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antibiotic resistance

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61. Antibiotic resistance profiles and multidrug resistance patterns of Streptococcus pneumoniae in pediatrics: A multicenter retrospective study in mainland China. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Antibiotic resistance profiles and multidrug resistance patterns of Streptococcus pneumoniae in pediatrics: A multicenter retrospective study in mainland China. Emergent resistance to antibiotics among Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates is a severe problem worldwide. Antibiotic resistance profiles for S pneumoniae isolates identified from pediatric patients in mainland China remains to be established.The clinical features, antimicrobial resistance, and multidrug resistance patterns of S (...) the proportions of ceftriaxone resistance were 8.2% and 18.1%, respectively. Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine was administered to only 4.1% of patients. Penicillin and ceftriaxone resistance, underling diseases, antibiotic resistant risk factors, and poor prognosis appeared more frequently in invasive pneumococcal diseases. The incidence of multidrug resistance (MDR) was 46.1% in patients with invasive pneumococcal disease which was more than in patients with non-invasive pneumococcal disease (18.3%). Patients

2019 Medicine

62. Faecal microbiota transplant for eradication of multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae: a lesson in applying best practice? Re: 'A five-day course of oral antibiotics followed by faecal transplantation to eradicate carriage of multidrug-resistant Enteroba Full Text available with Trip Pro

Faecal microbiota transplant for eradication of multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae: a lesson in applying best practice? Re: 'A five-day course of oral antibiotics followed by faecal transplantation to eradicate carriage of multidrug-resistant Enteroba 30685497 2019 06 14 1469-0691 25 7 2019 Jul Clinical microbiology and infection : the official publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Faecal microbiota transplant (...) for eradication of multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae: a lesson in applying best practice? Re: 'A five-day course of oral antibiotics followed by faecal transplantation to eradicate carriage of multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae: A Randomized Clinical Trial'. 912-913 S1198-743X(19)30030-8 10.1016/j.cmi.2019.01.010 Mullish B H BH Division of Integrative Systems Medicine and Digestive Disease, St Mary's Hospital Campus, Imperial College London, London, UK. Ghani R R Division of Integrative Systems

2019 Clinical microbiology and infection : the official publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Controlled trial quality: uncertain

63. Strong correlation between the rates of intrinsically antibiotic-resistant species and the rates of acquired resistance in Gram-negative species causing bacteraemia, EU/EEA, 2016. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Strong correlation between the rates of intrinsically antibiotic-resistant species and the rates of acquired resistance in Gram-negative species causing bacteraemia, EU/EEA, 2016. BackgroundAntibiotic resistance, either intrinsic or acquired, is a major obstacle for treating bacterial infections.AimOur objective was to compare the country-specific species distribution of the four Gram-negative species Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter species (...) and the proportions of selected acquired resistance traits within these species.MethodWe used data reported for 2016 to the European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance Network (EARS-Net) by 30 countries in the European Union and European Economic Area.ResultsThe country-specific species distribution varied considerably. While E. coli accounted for 31.9% to 81.0% (median: 69.0%) of all reported isolates, the two most common intrinsically resistant species P. aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp. combined (PSEACI

2019 Euro Surveillance

64. Penicillin-binding protein typing, antibiotic resistance gene identification and molecular phylogenetic analysis of meropenem-resistant <i>Streptococcus pneumoniae</i> serotype 19A-CC3111 strains in Japan. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Penicillin-binding protein typing, antibiotic resistance gene identification and molecular phylogenetic analysis of meropenem-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 19A-CC3111 strains in Japan. Since the introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines, the prevalence of non-meropenem-susceptible pneumococci has been increasing in Japan. In an earlier study, we demonstrated that the multidrug-resistant serotype 15A-ST63 in Japan has a specific pbp1a sequence (pbp1a--13) that could (...) promote meropenem resistance. To trace the origin of pbp1a, we analyzed isolates of serotype 19A-CC3111, which is the most prevalent non-meropenem-susceptible clone in Japan. We analyzed a total of 119 serotype 19A-CC3111 strains recovered in Japan using whole-genome sequencing. Of the 119 isolates, 53 (44.5%) harbored pbp1a-13, indicating that the clone may be the primary reservoir of the pbp1a type, and the pbp1a region may be horizontally transferred between different serotype strains. The single

2019 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

65. Seasonal Variations in Water-Quality, Antibiotic Residues, Resistant Bacteria and Antibiotic Resistance Genes of Escherichia coli Isolates from Water and Sediments of the Kshipra River in Central India Full Text available with Trip Pro

