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antibiotic resistance

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61. Exploration of antibiotic resistance risks in a veterinary teaching hospital with Oxford Nanopore long read sequencing. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Exploration of antibiotic resistance risks in a veterinary teaching hospital with Oxford Nanopore long read sequencing. The Oxford Nanopore MinION DNA sequencing device can produce large amounts of long sequences, typically several kilobases, within a few hours. This long read capacity was exploited to detect antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs) in a large veterinary teaching hospital environment, and to assess their taxonomic origin, genetic organisation and association with mobilisation (...) markers concurrently. Samples were collected on eight occasions between November 2016 and May 2017 (inclusive) in a longitudinal study. Nanopore sequencing was performed on total DNA extracted from the samples after a minimal enrichment step in broth. Many ARGs present in the veterinary hospital environment could potentially confer resistance to antimicrobials widely used in treating infections of companion animals, including aminoglycosides, extended-spectrum beta-lactams, sulphonamides, macrolides

2019 PLoS ONE

62. Detection of critical antibiotic resistance genes through routine microbiome surveillance. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Detection of critical antibiotic resistance genes through routine microbiome surveillance. Population-based public health data on antibiotic resistance gene carriage is poorly surveyed. Research of the human microbiome as an antibiotic resistance reservoir has primarily focused on gut associated microbial communities, but data have shown more widespread microbial colonization across organs than originally believed, with organs previously considered as sterile being colonized. Our study (...) demonstrates the utility of postmortem microbiome sampling during routine autopsy as a method to survey antibiotic resistance carriage in a general population. Postmortem microbial sampling detected pathogens of public health concern including genes for multidrug efflux pumps, carbapenem, methicillin, vancomycin, and polymixin resistances. Results suggest that postmortem assessments of host-associated microbial communities are useful in acquiring community specific data while reducing selective-participant

2019 PLoS ONE

63. Correction: Within-host whole genome analysis of an antibiotic resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain sub-type in cystic fibrosis. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Correction: Within-host whole genome analysis of an antibiotic resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain sub-type in cystic fibrosis. [This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0172179.].

2019 PLoS ONE

64. Putative antibiotic resistance genes present in extant Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus paralicheniformis strains are probably intrinsic and part of the ancient resistome. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Putative antibiotic resistance genes present in extant Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus paralicheniformis strains are probably intrinsic and part of the ancient resistome. Whole-genome sequencing and phenotypic testing of 104 strains of Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus paralicheniformis from a variety of sources and time periods was used to characterize the genetic background and evolution of (putative) antimicrobial resistance mechanisms. Core proteins were identified in draft genomes (...) and a phylogenetic analysis based on single amino acid polymorphisms allowed the species to be separated into two phylogenetically distinct clades with one outlier. Putative antimicrobial resistance genes were identified and mapped. A chromosomal ermD gene was found at the same location in all B. paralichenformis and in 27% of B. licheniformis genomes. Erythromycin resistance correlated very well with the presence of ermD. The putative streptomycin resistance genes, aph and aadK, were found in the chromosome

2019 PLoS ONE

65. Intestinal carriage of antibiotic resistant Acinetobacter baumannii among newborns hospitalized in Moroccan neonatal intensive care unit. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Intestinal carriage of antibiotic resistant Acinetobacter baumannii among newborns hospitalized in Moroccan neonatal intensive care unit. This study was conducted in order to assess the acquisition rate of Acinetobacter baumannii by newborn screening, on admission and during the discharge process of neonatal intensive care unit. (NICU). Furthermore, we investigated risk factors for potential colonization and molecular epidemiology of isolated resistant bacteria. This prospective study (...) g respectively. In total, 277 patients were included in the acquisition study on admission. The prevalence of multi-drug resistant (MDR) A. baumannii strain carriage was 6.5%, while the acquisition rate during the hospital recovery was 13.7%. In this study, 68 MDR A. baumannii isolates were collected. The resistance rates to different antibiotic classes including, Ceftazidime, Gentamycin and Ciprofloxacin varied between 92 and 100%. Moreover, 13% of MDR A. baumannii isolates were carbapenemase

2019 PLoS ONE

66. Constraints-based analysis identifies NAD+ recycling through metabolic reprogramming in antibiotic resistant Chromobacterium violaceum. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Constraints-based analysis identifies NAD+ recycling through metabolic reprogramming in antibiotic resistant Chromobacterium violaceum. In the post genomic era, high throughput data augment stoichiometric flux balance models to compute accurate metabolic flux states, growth and energy phenotypes. Investigating altered metabolism in the context of evolved resistant genotypes potentially provide simple strategies to overcome drug resistance and induce susceptibility to existing antibiotics (...) . A genome-scale metabolic model (GSMM) for Chromobacterium violaceum, an opportunistic human pathogen, was reconstructed using legacy data. Experimental constraints were used to represent antibiotic susceptible and resistant populations. Model predictions were validated using growth and respiration data successfully. Differential flux distribution and metabolic reprogramming were identified as a response to antibiotics, chloramphenicol and streptomycin. Streptomycin resistant populations (StrpR

2019 PLoS ONE

67. Correction: Pneumococcal carriage among sickle cell disease patients in Accra, Ghana: Risk factors, serotypes and antibiotic resistance. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Correction: Pneumococcal carriage among sickle cell disease patients in Accra, Ghana: Risk factors, serotypes and antibiotic resistance. [This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0206728.].

