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antibiotic resistance

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81. Physicochemical Factors That Favor Conjugation of an Antibiotic Resistant Plasmid in Non-growing Bacterial Cultures in the Absence and Presence of Antibiotics Full Text available with Trip Pro

Physicochemical Factors That Favor Conjugation of an Antibiotic Resistant Plasmid in Non-growing Bacterial Cultures in the Absence and Presence of Antibiotics Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) of antibiotic resistance genes has received increased scrutiny from the scientific community in recent years owing to the public health threat associated with antibiotic resistant bacteria. Most studies have examined HGT in growing cultures. We examined conjugation in growing and non-growing cultures of E (...) . coli using a conjugative multi antibiotic and metal resistant plasmid to determine physiochemical parameters that favor horizontal gene transfer. The conjugation frequency in growing and non-growing cultures was generally greater under shaken than non-shaken conditions, presumably due to increased frequency of cell collisions. Non-growing cultures in 9.1 mM NaCl had a similar conjugation frequency to that of growing cultures in Luria-Bertaini broth, whereas those in 1 mM or 90.1 mM NaCl were much

2018 Frontiers in microbiology

82. The Role of Antibiotic-Target-Modifying and Antibiotic-Modifying Enzymes in Mycobacterium abscessus Drug Resistance Full Text available with Trip Pro

The Role of Antibiotic-Target-Modifying and Antibiotic-Modifying Enzymes in Mycobacterium abscessus Drug Resistance The incidence and prevalence of non-tuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) infections have been increasing worldwide and lately led to an emerging public health problem. Among rapidly growing NTM, Mycobacterium abscessus is the most pathogenic and drug resistant opportunistic germ, responsible for disease manifestations ranging from "curable" skin infections to only "manageable (...) " pulmonary disease. Challenges in M. abscessus treatment stem from the bacteria's high-level innate resistance and comprise long, costly and non-standardized administration of antimicrobial agents, poor treatment outcomes often related to adverse effects and drug toxicities, and high relapse rates. Drug resistance in M. abscessus is conferred by an assortment of mechanisms. Clinically acquired drug resistance is normally conferred by mutations in the target genes. Intrinsic resistance is attributed

2018 Frontiers in microbiology

83. Rethinking urinary antibiotic breakpoints: analysis of urinary antibiotic concentrations to treat multidrug resistant organisms Full Text available with Trip Pro

Rethinking urinary antibiotic breakpoints: analysis of urinary antibiotic concentrations to treat multidrug resistant organisms The present study analyzed whether renally eliminated antibiotics achieve sufficient urinary concentrations based on their pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic principles to effectively eradicate organisms deemed resistant by automated susceptibility testing.Lower median minimum inhibitory concentrations against enterobacteriaceae were noted for ceftriaxone, cefepime (...) , and doripenem when comparing Etest® to Vitek®. All Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates were susceptible to cefepime, ciprofloxacin, and doripenem with both susceptibility methods, but higher median minimum inhibitory concentrations were observed with Etest®. Urine concentrations/time profiles were calculated for standard doses of ceftriaxone, cefepime, doripenem, and ciprofloxacin. The data presented in the current study suggests high urine concentrations of antibiotics may effectively eradicate bacteria which

2018 BMC research notes

84. Mutations causing low level antibiotic resistance ensure bacterial survival in antibiotic-treated hosts Full Text available with Trip Pro

Mutations causing low level antibiotic resistance ensure bacterial survival in antibiotic-treated hosts In 474 genome sequenced Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from 34 cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, 40% of these harbor mutations in the mexZ gene encoding a negative regulator of the MexXY-OprM efflux pump associated with aminoglycoside and fluoroquinolone resistance. Surprisingly, resistance to aminoglycosides and fluoroquinolones of mexZ mutants was far below the breakpoint of clinical (...) resistance. However, the fitness increase of the mutant bacteria in presence of the relevant antibiotics, as demonstrated in competition experiments between mutant and ancestor bacteria, showed that 1) very small phenotypic changes cause significant fitness increase with severe adaptive consequences, and 2) standardized phenotypic tests fail to detect such low-level variations. The frequent appearance of P. aeruginosa mexZ mutants in CF patients is directly connected to the intense use of the target