Seasonal Variations in Water-Quality, Antibiotic Residues, Resistant Bacteria and Antibiotic Resistance Genes of Escherichia coli Isolates from Water and Sediments of the Kshipra River in Central India To characterize the seasonal variation, over one year, in water-quality, antibiotic residue levels, antibiotic resistance genes and antibiotic resistance in Escherichia coli isolates from water and sediment of the Kshipra River in Central India.Water and sediment samples were collected from seven (...) selected points from the Kshipra River in the Indian city of Ujjain in the summer, rainy season, autumn and winter seasons in 2014. Water quality parameters (physical, chemical and microbiological) were analyzed using standard methods. High-performance liquid chromatography⁻tandem mass spectrometry was used to determine the concentrations of antibiotic residues. In river water and sediment samples, antibiotic resistance and multidrug resistance patterns of isolated E. coli to 17 antibiotics were tested

2018 International journal of environmental research and public health

66. Automated annotation of mobile antibiotic resistance in Gram-negative bacteria: the Multiple Antibiotic Resistance Annotator (MARA) and database. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Automated annotation of mobile antibiotic resistance in Gram-negative bacteria: the Multiple Antibiotic Resistance Annotator (MARA) and database. Multiresistance in Gram-negative bacteria is often due to acquisition of several different antibiotic resistance genes, each associated with a different mobile genetic element, that tend to cluster together in complex conglomerations. Accurate, consistent annotation of resistance genes, the boundaries and fragments of mobile elements, and signatures (...) of insertion, such as DR, facilitates comparative analysis of complex multiresistance regions and plasmids to better understand their evolution and how resistance genes spread.To extend the Repository of Antibiotic resistance Cassettes (RAC) web site, which includes a database of 'features', and the Attacca automatic DNA annotation system, to encompass additional resistance genes and all types of associated mobile elements.Antibiotic resistance genes and mobile elements were added to RAC, from existing

2018 Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy

67. Detection of critical antibiotic resistance genes through routine microbiome surveillance. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Detection of critical antibiotic resistance genes through routine microbiome surveillance. Population-based public health data on antibiotic resistance gene carriage is poorly surveyed. Research of the human microbiome as an antibiotic resistance reservoir has primarily focused on gut associated microbial communities, but data have shown more widespread microbial colonization across organs than originally believed, with organs previously considered as sterile being colonized. Our study (...) demonstrates the utility of postmortem microbiome sampling during routine autopsy as a method to survey antibiotic resistance carriage in a general population. Postmortem microbial sampling detected pathogens of public health concern including genes for multidrug efflux pumps, carbapenem, methicillin, vancomycin, and polymixin resistances. Results suggest that postmortem assessments of host-associated microbial communities are useful in acquiring community specific data while reducing selective-participant

2019 PLoS ONE

68. Persistence of antibiotic resistance genes in beef cattle backgrounding environment over two years after cessation of operation. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Persistence of antibiotic resistance genes in beef cattle backgrounding environment over two years after cessation of operation. Confined animal feeding operations can facilitate the spread of genes associated with antibiotic resistance. It is not known how cattle removal from beef cattle backgrounding operation affects the persistence of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in the environment. We investigated the effect of cessation of beef cattle backgrounding operation on the persistence (...) . Metagenomic DNA was extracted from the soil samples and total bacterial population (16S rRNA), total Enterococcus species and class 1 integrons (intI1), and erythromycin (ermB and ermF), sulfonamide (sul1 and sul2) and tetracycline (tetO, tetW and tetQ) resistance genes were quantified. Concentrations of total bacteria, Enterococcus spp., class 1 integrons, and ARGs were higher in the feeding area and its immediate vicinity (around the fence and the gate) followed by a gradient decline along the grazing

2019 PLoS ONE

69. Correction: Pneumococcal carriage among sickle cell disease patients in Accra, Ghana: Risk factors, serotypes and antibiotic resistance. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Correction: Pneumococcal carriage among sickle cell disease patients in Accra, Ghana: Risk factors, serotypes and antibiotic resistance. [This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0206728.].