2019 PLoS ONE

68. High throughput cultivation-based screening on porous aluminum oxide chips allows targeted isolation of antibiotic resistant human gut bacteria. Full Text available with Trip Pro

High throughput cultivation-based screening on porous aluminum oxide chips allows targeted isolation of antibiotic resistant human gut bacteria. The emergence of bacterial pathogens that are resistant to clinical antibiotics poses an increasing risk to human health. An important reservoir from which bacterial pathogens can acquire resistance is the human gut microbiota. However, thus far, a substantial fraction of the gut microbiota remains uncultivated and has been little-studied with respect (...) to its resistance reservoir-function. Here, we aimed to isolate yet uncultivated resistant gut bacteria by a targeted approach. Therefore, faecal samples from 20 intensive care patients who had received the prophylactic antibiotic treatment selective digestive decontamination (SDD), i.e. tobramycin, polymyxin E, amphotericin B and cefotaxime, were inoculated anaerobically on porous aluminium oxide chips placed on top of poor and rich agar media, including media supplemented with the SDD antibiotics

2019 PLoS ONE

69. Uropathogen Resistance and Antibiotic Prophylaxis: A Meta-analysis Full Text available with Trip Pro

Uropathogen Resistance and Antibiotic Prophylaxis: A Meta-analysis Limited data exist regarding uropathogen resistance in randomized controlled trials of urinary tract infection (UTI) prevention and antibiotic prophylaxis.To assess the effect of prophylaxis on developing a multidrug-resistant first recurrent UTI among children with vesicoureteral reflux.Cochrane Kidney and Transplant Specialized Register through May 25, 2017.Randomized controlled trials of patients ≤18 years of age (...) treated with prophylaxis were more likely to have a multidrug-resistant infection (33% vs 6%, P < .001) and were more likely to receive broad-spectrum antibiotics (68% vs 49%, P = .004). Those receiving prophylaxis had 6.4 times the odds (95% confidence interval: 2.7-15.6) of developing a multidrug-resistant infection. One multidrug-resistant infection would develop for every 21 reflux patients treated with prophylaxis.Variables that may contribute to resistance such as medication adherence

2018 EvidenceUpdates

70. Helicobacter pylori resistance to antibiotics at the An-Najah National University Hospital: a cross-sectional study. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Helicobacter pylori resistance to antibiotics at the An-Najah National University Hospital: a cross-sectional study. Bacterial resistance to antibiotics is considered the most important determinant of treatment failure. Monitoring the evolution of antimicrobial resistance to common antibiotics is therefore of special importance for clinicians. The frequency of resistance to antibiotics in Helicobacter pylori isolates is increasing. The aim of this study was to determine the pattern of H pylori (...) %). Metronidazole and clarithromycin were the least effective drugs, with resistance rates of 100% and 47%, respectively.H pylori isolates from the Palestinian patients included in this study were highly resistant to the traditional first-line antibiotics clarithromycin and metronidazole. However, fluoroquinolones and amoxicillin are still effective antimicrobial choices. This could be the result of the unjustified wide use of antibiotics in the Palestinian community and the use of clarithromycin-based therapy

2018 Lancet

71. Decontamination Strategies and Bloodstream Infections With Antibiotic-Resistant Microorganisms in Ventilated Patients: A Randomized Clinical Trial. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Decontamination Strategies and Bloodstream Infections With Antibiotic-Resistant Microorganisms in Ventilated Patients: A Randomized Clinical Trial. The effects of chlorhexidine (CHX) mouthwash, selective oropharyngeal decontamination (SOD), and selective digestive tract decontamination (SDD) on patient outcomes in ICUs with moderate to high levels of antibiotic resistance are unknown.To determine associations between CHX 2%, SOD, and SDD and the occurrence of ICU-acquired bloodstream infections (...) with multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacteria (MDRGNB) and 28-day mortality in ICUs with moderate to high levels of antibiotic resistance.Randomized trial conducted from December 1, 2013, to May 31, 2017, in 13 European ICUs where at least 5% of bloodstream infections are caused by extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae. Patients with anticipated mechanical ventilation of more than 24 hours were eligible. The final date of follow-up was September 20, 2017.Standard care was daily CHX 2