2018 Scientific reports

85. Impact of an infectious diseases specialist-led antimicrobial stewardship programmes on antibiotic use and antimicrobial resistance in a large Korean hospital Full Text available with Trip Pro

Impact of an infectious diseases specialist-led antimicrobial stewardship programmes on antibiotic use and antimicrobial resistance in a large Korean hospital The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of an infectious diseases specialist (IDS)-led antimicrobial stewardship programmes (ASPs) in a large Korean hospital. An interrupted time series analysis assessing the trends in antibiotic use and antimicrobial resistance rate of major pathogens between September 2015 and August 2017 (...) % CI, -4.43 to -0.79; P = 0.007), and -27.41 DOT/1,000 patient-days per month in ICUs (95% CI, -47.03 to -7.79; P = 0.009). Use of 3rd generation cephalosporins, beta-lactam/beta-lactamase inhibitors, and fluoroquinolones in GWs showed change comparable with that of carbapenems or glycopeptides use. Furthermore, trends of antimicrobial resistance rate of Staphylococcus aureus to gentamicin in GWs, Staphylococcus aureus to ciprofloxacin and oxacillin in ICUs, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa to imipenem

2018 Scientific reports

86. Antibiotic-Resistant Salmonella in the Food Supply and the Potential Role of Antibiotic Alternatives for Control Full Text available with Trip Pro

Antibiotic-Resistant Salmonella in the Food Supply and the Potential Role of Antibiotic Alternatives for Control Salmonella enterica is one of the most ubiquitous enteropathogenic bacterial species on earth, and comprises more than 2500 serovars. Widely known for causing non-typhoidal foodborne infections (95%), and enteric (typhoid) fever in humans, Salmonella colonizes almost all warm- and cold-blooded animals, in addition to its extra-animal environmental strongholds. The last few decades (...) have witnessed the emergence of highly virulent and antibiotic-resistant Salmonella, causing greater morbidity and mortality in humans. The emergence of several Salmonella serotypes resistant to multiple antibiotics in food animals underscores a significant food safety hazard. In this review, we discuss the various antibiotic-resistant Salmonella serotypes in food animals and the food supply, factors that contributed to their emergence, their antibiotic resistance mechanisms, the public health

2018 Foods

87. Agrichemicals and antibiotics in combination increase antibiotic resistance evolution Full Text available with Trip Pro

Agrichemicals and antibiotics in combination increase antibiotic resistance evolution Antibiotic resistance in our pathogens is medicine's climate change: caused by human activity, and resulting in more extreme outcomes. Resistance emerges in microbial populations when antibiotics act on phenotypic variance within the population. This can arise from either genotypic diversity (resulting from a mutation or horizontal gene transfer), or from differences in gene expression due to environmental (...) variation, referred to as adaptive resistance. Adaptive changes can increase fitness allowing bacteria to survive at higher concentrations of antibiotics. They can also decrease fitness, potentially leading to selection for antibiotic resistance at lower concentrations. There are opportunities for other environmental stressors to promote antibiotic resistance in ways that are hard to predict using conventional assays. Exploiting our previous observation that commonly used herbicides can increase

2018 PeerJ

88. Self-Medication with Antibiotics, Attitude and Knowledge of Antibiotic Resistance among Community Residents and Undergraduate Students in Northwest Nigeria Full Text available with Trip Pro

Self-Medication with Antibiotics, Attitude and Knowledge of Antibiotic Resistance among Community Residents and Undergraduate Students in Northwest Nigeria This study set out to evaluate self-medicated antibiotics and knowledge of antibiotic resistance among undergraduate students and community members in northern Nigeria. Antibiotic consumption pattern, source of prescription, illnesses commonly treated, attitude towards antibiotics, and knowledge of antibiotic resistance were explored using (...) a structured questionnaire. Responses were analyzed and summarized using descriptive statistics. Of the 1230 respondents from undergraduate students and community members, prescription of antibiotics by a physician was 33% and 57%, respectively, amongst undergraduate students and community members. We tested the respondents’ knowledge of antibiotic resistance (ABR) and found that undergraduate students displayed less knowledge that self-medication could lead to ABR (32.6% and 42.2% respectively

