itself but instead the concentration of drug-target complexes in the cell. Our results, together with previously reported findings, lead us to propose that BceAB-type transporters act by transiently freeing lipid II cycle intermediates from the inhibitory grip of antimicrobial peptides and thus provide resistance through target protection of cell wall synthesis. Target protection has so far only

2020 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

112. US Immigration Is Associated With Rapid and Persistent Acquisition of Antibiotic Resistance Genes in the Gut. (Abstract)

US Immigration Is Associated With Rapid and Persistent Acquisition of Antibiotic Resistance Genes in the Gut. Little is known about the effect of human migration on gut microbiome antibiotic resistance gene (ARG) carriage. Using deep shotgun stool metagenomics analysis, we found a rapid increase in gut microbiome ARG richness and abundance in women from 2 independent ethnic groups relocating from Thailand to the United States.© The Author(s) 2019. Published by Oxford University Press

2020 Clinical Infectious Diseases

113. Assessment of the Potential of Vaccination to Combat Antibiotic Resistance in Gonorrhea: A Modeling Analysis to Determine Preferred Product Characteristics. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Assessment of the Potential of Vaccination to Combat Antibiotic Resistance in Gonorrhea: A Modeling Analysis to Determine Preferred Product Characteristics. Gonorrhea incidence is increasing rapidly in many countries, whilst antibiotic resistance is making treatment more difficult. Combined with evidence that MeNZB and Bexsero meningococcal vaccines are likely partially-protective against gonorrhea, this has renewed interest in a gonococcal vaccine, and several candidates are in development (...) health clinics receive a vaccine offering ≥52% protection for ≥6 years. A vaccine conferring 31% protection (as estimated for MeNZB) for 2-4 years, could reduce incidence in 2030 by 45% in the worst-case scenario, and by 75% if >70% of resistant gonorrhea remains treatable.Even a partially-protective vaccine, delivered through a realistic targeting strategy, could substantially reduce gonorrhea incidence, despite antibiotic resistance.© The Author(s) 2020. Published by Oxford University Press

2020 Clinical Infectious Diseases

114. Acquisition of antibiotic-resistant Gram-negative bacteria in the Benefits of Universal Glove and Gown (BUGG) Cluster Randomized Trial. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Acquisition of antibiotic-resistant Gram-negative bacteria in the Benefits of Universal Glove and Gown (BUGG) Cluster Randomized Trial. The Benefits of Universal Gloves and Gowns cluster randomized trial found varying effects on MRSA and VRE and no increase in adverse events. The aim of this study was to assess whether the intervention decreases the acquisition of antibiotic-resistant Gram-negative bacteria.Secondary analysis of 20 hospital intensive care unit, randomized trial (...) . The intervention consisted of healthcare workers wearing gloves and gowns when entering any patient room compared to standard care. The primary composite outcome was acquisition of any antibiotic-resistant Gram-negative bacteria based on surveillance cultures.A total of 40,492 admission and discharge perianal swabs from 20,246 individual patient admissions were included in the primary outcome. For the primary outcome of acquisition of any antibiotic-resistant Gram-negative bacteria, the intervention had a RR

2020 Clinical Infectious Diseases

115. Rising Pneumococcal Antibiotic Resistance in the Post 13-valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine Era in Pediatric Isolates from a Primary Care Setting. (Abstract)

Rising Pneumococcal Antibiotic Resistance in the Post 13-valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine Era in Pediatric Isolates from a Primary Care Setting. Antibiotic-resistant S. pneumoniae strains may cause infections that fail to respond to antimicrobial-therapy. Results reported from hospitalized patients with invasive, bacteremic infections may not be the same as those observed in a primary-care setting where young children receive care for non-invasive infections. Young children experience (...) , the most recent isolates show reduced susceptibility to third generation cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones and carbapenems, antibiotics commonly used to treat life-threatening, invasive pneumococcal diseases.In recent years, pneumococcal nasopharyngeal and AOM isolates from children exhibit reduced susceptibility to penicillin, third generation cephalosporin, fluoroquinolone and carbapenem antibiotics. The new strains have a different profile of resistance compared to the pre-PCV-13 era.© The Author(s

2020 Clinical Infectious Diseases

116. No Change in Risk for Antibiotic-Resistant Salmonellosis from Beef, United States, 2002-2010. Full Text available with Trip Pro

