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antibiotic resistance

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41. Universal Glove and Gown Use and Acquisition of Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria in the ICU: A Randomized Trial

Universal Glove and Gown Use and Acquisition of Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria in the ICU: A Randomized Trial PEDSCCM.org Criteria abstracted from series in Review Posted: founded 1995 Questions or comments?

2016 PedsCCM Evidence-Based Journal Club

42. Regulation of virulence and antibiotic resistance in Gram-positive microbes in response to cell wall-active antibiotics. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Regulation of virulence and antibiotic resistance in Gram-positive microbes in response to cell wall-active antibiotics. Antibiotic stress can evoke considerable genotypic and phenotypic changes in Gram-positive bacteria. Here, we review recent studies describing altered virulence expression in response to cell wall-acting antibiotics and discuss mechanisms that coordinate regulation of the antibiotic response.Pleiotropic effects induced by antibiotic exposure include alterations to bacterial (...) metabolism, cell wall structure and antibiotic resistance. In addition, subinhibitory concentrations of cell wall-active (CWA) antibiotics have increasingly been shown to induce the production of exotoxins and biofilm formation that may influence virulence. Remarkably, phenotypes associated with comparable antibiotic stresses can vary considerably, emphasizing the need to better understand the response to CWA antibiotics. Recent studies support both direct antibiotic recognition and recognition

2019 Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases

43. Detection of antibiotic resistance genes from blood cultures: performance assessment and potential impact on antibiotic therapy management. (Abstract)

Detection of antibiotic resistance genes from blood cultures: performance assessment and potential impact on antibiotic therapy management. Molecular assays may constitute a valid method for timely prediction of antimicrobial resistance and optimization of empirical antibiotic therapies. This study assessed ELITe MGB assays of blood cultures to detect the main carbapenemase and extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) genes, Staphylococcus aureus and mec genes in less than 3 h. Excellent (...) agreement was found between the results of genotypic and conventional phenotypic approaches. Retrospective analysis of medical records revealed that approximately 50% of bloodstream infections caused by ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae, carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae or meticillin-resistant S. aureus were initially treated with inactive drugs. Overall, 36.3% of patients could have been treated with appropriate therapy at least 24 h earlier if molecular data had been used.Copyright © 2019

2019 Journal of Hospital Infection

44. Parents' perceptions of antibiotic use and antibiotic resistance (PAUSE): a qualitative interview study. Full Text available with Trip Pro

of unnecessary antibiotic use and antibiotic resistance needs to focus on outcomes that parents of young children can relate to (e.g. infection recurrence) and in a format that parents will engage with (e.g. face-to-face dissemination at playgroups and parent/child community events) to make a more informed decision about the risks and benefits of antibiotics for their child.© The Author(s) 2019. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. (...) Parents' perceptions of antibiotic use and antibiotic resistance (PAUSE): a qualitative interview study. There remains public misconception about antibiotic use and resistance. Preschool children are at particular risk of receiving unnecessary antibiotics because they commonly present in primary care and many childhood infections are self-limiting.The aim of our study was to explore parents' perceptions and understanding of antibiotic use and resistance in the context of their young child

2019 Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy

45. Successful treatment of antibiotic resistant poly-microbial bone infection with bacteriophages and antibiotics combination. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Successful treatment of antibiotic resistant poly-microbial bone infection with bacteriophages and antibiotics combination. A patient with a trauma-related left tibial infection associated with extensively drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii and multidrug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae was treated with bacteriophages and antibiotics. There was rapid tissue healing and positive culture eradication. As a result, the patient's leg did not have to be amputated and he is undergoing

2019 Clinical Infectious Diseases

46. Prevalence of antibiotic resistance in fecal flora before transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy and the clinical impact of targeted antibiotic prophylaxis. (Abstract)

Prevalence of antibiotic resistance in fecal flora before transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy and the clinical impact of targeted antibiotic prophylaxis. In this study, we aimed to evaluate ciprofloxacin resistance and the presence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producing organisms (ESBLs) in the population of patients with indication to undergo prostate biopsy. Our additional aim was to compare the targeted antibiotic prophylaxis and sepsis rates after transrectal ultrasound (...) (10.4%). There were no statistically significant differences between antibiotic resistance and urologic operations, urinary tract infections, prior catheterization history, the presence of a catheter during prostate biopsy and antibiotic usage history due to a high PSA level.In our study, the rates of ESBL presence and ciprofloxacin resistance in rectal flora were not negligible. However, by obtaining rectal swab cultures prior to performing transrectal prostate biopsies and using targeted

