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antibiotic resistance

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41. Vertical transmission of gut microbiome and antimicrobial resistance genes in infants exposed to antibiotics at birth. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Vertical transmission of gut microbiome and antimicrobial resistance genes in infants exposed to antibiotics at birth. Vertical transmission of maternal microbes is a major route for establishing the gut microbiome in newborns. The impact of perinatal antibiotics on vertical transmission of microbes and antimicrobial resistance is not well understood. Using a metagenomic approach, we analyzed the fecal samples from mothers and vaginally delivered infants from a control group (10 pairs (...) ) and a treatment group (10 pairs) receiving perinatal antibiotics. Antibiotic-usage had a significant impact on the main source of inoculum in the gut microbiome of newborns. The control group had significantly more species transmitted from mothers to infants (p=0.03) than the antibiotic-treated group. Approximately 72% of the gut microbial population of infants at 3-7 days after birth in the control group was transmitted from their mothers, versus only 25% in the antibiotic-treated group. In conclusion

2020 Journal of Infectious Diseases

42. Is there an association between long-term antibiotics for acne and subsequent infection sequelae and antimicrobial resistance? A systematic review protocol. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Is there an association between long-term antibiotics for acne and subsequent infection sequelae and antimicrobial resistance? A systematic review protocol. Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a global health emergency. Acne vulgaris is a highly prevalent condition and the dominant role antibiotics play in its treatment is a major concern. Antibiotics are widely used in the treatment of acne predominantly for their anti-inflammatory effect, hence their use in acne may not be optimal (...) . Tetracyclines and macrolides are the two most common oral antibiotic classes prescribed, and their average use can extend from a few months to several years of intermittent or continuous use. The overall aim of this systematic review is to elucidate what is known about oral antibiotics for acne contributing to antibiotic treatment failure and AMR.A systematic review will be conducted to address the question: What is the existing evidence that long-term oral antibiotics used to treat acne in those over 8

2020 BMJ open

43. Reducing expectations for antibiotics in primary care: a randomised experiment to test the response to fear-based messages about antimicrobial resistance. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Reducing expectations for antibiotics in primary care: a randomised experiment to test the response to fear-based messages about antimicrobial resistance. To reduce inappropriate antibiotic use, public health campaigns often provide fear-based information about antimicrobial resistance (AMR). Meta-analyses have found that fear-based campaigns in other contexts are likely to be ineffective unless respondents feel confident they can carry out the recommended behaviour ('self-efficacy (...) '). This study aimed to test the likely impact of fear-based messages, with and without empowering self-efficacy elements, on patient consultations/antibiotic requests for influenza-like illnesses, using a randomised design.We hypothesised that fear-based messages containing empowering information about self-management without antibiotics would be more effective than fear alone, particularly in a pre-specified subgroup with low AMR awareness. Four thousand respondents from an online panel, representative

2020 BMC Medicine

45. Reducing antibiotic resistance

of antibiotic resistance. This year, we're urging people that it's time to take antibiotic resistance seriously. NPS MedicineWise has created a suite of resources you can download, print and share to raise awareness about antibiotic resistance and help preserve the power of antibiotics. Australian Prescriber: Antimicrobial use and resistance in Australia John Turnidge Aust Prescr 2017;40:2-31 Feb 2017 Managing the emergence and increasing resistance to antimicrobials in hospitals and the community has (...) become an urgent national and international problem. As part of a plan to tackle this, Australia is developing a coordinated national program to monitor antimicrobial use and resistance. Sometimes, parents need reassurance rather than antibiotics When their children are unwell, parents and carers often visit their GP for reassurance. They want to check their child doesn’t have a serious illness and have the opportunity to discuss what is worrying them about their child’s cold, cough, earache or sore

2017 National Prescribing Service Limited (Australia)

46. Prevalence of antibiotic resistance in fecal flora before transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy and the clinical impact of targeted antibiotic prophylaxis. (Abstract)