2019 PLoS ONE

70. Constraints-based analysis identifies NAD+ recycling through metabolic reprogramming in antibiotic resistant Chromobacterium violaceum. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Constraints-based analysis identifies NAD+ recycling through metabolic reprogramming in antibiotic resistant Chromobacterium violaceum. In the post genomic era, high throughput data augment stoichiometric flux balance models to compute accurate metabolic flux states, growth and energy phenotypes. Investigating altered metabolism in the context of evolved resistant genotypes potentially provide simple strategies to overcome drug resistance and induce susceptibility to existing antibiotics (...) . A genome-scale metabolic model (GSMM) for Chromobacterium violaceum, an opportunistic human pathogen, was reconstructed using legacy data. Experimental constraints were used to represent antibiotic susceptible and resistant populations. Model predictions were validated using growth and respiration data successfully. Differential flux distribution and metabolic reprogramming were identified as a response to antibiotics, chloramphenicol and streptomycin. Streptomycin resistant populations (StrpR

2019 PLoS ONE

71. Intestinal carriage of antibiotic resistant Acinetobacter baumannii among newborns hospitalized in Moroccan neonatal intensive care unit. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Intestinal carriage of antibiotic resistant Acinetobacter baumannii among newborns hospitalized in Moroccan neonatal intensive care unit. This study was conducted in order to assess the acquisition rate of Acinetobacter baumannii by newborn screening, on admission and during the discharge process of neonatal intensive care unit. (NICU). Furthermore, we investigated risk factors for potential colonization and molecular epidemiology of isolated resistant bacteria. This prospective study (...) g respectively. In total, 277 patients were included in the acquisition study on admission. The prevalence of multi-drug resistant (MDR) A. baumannii strain carriage was 6.5%, while the acquisition rate during the hospital recovery was 13.7%. In this study, 68 MDR A. baumannii isolates were collected. The resistance rates to different antibiotic classes including, Ceftazidime, Gentamycin and Ciprofloxacin varied between 92 and 100%. Moreover, 13% of MDR A. baumannii isolates were carbapenemase

2019 PLoS ONE

72. Putative antibiotic resistance genes present in extant Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus paralicheniformis strains are probably intrinsic and part of the ancient resistome. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Putative antibiotic resistance genes present in extant Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus paralicheniformis strains are probably intrinsic and part of the ancient resistome. Whole-genome sequencing and phenotypic testing of 104 strains of Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus paralicheniformis from a variety of sources and time periods was used to characterize the genetic background and evolution of (putative) antimicrobial resistance mechanisms. Core proteins were identified in draft genomes (...) and a phylogenetic analysis based on single amino acid polymorphisms allowed the species to be separated into two phylogenetically distinct clades with one outlier. Putative antimicrobial resistance genes were identified and mapped. A chromosomal ermD gene was found at the same location in all B. paralichenformis and in 27% of B. licheniformis genomes. Erythromycin resistance correlated very well with the presence of ermD. The putative streptomycin resistance genes, aph and aadK, were found in the chromosome

2019 PLoS ONE

73. Correction: Within-host whole genome analysis of an antibiotic resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain sub-type in cystic fibrosis. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Correction: Within-host whole genome analysis of an antibiotic resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain sub-type in cystic fibrosis. [This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0172179.].

2019 PLoS ONE

74. Multiple antibiotic resistance as a risk factor for mortality and prolonged hospital stay: A cohort study among neonatal intensive care patients with hospital-acquired infections caused by gram-negative bacteria in Vietnam. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Multiple antibiotic resistance as a risk factor for mortality and prolonged hospital stay: A cohort study among neonatal intensive care patients with hospital-acquired infections caused by gram-negative bacteria in Vietnam. Antibiotic resistance (ABR) is an increasing burden for global health. The prevalence of ABR in Southeast Asia is among the highest worldwide, especially in relation to hospital-acquired infections (HAI) in intensive care units (ICU). However, little is known about morbidity (...) and mortality attributable to ABR in neonates.This study aimed to assess mortality and the length of hospitalization attributable to ABR in gram-negative bacteria (GNB) causing HAI in a Vietnamese neonatal ICU (NICU).We conducted a prospective cohort study (n = 296) in a NICU in Hanoi, Vietnam, from March 2016 to October 2017. Patients isolated with HAI caused by GNB were included. The exposure was resistance to multiple antibiotic classes, the two outcomes were mortality and length of hospital stay (LOS

2019 PLoS ONE

75. Five alternative Helicobacter pylori antibiotics to counter high levofloxacin and metronidazole resistance in the Dominican Republic. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Five alternative Helicobacter pylori antibiotics to counter high levofloxacin and metronidazole resistance in the Dominican Republic. The prevalence of Helicobacter pylori resistance to levofloxacin and metronidazole was high in the Dominican Republic. We used two-fold agar dilution method to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration of five alternative antibiotics in 63 Dominican strains. We also assessed the genetic mutations associated with the antibiotic resistance using next (...) -generation sequencing. We revealed that all 63 strains were sensitive towards sitafloxacin, furazolidone, and rifabutin. In contrast, the prevalence of rifaximin and garenoxacin resistance were high (82.5% and 34.9%, respectively). Patients more than or equal to 60 years old had the highest risk of double-antibiotic resistance (7/9, 77.8%, OR = 31.5, P = 0.009) and garenoxacin resistances (8/9, 88.9%, OR = 45.33, P = 0.002) with an increasing risk simultaneously by age (P = 0.004, r = 0.357). Almost all