2019 Archivos Espanoles de Urologia Controlled trial quality: uncertain

47. Knowledge of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance among Norwegian pharmacy customers - a cross-sectional study. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Knowledge of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance among Norwegian pharmacy customers - a cross-sectional study. Antibiotic resistance is a global health threat. Public knowledge is considered a prerequisite for appropriate use of antibiotics and limited spread of antibiotic resistance. Our aim was to examine the level of knowledge of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance among Norwegian pharmacy customers, and to assess to which degree beliefs, attitudes and sociodemographic factors (...) are associated with this knowledge.A questionnaire based, cross-sectional study was conducted among pharmacy customers in three Norwegian cities. The questionnaire covered 1) knowledge of antibiotics (13 statements) and antibiotic resistance (10 statements), 2) the general beliefs about medicines questionnaire (BMQ general) (three subdomains, four statements each), 3) attitudes toward antibiotic use (four statements), and 4) sociodemographic factors, life style and health. High knowledge level was defined

2019 BMC Public Health

48. Exploring patients' understanding of antibiotic resistance and how this may influence attitudes towards antibiotic use for acute respiratory infections: a qualitative study in Australian general practice. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Exploring patients' understanding of antibiotic resistance and how this may influence attitudes towards antibiotic use for acute respiratory infections: a qualitative study in Australian general practice. To explore patients' or parents of child patients' understanding of antibiotic resistance and aspects of resistance such as resistance reversibility and its spread among those in close proximity, along with how this may influence attitudes towards antibiotic use for acute respiratory (...) infections (ARIs).Qualitative semistructured interview study using convenience sampling and thematic analysis by two researchers independently.General practices in Gold Coast, Australia.32 patients or parents of child patients presenting to general practice with an ARI.Five themes emerged: (1) antibiotic use is seen as the main cause of antibiotic resistance, but what it is that becomes resistant is poorly understood; (2) resistance is perceived as a future 'big problem' for the community, with little

2019 BMJ open

49. Low-income community knowledge, attitudes and perceptions regarding antibiotics and antibiotic resistance in Jelutong District, Penang, Malaysia: a qualitative study. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Low-income community knowledge, attitudes and perceptions regarding antibiotics and antibiotic resistance in Jelutong District, Penang, Malaysia: a qualitative study. Understanding community perspectives on antibiotics and antibiotic resistance (ABR) is a key component in designing educational interventions to combat ABR at the community level in Malaysia. Therefore, this study aimed to explore community residents' knowledge, attitudes and perceptions regarding antibiotics and ABR in Jelutong (...) District, Penang, Malaysia. Moreover, it intended to identify areas of focus to be addressed when designing an educational intervention to increase residents' knowledge and change their attitudes and perceptions.A qualitative approach was adopted to gain a deeper understanding of community residents' knowledge, attitudes and perceptions regarding antibiotics and ABR. A purposive sampling was employed. Twenty-two residents (aged ≥18 years) were interviewed with the aid of a semi-structured interview

2019 BMC Public Health

50. Diarrhoea - antibiotic associated: Scenario: Diarrhoea - antibiotic associated

in a NICE evidence summary on the risk of C. difficile with broad-spectrum antibiotics [ ], Public Health England diagnostic guidance [ ], and North American practice parameters [ ]. The most frequently implicated antibiotics include broad-spectrum penicillins, cephalosporins, clindamycin, and flouroquinolones, but most antibiotics have been associated with C. difficile infection [ ; ; ; ]. The risk of C. difficile infection is increased with greater number of antimicrobials used, higher doses (...) leading to toxic megacolon and intestinal perforation and necrosis [ ; ; ]. Antibiotics for treating mild to moderate Clostridium difficile infection The recommendations regarding the choice of antibiotic to treat C. difficile infection is based on guidance published by Public Health England: Updated guidance on the management and treatment of Clostridium difficile infection [ ], Managing suspected infectious diarrhoea [ ] and Summary of antimicrobial prescribing guidance - managing common infections

2019 NICE Clinical Knowledge Summaries

51. Primary care: Broad-spectrum antibiotics gave no clinical benefit and more adverse effects than narrow-spectrum antibiotics in treating acute respiratory tract infections in US children

of resistance; a linear trend by nation has been presented. 1 Large variations in antimicrobial prescribing between countries have been demonstrated, the USA is in line with top EU countries like Greece and France, using three times more per inhabitant than the Nordic countries. Respiratory tract infections (RTIs) in primary care are frequently viral, and a large proportion of bacterial infections such as otitis media, sinusitis and sore throat have little benefit from antibiotic treatment. Another (...) important focus for avoiding increased antimicrobial resistance is to reduce the proportion of broad-spectrum antibiotics prescribed. Internationally most focus is on cephalosporins, macrolides and quinolones … Footnotes Contributors ML has written the commentary. Competing interests None declared. Patient consent Not required. Provenance and peer review Commissioned; internally peer reviewed. Request Permissions If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take