Prevalence of antibiotic resistance in fecal flora before transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy and the clinical impact of targeted antibiotic prophylaxis. In this study, we aimed to evaluate ciprofloxacin resistance and the presence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producing organisms (ESBLs) in the population of patients with indication to undergo prostate biopsy. Our additional aim was to compare the targeted antibiotic prophylaxis and sepsis rates after transrectal ultrasound (...) (10.4%). There were no statistically significant differences between antibiotic resistance and urologic operations, urinary tract infections, prior catheterization history, the presence of a catheter during prostate biopsy and antibiotic usage history due to a high PSA level.In our study, the rates of ESBL presence and ciprofloxacin resistance in rectal flora were not negligible. However, by obtaining rectal swab cultures prior to performing transrectal prostate biopsies and using targeted

2019 Archivos Espanoles de Urologia Controlled trial quality: uncertain

47. Exploring patients' understanding of antibiotic resistance and how this may influence attitudes towards antibiotic use for acute respiratory infections: a qualitative study in Australian general practice. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Exploring patients' understanding of antibiotic resistance and how this may influence attitudes towards antibiotic use for acute respiratory infections: a qualitative study in Australian general practice. To explore patients' or parents of child patients' understanding of antibiotic resistance and aspects of resistance such as resistance reversibility and its spread among those in close proximity, along with how this may influence attitudes towards antibiotic use for acute respiratory (...) infections (ARIs).Qualitative semistructured interview study using convenience sampling and thematic analysis by two researchers independently.General practices in Gold Coast, Australia.32 patients or parents of child patients presenting to general practice with an ARI.Five themes emerged: (1) antibiotic use is seen as the main cause of antibiotic resistance, but what it is that becomes resistant is poorly understood; (2) resistance is perceived as a future 'big problem' for the community, with little

2019 BMJ open

48. Detection of antibiotic resistance genes from blood cultures: performance assessment and potential impact on antibiotic therapy management. (Abstract)

Detection of antibiotic resistance genes from blood cultures: performance assessment and potential impact on antibiotic therapy management. Molecular assays may constitute a valid method for timely prediction of antimicrobial resistance and optimization of empirical antibiotic therapies. This study assessed ELITe MGB assays of blood cultures to detect the main carbapenemase and extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) genes, Staphylococcus aureus and mec genes in less than 3 h. Excellent (...) agreement was found between the results of genotypic and conventional phenotypic approaches. Retrospective analysis of medical records revealed that approximately 50% of bloodstream infections caused by ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae, carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae or meticillin-resistant S. aureus were initially treated with inactive drugs. Overall, 36.3% of patients could have been treated with appropriate therapy at least 24 h earlier if molecular data had been used.Copyright © 2019

2019 Journal of Hospital Infection

49. Antibiotic resistance is lower in Staphylococcus aureus isolated from antibiotic-free raw meat as compared to conventional raw meat. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Antibiotic resistance is lower in Staphylococcus aureus isolated from antibiotic-free raw meat as compared to conventional raw meat. The frequent use of antibiotics contributes to antibiotic resistance in bacteria, resulting in an increase in infections that are difficult to treat. Livestock are commonly administered antibiotics in their feed, but there is current interest in raising animals that are only administered antibiotics during active infections. Staphylococcus aureus (SA) is a common (...) pathogen of both humans and livestock raised for human consumption. SA has achieved high levels of antibiotic resistance, but the origins and locations of resistance selection are poorly understood. We determined the prevalence of SA and MRSA in conventional and antibiotic-free (AF) meat products, and also measured rates of antibiotic resistance in these isolates. We isolated SA from raw conventional turkey, chicken, beef, and pork samples and also from AF chicken and turkey samples. We found that SA

2018 PLoS ONE

50. Knowledge of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance among Norwegian pharmacy customers - a cross-sectional study. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Knowledge of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance among Norwegian pharmacy customers - a cross-sectional study. Antibiotic resistance is a global health threat. Public knowledge is considered a prerequisite for appropriate use of antibiotics and limited spread of antibiotic resistance. Our aim was to examine the level of knowledge of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance among Norwegian pharmacy customers, and to assess to which degree beliefs, attitudes and sociodemographic factors (...) are associated with this knowledge.A questionnaire based, cross-sectional study was conducted among pharmacy customers in three Norwegian cities. The questionnaire covered 1) knowledge of antibiotics (13 statements) and antibiotic resistance (10 statements), 2) the general beliefs about medicines questionnaire (BMQ general) (three subdomains, four statements each), 3) attitudes toward antibiotic use (four statements), and 4) sociodemographic factors, life style and health. High knowledge level was defined