2018 Diseases

89. Outpatient Antibiotic Stewardship: A Growing Frontier—Combining Myxovirus Resistance Protein A With Other Biomarkers to Improve Antibiotic Use Full Text available with Trip Pro

Outpatient Antibiotic Stewardship: A Growing Frontier—Combining Myxovirus Resistance Protein A With Other Biomarkers to Improve Antibiotic Use The majority of oral antibiotics are prescribed in outpatient primary and urgent care clinics for acute respiratory infections. Effective antibiotic stewardship must include proper prescribing for outpatients as well as for those in a hospital or long-term care facility.Major databases, including MEDLINE and the Cochrane Library, were searched (...) for prospective human clinical studies, including children and/or adults published between January 1966 and November 2017 that evaluated Myxovirus resistance protein A (MxA) as a biomarker for diagnosing viral infections as well as both C-reactive protein (CRP) and procalcitonin (PCT) as potential biomarkers for identifying and differentiating true bacterial upper respiratory infection (URI) from colonization.Ten prospective human studies, totaling 1683 patients, were identified that evaluated MxA as a viral

2018 Open forum infectious diseases

90. Previous antibiotic exposure and antibiotic resistance of commensal Staphylococcus aureus in Spanish primary care Full Text available with Trip Pro

(The appropriateness of prescribing antibiotics in primary care in Europe concerning antibiotic resistance) study. Outpatients aged 4 or more who did not present an infectious disease and had not taken antibiotic or had not been hospitalised in the previous 3 months were invited to participate. Nasal swabs were collected for S. aureus culture, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing was carried out. Antibiotics dispensed boxes in the previous 4 years were extracted from Information System for Research in Primary (...) Previous antibiotic exposure and antibiotic resistance of commensal Staphylococcus aureus in Spanish primary care Commensal flora of healthy people is becoming an important reservoir of resistant bacteria.To evaluate the relationship of previous antibiotic-dispensed and resistance pattern of strains of Staphylococcus aureus in primary care patients.A cross-sectional study was carried out in seven primary care centres in Catalonia, Spain, from October 2010 to May 2011, as part of the APRES

2018 The European journal of general practice

91. Tristemma hirtum and Five Other Cameroonian Edible Plants with Weak or No Antibacterial Effects Modulate the Activities of Antibiotics against Gram-Negative Multidrug-Resistant Phenotypes Full Text available with Trip Pro

Tristemma hirtum and Five Other Cameroonian Edible Plants with Weak or No Antibacterial Effects Modulate the Activities of Antibiotics against Gram-Negative Multidrug-Resistant Phenotypes In order to contribute to the fight against infectious diseases, the in vitro antibacterial activity and the antibiotic-potentiating effects of Tristemma hirtum and five other Cameroonian edible plants have been evaluated against Gram-negative multidrug-resistant (MDR) phenotypes. The microdilution method (...) was used to evaluate the bacterial susceptibility of the extracts and their combination to common antibiotics. The phytochemical screening of the extracts was carried out according to standard methods. Phytochemical analysis of the extracts revealed the presence of alkaloids, triterpenes, steroids, and polyphenols, including flavonoids in most of the tested extracts. The entire tested extracts showed moderate (512 μg/mL ≤ MIC ≤ 2048 μg/mL) to weak (MIC > 2048 μg/mL) antibacterial activities against

2018 The Scientific World Journal

92. Synergistic antibacterial activity between penicillenols and antibiotics against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Full Text available with Trip Pro

Synergistic antibacterial activity between penicillenols and antibiotics against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Penicillenol A2 (isolated from deep-sea fungus Penicillium biourgeianum DFFSCS023) has good antibacterial activity against methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus and in combination with beta-lactam antibiotics it could significantly decrease methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) survival, which provides a novel treatment consideration for MRSA-caused