2019 Evidence-Based Medicine

52. Retraction of: Antibiotic Resistance in Salmonella Enteritidis Isolates Recovered from Chicken, Chicken Breast, and Humans Through National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System Between 1996 and 2014, by Paudyal N, Pan H, Li X, Fang W, Yue M.Foodborn Full Text available with Trip Pro

Retraction of: Antibiotic Resistance in Salmonella Enteritidis Isolates Recovered from Chicken, Chicken Breast, and Humans Through National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System Between 1996 and 2014, by Paudyal N, Pan H, Li X, Fang W, Yue M.Foodborn 30334658 2019 03 13 1556-7125 15 10 2018 10 Foodborne pathogens and disease Foodborne Pathog. Dis. Retraction of: Antibiotic Resistance in Salmonella Enteritidis Isolates Recovered from Chicken, Chicken Breast, and Humans Through National (...) Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System Between 1996 and 2014, by Paudyal N, Pan H, Li X, Fang W, Yue M. Foodborne Pathog Dis [Epub ahead of print]; DOI: 10.1089/fpd.2017.2402. 669 10.1089/fpd.2017.2402.retract eng Journal Article Retraction of Publication United States Foodborne Pathog Dis 101120121 1535-3141 Foodborne Pathog Dis. 2018 Oct 3;: 29927626 2018 10 19 6 0 2018 10 20 6 0 2018 10 20 6 1 ppublish 30334658 10.1089/fpd.2017.2402.retract PMC6205040 Clin Infect Dis. 2014 Nov 1;59(9):e139-41

2018 Foodborne pathogens and disease

53. Antibiotic Resistance and Azithromycin Resistance Mechanism of Legionella pneumophila Serogroup 1 in China. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Antibiotic Resistance and Azithromycin Resistance Mechanism of Legionella pneumophila Serogroup 1 in China. Legionnaires' disease, caused by Legionella pneumophila, has been treated primarily with antibiotics. However, few reports have been published on antibiotic-resistant Legionella in China. Our aim was to determine the azithromycin resistance mechanism of L. pneumophila serogroup 1 in China. The sensitivities of 149 L. pneumophila serogroup 1 strains, isolated from clinical cases (...) or environmental water in China from 2002 to 2016, to five antibiotics, including erythromycin, azithromycin, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, and rifampin, were evaluated. The mechanisms of the resistance of L. pneumophila serogroup 1 to azithromycin were studied. The expression levels of efflux pump gene lpeAB and the MIC of azithromycin-resistant strains in the presence and absence of the efflux pump inhibitor carbonyl cyanide-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP) were determined. All 149 strains were sensitive

2019 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

54. Optimizing Contact Precautions to Curb the Spread of Antibiotic-resistant Bacteria in Hospitals: A Multicenter Cohort Study to Identify Patient Characteristics and Healthcare Personnel Interactions Associated With Transmission of Methicillin-resistant Sta Full Text available with Trip Pro

Optimizing Contact Precautions to Curb the Spread of Antibiotic-resistant Bacteria in Hospitals: A Multicenter Cohort Study to Identify Patient Characteristics and Healthcare Personnel Interactions Associated With Transmission of Methicillin-resistant Sta Healthcare personnel (HCP) acquire antibiotic-resistant bacteria on their gloves and gowns when caring for intensive care unit (ICU) patients. Yet, contact precautions for patients with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA

2019 Clinical Infectious Diseases

55. Antimicrobial resistance in methicillin-resistant <i>Staphylococcus aureus</i> to newer antimicrobial agents. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Antimicrobial resistance in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus to newer antimicrobial agents. Infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) result in significant morbidity and mortality for patients in both community and health care settings. This is primarily due to the difficulty in treating MRSA, which is often resistant to multiple classes of antibiotics. Understanding the mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in MRSA provides insight (...) into the optimal use of antimicrobial agents in clinical practice and also underpins critical aspects of antimicrobial stewardship programs. In this review we delineate the mechanisms, prevalence, and clinical importance of resistance to antibiotics licensed in the past 20 years that target MRSA, as well as new drugs in the pipeline which are likely to be licensed soon. Current gaps in scientific knowledge about MRSA resistance mechanisms are discussed, and topics in the epidemiology of AMR in S. aureus

2019 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

56. Strong correlation between the rates of intrinsically antibiotic-resistant species and the rates of acquired resistance in Gram-negative species causing bacteraemia, EU/EEA, 2016. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Strong correlation between the rates of intrinsically antibiotic-resistant species and the rates of acquired resistance in Gram-negative species causing bacteraemia, EU/EEA, 2016. BackgroundAntibiotic resistance, either intrinsic or acquired, is a major obstacle for treating bacterial infections.AimOur objective was to compare the country-specific species distribution of the four Gram-negative species Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter species (...) and the proportions of selected acquired resistance traits within these species.MethodWe used data reported for 2016 to the European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance Network (EARS-Net) by 30 countries in the European Union and European Economic Area.ResultsThe country-specific species distribution varied considerably. While E. coli accounted for 31.9% to 81.0% (median: 69.0%) of all reported isolates, the two most common intrinsically resistant species P. aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp. combined (PSEACI