2018 JAMA Controlled trial quality: predicted high

72. Persistence of antibiotic resistance genes in beef cattle backgrounding environment over two years after cessation of operation. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Persistence of antibiotic resistance genes in beef cattle backgrounding environment over two years after cessation of operation. Confined animal feeding operations can facilitate the spread of genes associated with antibiotic resistance. It is not known how cattle removal from beef cattle backgrounding operation affects the persistence of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in the environment. We investigated the effect of cessation of beef cattle backgrounding operation on the persistence (...) . Metagenomic DNA was extracted from the soil samples and total bacterial population (16S rRNA), total Enterococcus species and class 1 integrons (intI1), and erythromycin (ermB and ermF), sulfonamide (sul1 and sul2) and tetracycline (tetO, tetW and tetQ) resistance genes were quantified. Concentrations of total bacteria, Enterococcus spp., class 1 integrons, and ARGs were higher in the feeding area and its immediate vicinity (around the fence and the gate) followed by a gradient decline along the grazing

2019 PLoS ONE

73. Triple Antibiotic Solution Promotes Similar Antibacterial Effects as Calcium Hydroxide/2% Chlorhexidine When Used as an Intracanal Medicament

instrumentation and/or irrigation, are effective in canal disinfection. The intracanal antimicrobial efficacy of triple antibiotic formulation is shown to be superior to calcium hydroxide alone, or at least comparable to calcium hydroxide combined with 2% chlorhexidine when assessing antibacterial efficacy and clinical outcomes. Perspective: Randomized clinical trials are currently the highest available evidence comparing use of triple antibiotic paste against other canal medicaments in primary teeth (...) Triple Antibiotic Solution Promotes Similar Antibacterial Effects as Calcium Hydroxide/2% Chlorhexidine When Used as an Intracanal Medicament UTCAT3361, Found CAT view, CRITICALLY APPRAISED TOPICs University: | | ORAL HEALTH EVIDENCE-BASED PRACTICE PROGRAM View the CAT / Title Triple Antibiotic Solution Promotes Similar Antibacterial Effects as Calcium Hydroxide/2% Chlorhexidine When Used as an Intracanal Medicament Clinical Question In patients undergoing non-surgical therapy in a tooth

2018 UTHSCSA Dental School CAT Library

74. Using a period incidence survey to compare antibiotic use in children between a university hospital and a district hospital in a country with low antimicrobial resistance: a prospective observational study. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Using a period incidence survey to compare antibiotic use in children between a university hospital and a district hospital in a country with low antimicrobial resistance: a prospective observational study. To describe and compare antibiotic use in relation to indications, doses, adherence rate to guidelines and rates of broad-spectrum antibiotics (BSA) in two different paediatric departments with different academic cultures, and identify areas with room for improvement.Prospective (...) observational survey of antibiotic use.Paediatric departments in a university hospital (UH) and a district hospital (DH) in Norway, 2017. The registration period was 1 year at the DH and 4 months at the UH.201 children at the DH (mean age 3.8: SD 5.1) and 137 children at the UH (mean age 2.0: SD 5.9) were treated with systemic antibiotics by a paediatrician in the study period and included in the study.Main outcome variables were prescriptions of antibiotics, treatments with antibiotics, rates of BSA

2019 BMJ open

75. Targets for the reduction of antibiotic use in humans in the Transatlantic Taskforce on Antimicrobial Resistance (TATFAR) partner countries. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Targets for the reduction of antibiotic use in humans in the Transatlantic Taskforce on Antimicrobial Resistance (TATFAR) partner countries. Unnecessary and inappropriate use of antibiotics in human healthcare is a major driver for the development and spread of antimicrobial resistance; many countries are implementing measures to limit the overuse and misuse of antibiotics e.g. through the establishment of antimicrobial use reduction targets. We performed a review of antimicrobial use reduction (...) indicated that they have established targets to reduce antimicrobial use in humans. Twenty-one countries replied that no target had been established. However, 17 of these 21 countries indicated that work to establish such targets is currently underway, often in the context of developing a national action plan against antimicrobial resistance. The reported targets varied greatly between countries and can be a useful resource for countries willing to engage in the reduction of antibiotic use in humans.