2018 Royal Society Open Science

93. Antibiotic resistance and antibiotic prescribing by dentists in England 2007-2016. (Abstract)

Antibiotic resistance and antibiotic prescribing by dentists in England 2007-2016. The early prescribers of penicillin realised that antibiotics should be used wisely and as an adjunct to traditional surgical provision. They predicted that inappropriate use would increase sensitisation to the drug. National Health Service dentists prescribed almost 10% of antibiotics issued in NHS general practice in 2016 and an audit shows that many of these may have been prescribed inappropriately. One (...) of the causes of antimicrobial resistance is over prescription of the drugs. This paper recalls the recommendations of some early users of penicillin, reports on the current prescription patterns of dentists in England, describes the mechanism of acquisition of anti-microbial resistance and discusses dentists' role in attempting to reduce the problem.

2018 British Dental Journal

94. <i>Syzygium jambos</i> Displayed Antibacterial and Antibiotic-Modulating Activities against Resistant Phenotypes. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Syzygium jambos Displayed Antibacterial and Antibiotic-Modulating Activities against Resistant Phenotypes. The present study was designed to evaluate the antibacterial activities of methanol extracts of bark and leaves of Syzygium jambos, as well as their synergistic effects with selected antibiotics against drug-resistant Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The crude extracts were subjected to qualitative phytochemical screening; broth microdilution method was used (...) with ciprofloxacin (CIP), TET, and ERY against Gram-negative bacteria. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that Syzygium jambos has antibacterial and antibiotic-modulating activities.

2018 Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine (eCAM)

95. Empiric antibiotic therapy in urinary tract infection in patients with risk factors for antibiotic resistance in a German emergency department. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Empiric antibiotic therapy in urinary tract infection in patients with risk factors for antibiotic resistance in a German emergency department. The aim of this study was to identify clinical risk factors for antimicrobial resistances and multidrug resistance (MDR) in urinary tract infections (UTI) in an emergency department in order to improve empirical therapy.UTI cases from an emergency department (ED) during January 2013 and June 2015 were analyzed. Differences between patients (...) was less than 85% for standard antimicrobial agents. Logistic regression identified residence in nursing homes, male gender, hospitalization within the last 30 days, renal transplantation, antibiotic treatment within the last 30 days, indwelling urinary catheter and recurrent UTI as risk factors for MDR or any of these resistances. For patients with no risk factors Ciprofloxacin had 90%, Pip/taz 88%, Gentamicin 95%, Cefuroxime 98%, Cefpodoxime 98% and Ceftazidime 100% susceptibility. For patients

2018 BMC Infectious Diseases

96. The effects of antibiotic cycling and mixing on antibiotic resistance in intensive care units: a cluster-randomised crossover trial. (Abstract)

The effects of antibiotic cycling and mixing on antibiotic resistance in intensive care units: a cluster-randomised crossover trial. Whether antibiotic rotation strategies reduce prevalence of antibiotic-resistant, Gram-negative bacteria in intensive care units (ICUs) has not been accurately established. We aimed to assess whether cycling of antibiotics compared with a mixing strategy (changing antibiotic to an alternative class for each consecutive patient) would reduce the prevalence (...) of antibiotic-resistant, Gram-negative bacteria in European intensive care units (ICUs).In a cluster-randomised crossover study, we randomly assigned ICUs to use one of three antibiotic groups (third-generation or fourth-generation cephalosporins, piperacillin-tazobactam, and carbapenems) as preferred empirical treatment during 6-week periods (cycling) or to change preference after every consecutively treated patient (mixing). Computer-based randomisation of intervention and rotated antibiotic sequence

2018 Lancet infectious diseases Controlled trial quality: uncertain

97. Egyptian community pharmacists' attitudes and practices towards antibiotic dispensing and antibiotic resistance; a cross- sectional survey in Greater Cairo. (Abstract)