2019 Euro Surveillance

57. Antibiotic resistance profiles and multidrug resistance patterns of Streptococcus pneumoniae in pediatrics: A multicenter retrospective study in mainland China. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Antibiotic resistance profiles and multidrug resistance patterns of Streptococcus pneumoniae in pediatrics: A multicenter retrospective study in mainland China. Emergent resistance to antibiotics among Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates is a severe problem worldwide. Antibiotic resistance profiles for S pneumoniae isolates identified from pediatric patients in mainland China remains to be established.The clinical features, antimicrobial resistance, and multidrug resistance patterns of S (...) the proportions of ceftriaxone resistance were 8.2% and 18.1%, respectively. Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine was administered to only 4.1% of patients. Penicillin and ceftriaxone resistance, underling diseases, antibiotic resistant risk factors, and poor prognosis appeared more frequently in invasive pneumococcal diseases. The incidence of multidrug resistance (MDR) was 46.1% in patients with invasive pneumococcal disease which was more than in patients with non-invasive pneumococcal disease (18.3%). Patients

2019 Medicine

58. Predicting Antibiotic Resistance in Gram-Negative Bacilli from Resistance Genes. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Predicting Antibiotic Resistance in Gram-Negative Bacilli from Resistance Genes. We developed a rapid high-throughput PCR test and evaluated highly antibiotic-resistant clinical isolates of Escherichia coli (n = 2,919), Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 1,974), Proteus mirabilis (n = 1,150), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n = 1,484) for several antibiotic resistance genes for comparison with phenotypic resistance across penicillins, cephalosporins, carbapenems, aminoglycosides, trimethoprim (...) -sulfamethoxazole, fluoroquinolones, and macrolides. The isolates originated from hospitals in North America (34%), Europe (23%), Asia (13%), South America (12%), Africa (7%), or Oceania (1%) or were of unknown origin (9%). We developed statistical methods to predict phenotypic resistance from resistance genes for 49 antibiotic-organism combinations, including gentamicin, tobramycin, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, ertapenem, imipenem, cefazolin, cefepime, cefotaxime, ceftazidime

2019 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

59. Penicillin-binding protein typing, antibiotic resistance gene identification and molecular phylogenetic analysis of meropenem-resistant <i>Streptococcus pneumoniae</i> serotype 19A-CC3111 strains in Japan. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Penicillin-binding protein typing, antibiotic resistance gene identification and molecular phylogenetic analysis of meropenem-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 19A-CC3111 strains in Japan. Since the introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines, the prevalence of non-meropenem-susceptible pneumococci has been increasing in Japan. In an earlier study, we demonstrated that the multidrug-resistant serotype 15A-ST63 in Japan has a specific pbp1a sequence (pbp1a--13) that could (...) promote meropenem resistance. To trace the origin of pbp1a, we analyzed isolates of serotype 19A-CC3111, which is the most prevalent non-meropenem-susceptible clone in Japan. We analyzed a total of 119 serotype 19A-CC3111 strains recovered in Japan using whole-genome sequencing. Of the 119 isolates, 53 (44.5%) harbored pbp1a-13, indicating that the clone may be the primary reservoir of the pbp1a type, and the pbp1a region may be horizontally transferred between different serotype strains. The single

2019 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

60. Faecal microbiota transplant for eradication of multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae: a lesson in applying best practice? Re: 'A five-day course of oral antibiotics followed by faecal transplantation to eradicate carriage of multidrug-resistant Enteroba Full Text available with Trip Pro

Faecal microbiota transplant for eradication of multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae: a lesson in applying best practice? Re: 'A five-day course of oral antibiotics followed by faecal transplantation to eradicate carriage of multidrug-resistant Enteroba 30685497 2019 06 14 1469-0691 25 7 2019 Jul Clinical microbiology and infection : the official publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Faecal microbiota transplant (...) for eradication of multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae: a lesson in applying best practice? Re: 'A five-day course of oral antibiotics followed by faecal transplantation to eradicate carriage of multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae: A Randomized Clinical Trial'. 912-913 S1198-743X(19)30030-8 10.1016/j.cmi.2019.01.010 Mullish B H BH Division of Integrative Systems Medicine and Digestive Disease, St Mary's Hospital Campus, Imperial College London, London, UK. Ghani R R Division of Integrative Systems

2019 Clinical microbiology and infection : the official publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Controlled trial quality: uncertain

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