2019 Euro Surveillance

76. Impact of antimicrobial stewardship managed by clinical pharmacists on antibiotic use and drug resistance in a Chinese hospital, 2010-2016: a retrospective observational study. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Impact of antimicrobial stewardship managed by clinical pharmacists on antibiotic use and drug resistance in a Chinese hospital, 2010-2016: a retrospective observational study. 'National Special Stewardship in the Clinical Use of Antibiotics' was put forward in July 2011 in China. We aimed to retrospectively evaluate the impact of antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) managed by clinical pharmacists on antibiotic utilisation, prophylaxis and antimicrobial resistance (AMR).This was a retrospective (...) management, advising on antibacterial prescriptions and training.The proportion of antibiotic prescriptions among outpatients and inpatients, intensity of consumption in defined daily dose (DDD)/100 bed-days, antibiotic prophylaxis in type I incision operations and resistance rates of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were retrospectively analysed.The proportion of antibiotic prescriptions decreased in outpatients (from 19.38% to 13.21%) and in inpatients (from 64.34

2019 BMJ open

77. Non-inferiority versus superiority trial design for new antibiotics in an era of high antimicrobial resistance: the case for post-marketing, adaptive randomised controlled trials. (Abstract)

Non-inferiority versus superiority trial design for new antibiotics in an era of high antimicrobial resistance: the case for post-marketing, adaptive randomised controlled trials. Antimicrobial resistance is one of the most important threats to global health security. A range of Gram-negative bacteria associated with high morbidity and mortality are now resistant to almost all available antibiotics. In this context of urgency to develop novel drugs, new antibiotics for multidrug-resistant Gram (...) a major challenge in the development, registration, and post-marketing implementation of new antibiotics. Using an example of the development process of ceftazidime-avibactam, we propose a strategy for a new research framework based on adaptive randomised clinical trials. The operational research strategy has the aim of assessing the efficacy of new antibiotics in special groups of patients, such as those infected with multidrug-resistant bacteria, who were not included in earlier phase studies

2019 Lancet infectious diseases

78. Patient-related factors, antibiotic prescribing and antimicrobial resistance of the commensal Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae in a healthy population - Hungarian results of the APRES study. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Patient-related factors, antibiotic prescribing and antimicrobial resistance of the commensal Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae in a healthy population - Hungarian results of the APRES study. Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is an increasing public health problem worldwide. We studied some patient-related factors that might influence the antimicrobial resistance. and whether the volume of antibiotic prescribing of the primary care physicians correlate with the antibiotic (...) resistance rates of commensal nasal Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae.The socio-demographic questionnaires, the antibiotic prescription and resistance data of commensal nasal S. aureus and S. pneumoniae were collected in the 20 participating Hungarian practices of the APRES study. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed on the patient-related data and the antimicrobial resistance of the S. aureus and S. pneumoniae on individual, patient level. Ecological analyses were

2019 BMC Infectious Diseases

79. Prevalence of in vitro synergistic antibiotic interaction between fosfomycin and nonsusceptible antimicrobials in carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa. (Abstract)

Prevalence of in vitro synergistic antibiotic interaction between fosfomycin and nonsusceptible antimicrobials in carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We assessed the synergistic potential of fosfomycin and parenteral antibiotics among carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (CRP).Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined by broth microdilution for all antibiotics except fosfomycin, for which the gradient diffusion strip (GDS) method was used. The GDS cross method (...) was performed to assess interactions between fosfomycin and: aztreonam, cefepime, ceftazidime, ceftazidime/avibactam, ceftolozane/tazobactam, meropenem, piperacillin/tazobactam and tobramycin. Only organisms that were nonsusceptible to the second drug were assessed.Among 153 clinical isolates, the fosfomycin MIC50/90 was 48/≥1024 mg l-1 . Synergy was detected in 131/604 (21.7 %) fosfomycin-antibiotic combinations among 76 (49.7 %) isolates. Ceftazidime (42/81, 51.9%) and ceftolozane/tazobactam (7/14, 50.0

2019 Journal of Medical Microbiology

80. Antibacterial and Antibiotic-Potentiating Activities of Thirteen Cameroonian Edible Plants against Gram-Negative Resistant Phenotypes Full Text available with Trip Pro

Antibacterial and Antibiotic-Potentiating Activities of Thirteen Cameroonian Edible Plants against Gram-Negative Resistant Phenotypes This work was designed to investigate the antibacterial activities of methanol extracts from thirteen Cameroonian edible plants and their antibiotic-potentiating effects against Gram-negative multidrug-resistant (MDR) phenotypes. The broth microdilution method was used to evaluate the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (...) (MBC) of the extracts, as well as their antibiotic-potentiating activities. The phytochemical screening of the extracts was carried out according to the standard methods. The results of phytochemical tests revealed the presence of sterols, polyphenols, and tannins in most of the tested extracts, with the other classes of secondary metabolites being selectively distributed. Tested extracts showed variable antibacterial activities with MIC values ranging from 64 to 1024 μg/mL. However, some extracts

2018 The Scientific World Journal

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