Egyptian community pharmacists' attitudes and practices towards antibiotic dispensing and antibiotic resistance; a cross- sectional survey in Greater Cairo. Antibiotic resistance is an increasing worldwide crisis. In Egypt, it is prohibited by law to dispense antibiotics with no prescription; however, there are no active and enforced governmental policies and lows to regulate such process. This led to increased antibiotic dispensing and consumption.To assess some basic knowledge and attitudes (...) towards antibiotic resistance and practice of antibiotic dispensing among Egyptian community pharmacists in Greater Cairo.An observational cross-sectional self-administrated survey targeting licensed community pharmacists in Greater Cairo, Egypt. The survey was validated by both face and content validation.Exactly 531 pharmacists were invited to join the survey, and only 461 pharmacists agreed to participate. Approximately, half of the participants (51.2%) were considered to have good basic knowledge

2018 Current medical research and opinion

98. Antibiotic pressure on the acquisition and loss of antibiotic resistance genes in Klebsiella pneumoniae. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Antibiotic pressure on the acquisition and loss of antibiotic resistance genes in Klebsiella pneumoniae. In this study, we characterize a concurrent disseminated infection with a virulent hypermucoviscous (HMV) Klebsiella pneumoniae and an OXA-181-producing XDR K. pneumoniae from a patient with recent hospitalization in India. During exposure to meropenem therapy, the highly susceptible HMV K. pneumoniae became resistant to carbapenems, consistent with the acquisition of blaOXA-181.Twelve K (...) . pneumoniae belonged to ST147 and possessed two MDR plasmids (IncR and IncFII), the blaOXA-181-bearing ColKP3 plasmid and chromosomal mutations conferring the XDR phenotype. Sequential isolates demonstrated plasmid diversification (fusion of the IncR and IncFII plasmids), mobilization of resistance elements (ompK35 inactivation by ISEcp1-blaCTX-M-15 mobilization, varying numbers of resistance genes on plasmid scaffolds) and chromosomal mutations (mutations in mgrB) leading to further antibiotic resistance

2018 Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy

99. Antibiotic resistance rates and physician antibiotic prescription patterns of uncomplicated urinary tract infections in southern Chinese primary care. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Antibiotic resistance rates and physician antibiotic prescription patterns of uncomplicated urinary tract infections in southern Chinese primary care. Uncomplicated urinary tract infections (UTI) are common in primary care. Whilst primary care physicians are called to be antimicrobial stewards, there is limited primary care antibiotic resistance surveillance and physician antibiotic prescription data available in southern Chinese primary care. The study aimed to investigate the antibiotic (...) resistance rate and antibiotic prescription patterns in female patients with uncomplicated UTI. Factors associated with antibiotic resistance and prescription was explored. A prospective cohort study was conducted in 12 primary care group clinics in Hong Kong of patients presenting with symptoms of uncomplicated UTI from January 2012 to December 2013. Patients' characteristics such as age, comorbidity, presenting symptoms and prior antibiotic use were recorded by physicians, as well as any empirical

2017 PLoS ONE

100. Prevalence of Antibiotic Residues and Antibiotic Resistance in Isolates of Chicken Meat in Korea Full Text available with Trip Pro

Prevalence of Antibiotic Residues and Antibiotic Resistance in Isolates of Chicken Meat in Korea The aim of study was to investigate the correlation between the level of 17 antibiotic residues and 6 antibiotic resistances of Escherichia coli isolates in chicken meats. A total of 58 chicken meats were collected from retail grocery stores in five provinces in Korea. The total detection rate of antibiotic residues was 45% (26 out of 58). Ten out of 17 antibiotics were detected in chicken meats (...) . None of the antibiotics exceeded the maximum residue level (MRLs) in chicken established by the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety (MFDS). The most detected antibiotics were amoxicillin (15.5%), followed by enrofloxacin (12.1%) and sulfamethoxazole (10.3%). In a total of 58 chicken meats, 51 E. coli strains were isolated. E. coli isolates showed the highest resistance to ampicillin (75%), followed by tetracycline (69%), ciprofloxacin (65%), trimethoprim/ sulfamethoxazole (41%), ceftiofur (22

2018 Korean journal for food science of animal resources

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