2019 BMC Public Health

51. Parents' perceptions of antibiotic use and antibiotic resistance (PAUSE): a qualitative interview study. Full Text available with Trip Pro

of unnecessary antibiotic use and antibiotic resistance needs to focus on outcomes that parents of young children can relate to (e.g. infection recurrence) and in a format that parents will engage with (e.g. face-to-face dissemination at playgroups and parent/child community events) to make a more informed decision about the risks and benefits of antibiotics for their child.© The Author(s) 2019. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. (...) Parents' perceptions of antibiotic use and antibiotic resistance (PAUSE): a qualitative interview study. There remains public misconception about antibiotic use and resistance. Preschool children are at particular risk of receiving unnecessary antibiotics because they commonly present in primary care and many childhood infections are self-limiting.The aim of our study was to explore parents' perceptions and understanding of antibiotic use and resistance in the context of their young child

2019 Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy

52. Successful treatment of antibiotic resistant poly-microbial bone infection with bacteriophages and antibiotics combination. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Successful treatment of antibiotic resistant poly-microbial bone infection with bacteriophages and antibiotics combination. A patient with a trauma-related left tibial infection associated with extensively drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii and multidrug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae was treated with bacteriophages and antibiotics. There was rapid tissue healing and positive culture eradication. As a result, the patient's leg did not have to be amputated and he is undergoing

2019 Clinical Infectious Diseases

53. Regulation of virulence and antibiotic resistance in Gram-positive microbes in response to cell wall-active antibiotics. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Regulation of virulence and antibiotic resistance in Gram-positive microbes in response to cell wall-active antibiotics. Antibiotic stress can evoke considerable genotypic and phenotypic changes in Gram-positive bacteria. Here, we review recent studies describing altered virulence expression in response to cell wall-acting antibiotics and discuss mechanisms that coordinate regulation of the antibiotic response.Pleiotropic effects induced by antibiotic exposure include alterations to bacterial (...) metabolism, cell wall structure and antibiotic resistance. In addition, subinhibitory concentrations of cell wall-active (CWA) antibiotics have increasingly been shown to induce the production of exotoxins and biofilm formation that may influence virulence. Remarkably, phenotypes associated with comparable antibiotic stresses can vary considerably, emphasizing the need to better understand the response to CWA antibiotics. Recent studies support both direct antibiotic recognition and recognition

2019 Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases

54. Extended antibiotic treatment in salmon farms select multiresistant gut bacteria with a high prevalence of antibiotic resistance genes. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Extended antibiotic treatment in salmon farms select multiresistant gut bacteria with a high prevalence of antibiotic resistance genes. The high use of antibiotics for the treatment of bacterial diseases is one of the main problems in the mass production of animal protein. Salmon farming in Chile is a clear example of the above statement, where more than 5,500 tonnes of antibiotics have been used over the last 10 years. This has caused a great impact both at the production level (...) and on the environment; however, there are still few works in relation to it. In order to demonstrate the impact of the high use of antibiotics on fish gut microbiota, we have selected four salmon farms presenting a similar amount of fish of the Atlantic salmon species (Salmo salar), ranging from 4,500 to 6,000 tonnes. All of these farms used treatments with high doses of antibiotics. Thus, 15 healthy fish were selected and euthanised in order to isolate the bacteria resistant to the antibiotics oxytetracycline

2018 PLoS ONE

55. Correction: Antibiotic resistance rates and physician antibiotic prescription patterns of uncomplicated urinary tract infections in southern Chinese primary care. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Correction: Antibiotic resistance rates and physician antibiotic prescription patterns of uncomplicated urinary tract infections in southern Chinese primary care. [This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0177266.].