2019 PLoS ONE

76. Changing paradigm of antibiotic resistance amongst Escherichia coli isolates in Indian pediatric population. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Changing paradigm of antibiotic resistance amongst Escherichia coli isolates in Indian pediatric population. Antimicrobial resistance happens when microorganisms mutates in manners that render the drugs like antibacterial, antiviral, antiparasitic and antifungal, ineffective. The normal mutation process is encouraged by the improper use of antibiotics. Mutations leading to quinolone resistance occur in a highly conserved region of the quinolone resistance-determining region (QRDR) of DNA gyrAse (...) and topoisomerase IV gene. We analyzed antibiotic resistant genes and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in gyrA and parC genes in QRDR in 120 E. coli isolates (both diarrheagenic and non-pathogenic) recovered from fresh stool samples collected from children aged less than 5 years from Delhi, India. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed according to standard clinical and laboratory standards institute (CLSI) guidelines. Phylogenetic analysis showed the clonal diversity and phylogenetic relationships

2019 PLoS ONE

77. Medical prescribing and antibiotic resistance: A game-theoretic analysis of a potentially catastrophic social dilemma. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Medical prescribing and antibiotic resistance: A game-theoretic analysis of a potentially catastrophic social dilemma. The availability of antibiotics presents medical practitioners with a prescribing dilemma. On the one hand, antibiotics provide a safe and effective treatment option for patients with bacterial infections, but at a population level, over-prescription reduces their effectiveness by facilitating the evolution of bacteria that are resistant to antibiotic medication. A game (...) -theoretic investigation, including analysis of equilibrium strategies, evolutionarily stability, and replicator dynamics, reveals that rational doctors, motivated to attain the best outcomes for their own patients, will prescribe antibiotics irrespective of the level of antibiotic resistance in the population and the behavior of other doctors, although they would achieve better long-term outcomes if their prescribing were more restrained. Ever-increasing antibiotic resistance may therefore be inevitable

2019 PLoS ONE

78. High throughput cultivation-based screening on porous aluminum oxide chips allows targeted isolation of antibiotic resistant human gut bacteria. Full Text available with Trip Pro

High throughput cultivation-based screening on porous aluminum oxide chips allows targeted isolation of antibiotic resistant human gut bacteria. The emergence of bacterial pathogens that are resistant to clinical antibiotics poses an increasing risk to human health. An important reservoir from which bacterial pathogens can acquire resistance is the human gut microbiota. However, thus far, a substantial fraction of the gut microbiota remains uncultivated and has been little-studied with respect (...) to its resistance reservoir-function. Here, we aimed to isolate yet uncultivated resistant gut bacteria by a targeted approach. Therefore, faecal samples from 20 intensive care patients who had received the prophylactic antibiotic treatment selective digestive decontamination (SDD), i.e. tobramycin, polymyxin E, amphotericin B and cefotaxime, were inoculated anaerobically on porous aluminium oxide chips placed on top of poor and rich agar media, including media supplemented with the SDD antibiotics

2019 PLoS ONE

79. Antibacterial activity of lysozyme-chitosan oligosaccharide conjugates (LYZOX) against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Antibacterial activity of lysozyme-chitosan oligosaccharide conjugates (LYZOX) against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. The recent emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria requires the development of new antibiotics or new agents capable of enhancing antibiotic activity. This study evaluated the antibacterial activity of lysozyme-chitosan oligosaccharide conjugates (LYZOX) against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii (...) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), which should resolve the problem of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Bactericidal tests showed that LYZOX killed 50% more P. aeruginosa (NBRC 13275), A. baumannii and MRSA than the control treatment after 60 min. In addition, LYZOX was shown to inhibit the growth of P. aeruginosa (NBRC 13275 and PAO1), A. baumannii and MRSA better than its components. To elucidate the antibacterial mechanism of LYZOX, we performed cell membrane integrity assays, N-phenyl-1

2019 PLoS ONE

80. Development and validation of a multiplex UHPLC-MS/MS method for the determination of the investigational antibiotic against multi-resistant tuberculosis macozinone (PBTZ169) and five active metabolites in human plasma. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Development and validation of a multiplex UHPLC-MS/MS method for the determination of the investigational antibiotic against multi-resistant tuberculosis macozinone (PBTZ169) and five active metabolites in human plasma. The emergence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains resistant to current first-line antibiotic regimens constitutes a major global health threat. New treatments against multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) are thus eagerly needed in particular in countries with a high MDR

2019 PLoS ONE

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