No Change in Risk for Antibiotic-Resistant Salmonellosis from Beef, United States, 2002-2010. Restricting antibiotic use in food production animals is a target for reducing antimicrobial drug-resistant infections in humans. We used US surveillance data to estimate the probability of antibiotic-resistant nontyphoidal salmonellosis per meal made with beef during 2002-2010. Applying data for nontyphoidal Salmonella in raised-without-antibiotics cattle, we tested the effect of removing antibiotic (...) use from all beef cattle production. We found an average of 1.2 (95% credible interval 0.6-4.2) antibiotic-resistant nontyphoidal salmonellosis cases per 1 million beef meals made with beef initially contaminated with antibiotic-resistant nontyphoidal Salmonella at slaughter or retail and 0.031 (95% credible interval 0.00018-0.14) cases per 1 million meals irrespective of beef contamination status. Neither outcome showed sustained change except for increases in 2003 and 2009 (>98% confidence) when

2020 Emerging Infectious Diseases

117. Bathroom contamination by antibiotic-resistant Enterobacterales (ESBLPE and CPE): an experimental study. (Abstract)

Bathroom contamination by antibiotic-resistant Enterobacterales (ESBLPE and CPE): an experimental study. Extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacterales (ESBLPE) and carbapenemase-producing Enterobacterales (CPE) cause serious infections. Their presence in urine may lead to environmental contamination potentially responsible for cross-transmission.To evaluate the level of spraying and contamination after emptying urine in the toilet and rinsing in the sink, a common practice

2020 Journal of Hospital Infection

118. Dissemination of antibiotic resistance and other healthcare waterborne pathogens. The price of poor design, construction, usage and maintenance of modern water/sanitation services. (Abstract)

Dissemination of antibiotic resistance and other healthcare waterborne pathogens. The price of poor design, construction, usage and maintenance of modern water/sanitation services. Classical waterborne pathogens (cholera/typhoid) drove the development of safe water and sanitation during the industrial revolution. Whilst effective against these organisms, other bacteria exploited the potential to form biofilm in the narrow pipes of buildings. 1976 saw the discovery of legionella. Despite (...) in preventing infection/deaths from waterborne infections. The advent of highly resistant Gram-negative bacteria is highlighting further deficiencies in modern drainage systems. These bacteria are not thought to have special adaptations promoting their dispersal but purely attract our attention to the well-trodden routes used by sensitive organisms, which go undetected. The O'Neill report warns of the bleak future without effective antibiotics. This paper examines the evidence as to why modern water

2020 Journal of Hospital Infection

119. Results from the Survey of Antibiotic Resistance (SOAR) 2015-17 in the Middle East (Kuwait, Lebanon and Saudi Arabia): data based on CLSI, EUCAST (dose-specific) and pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) breakpoints. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Results from the Survey of Antibiotic Resistance (SOAR) 2015-17 in the Middle East (Kuwait, Lebanon and Saudi Arabia): data based on CLSI, EUCAST (dose-specific) and pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) breakpoints. To determine antibiotic susceptibility of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae isolates from community-acquired respiratory tract infections (CA-RTIs) collected in 2015-17 from Kuwait, Lebanon and Saudi Arabia.MICs were determined by CLSI broth microdilution (...) resistant by CLSI and EUCAST breakpoints, respectively. Otherwise susceptibility was high in H. influenzae. The application of different EUCAST breakpoints for low and higher doses for some of the antibiotics (amoxicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, ampicillin, penicillin, ceftriaxone, clarithromycin, erythromycin, levofloxacin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole) allowed, for the first time in a SOAR study, the effect of raising the dosage on susceptibility to be quantified.Relatively low antibiotic

2020 Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy

120. Results from the Survey of Antibiotic Resistance (SOAR) 2015-17 in Latin America (Argentina, Chile and Costa Rica): data based on CLSI, EUCAST (dose-specific) and pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) breakpoints. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Results from the Survey of Antibiotic Resistance (SOAR) 2015-17 in Latin America (Argentina, Chile and Costa Rica): data based on CLSI, EUCAST (dose-specific) and pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) breakpoints. To determine antibiotic susceptibility of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae isolates from community-acquired respiratory tract infections (CA-RTIs) collected in 2015-17 from Argentina, Chile and Costa Rica.MICs were determined by CLSI broth microdilution (...) and two-thirds from Chile were non-susceptible to penicillin by CLSI oral or EUCAST low-dose IV breakpoints, but most (≥89%) were susceptible by CLSI IV or EUCAST high-dose breakpoints. Amongst pneumococci from Argentina, about 80% or more were susceptible to most other antibiotics except cefaclor (all breakpoints), cefixime (PK/PD breakpoints), cefuroxime (EUCAST breakpoints) and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (CLSI and PK/PD breakpoints). S. pneumoniae isolates from Chile showed significantly lower

2020 Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy

To help you find the content you need quickly, you can filter your results via the categories on the right-hand side >>>>