2018 PLoS ONE

56. Low-income community knowledge, attitudes and perceptions regarding antibiotics and antibiotic resistance in Jelutong District, Penang, Malaysia: a qualitative study. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Low-income community knowledge, attitudes and perceptions regarding antibiotics and antibiotic resistance in Jelutong District, Penang, Malaysia: a qualitative study. Understanding community perspectives on antibiotics and antibiotic resistance (ABR) is a key component in designing educational interventions to combat ABR at the community level in Malaysia. Therefore, this study aimed to explore community residents' knowledge, attitudes and perceptions regarding antibiotics and ABR in Jelutong (...) District, Penang, Malaysia. Moreover, it intended to identify areas of focus to be addressed when designing an educational intervention to increase residents' knowledge and change their attitudes and perceptions.A qualitative approach was adopted to gain a deeper understanding of community residents' knowledge, attitudes and perceptions regarding antibiotics and ABR. A purposive sampling was employed. Twenty-two residents (aged ≥18 years) were interviewed with the aid of a semi-structured interview

2019 BMC Public Health

57. Predicting Antibiotic Resistance in Gram-Negative Bacilli from Resistance Genes. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Predicting Antibiotic Resistance in Gram-Negative Bacilli from Resistance Genes. We developed a rapid high-throughput PCR test and evaluated highly antibiotic-resistant clinical isolates of Escherichia coli (n = 2,919), Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 1,974), Proteus mirabilis (n = 1,150), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n = 1,484) for several antibiotic resistance genes for comparison with phenotypic resistance across penicillins, cephalosporins, carbapenems, aminoglycosides, trimethoprim (...) -sulfamethoxazole, fluoroquinolones, and macrolides. The isolates originated from hospitals in North America (34%), Europe (23%), Asia (13%), South America (12%), Africa (7%), or Oceania (1%) or were of unknown origin (9%). We developed statistical methods to predict phenotypic resistance from resistance genes for 49 antibiotic-organism combinations, including gentamicin, tobramycin, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, ertapenem, imipenem, cefazolin, cefepime, cefotaxime, ceftazidime

2019 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

58. Optimizing Contact Precautions to Curb the Spread of Antibiotic-resistant Bacteria in Hospitals: A Multicenter Cohort Study to Identify Patient Characteristics and Healthcare Personnel Interactions Associated With Transmission of Methicillin-resistant Sta Full Text available with Trip Pro

Optimizing Contact Precautions to Curb the Spread of Antibiotic-resistant Bacteria in Hospitals: A Multicenter Cohort Study to Identify Patient Characteristics and Healthcare Personnel Interactions Associated With Transmission of Methicillin-resistant Sta Healthcare personnel (HCP) acquire antibiotic-resistant bacteria on their gloves and gowns when caring for intensive care unit (ICU) patients. Yet, contact precautions for patients with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA

2019 Clinical Infectious Diseases

59. Antimicrobial resistance in methicillin-resistant <i>Staphylococcus aureus</i> to newer antimicrobial agents. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Antimicrobial resistance in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus to newer antimicrobial agents. Infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) result in significant morbidity and mortality for patients in both community and health care settings. This is primarily due to the difficulty in treating MRSA, which is often resistant to multiple classes of antibiotics. Understanding the mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in MRSA provides insight (...) into the optimal use of antimicrobial agents in clinical practice and also underpins critical aspects of antimicrobial stewardship programs. In this review we delineate the mechanisms, prevalence, and clinical importance of resistance to antibiotics licensed in the past 20 years that target MRSA, as well as new drugs in the pipeline which are likely to be licensed soon. Current gaps in scientific knowledge about MRSA resistance mechanisms are discussed, and topics in the epidemiology of AMR in S. aureus

2019 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

60. Antibiotic Resistance and Azithromycin Resistance Mechanism of Legionella pneumophila Serogroup 1 in China. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Antibiotic Resistance and Azithromycin Resistance Mechanism of Legionella pneumophila Serogroup 1 in China. Legionnaires' disease, caused by Legionella pneumophila, has been treated primarily with antibiotics. However, few reports have been published on antibiotic-resistant Legionella in China. Our aim was to determine the azithromycin resistance mechanism of L. pneumophila serogroup 1 in China. The sensitivities of 149 L. pneumophila serogroup 1 strains, isolated from clinical cases (...) or environmental water in China from 2002 to 2016, to five antibiotics, including erythromycin, azithromycin, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, and rifampin, were evaluated. The mechanisms of the resistance of L. pneumophila serogroup 1 to azithromycin were studied. The expression levels of efflux pump gene lpeAB and the MIC of azithromycin-resistant strains in the presence and absence of the efflux pump inhibitor carbonyl cyanide-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP) were determined. All 149 strains were sensitive

2019 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

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