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antibiotic resistance

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41. Universal Screening for Antibiotic-Resistant Organisms in Long-Term Care Facilities

Universal Screening for Antibiotic-Resistant Organisms in Long-Term Care Facilities TITLE: Universal Screening for Antibiotic-Resistant Organisms in Long-Term Care Facilities: Clinical Effectiveness and Guidelines DATE: 18 December 2014 RESEARCH QUESTIONS 1. What is the clinical effectiveness of universal screening for antibiotic-resistant organisms (AROs) upon admission to a long-term care or continuing care facility? 2. What are the evidence-based guidelines regarding screening residents (...) for AROs upon admission to long-term care or continuing care facilities? KEY FINDINGS One systematic review was identified regarding the clinical effectiveness of universal screening for antibiotic-resistant organisms upon admission to a long-term care or continuing care facility. METHODS A limited literature search was conducted on key resources including PubMed, The Cochrane Library (2014, Issue 12), University of York Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (CRD) databases, Canadian and major

2015 Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health - Rapid Review

42. Frequency of Rescreening of Patients Negative for Antibiotic Resistant Organisms

Frequency of Rescreening of Patients Negative for Antibiotic Resistant Organisms TITLE: Frequency of Rescreening of Patients Negative for Antibiotic Resistant Organisms: Clinical Evidence and Guidelines DATE: 22 December 2014 RESEARCH QUESTIONS 1. What is the clinical evidence regarding the frequency of rescreening following a negative antibiotic resistant organism (ARO) test result at admission in the acute care setting? 2. What are the evidence-based guidelines regarding the frequency (...) at admission in the acute care setting; therefore, no summary can be provided. Frequency of Rescreening of Patients Negative for Antibiotic Resistant Organisms 2 REFERENCES SUMMARIZED Health Technology Assessments No literature identified. Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses No literature identified. Randomized Controlled Trials No literature identified. Non-Randomized Studies No literature identified. Guidelines and Recommendations No literature identified. PREPARED BY: Canadian Agency for Drugs

2015 Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health - Rapid Review

43. Frequency of Rescreening of Patients Positive for Antibiotic Resistant Organisms

setting [Internet]. Dublin (IE): Royal College of Physicians of Ireland; 2012 [cited 2014 Dec 19]. Available from: Frequency of Rescreening of Patients Positive for Antibiotic Resistant Organisms 4 http://www.hpsc.ie/A- Z/MicrobiologyAntimicrobialResistance/InfectionControlandHAI/Guidelines/File,12922,en.p df See: Third bullet, page 27 Additional References 11. McGeer A, Fleming CA. Antimicrobial resistance in common hospital pathogens in Ontario: report 2011. Toronto (ON): Ontario Medical Association (...) , Quality Management Program - Laboratory Services; 2012 Apr [cited 2014 Dec 19]. Available from: https://iqmh.org/Portals/0/Docs/Resources/Antimicrobial%20Resistance%20Report%2020 11.pdf See: 63. When are precautions discontinued?, page 23 Frequency of Rescreening of Patients Positive for Antibiotic Resistant Organisms 5

2015 Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health - Rapid Review

44. Contact Precautions for Patients Previously Positive for Antibiotic Resistant Organisms

Contact Precautions for Patients Previously Positive for Antibiotic Resistant Organisms TITLE: Contact Precautions for Patients Previously Positive for Antibiotic Resistant Organisms: Guidelines DATE: 05 January 2015 RESEARCH QUESTION What are the evidence-based guidelines regarding the management of patients in acute care who have previously tested positive, but are currently negative for antibiotic resistant organisms? KEY FINDINGS No evidence-based guidelines were identified regarding (...) the management of patients in acute care who have previously tested positive, but are currently negative for antibiotic resistant organisms. METHODS A limited literature search was conducted on key resources including PubMed, Medline, The Cochrane Library (2014, Issue 12), University of York Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (CRD) databases, Canadian and major international health technology agencies, as well as a focused Internet search. Methodological filters were applied to limit retrieval to health

2015 Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health - Rapid Review

45. Antibiotic Resistance and Azithromycin Resistance Mechanism of Legionella pneumophila Serogroup 1 in China. (Abstract)

Antibiotic Resistance and Azithromycin Resistance Mechanism of Legionella pneumophila Serogroup 1 in China. Legionnaires' disease, caused by Legionella pneumophila, has been treated primarily with antibiotics. However, few reports have been published on antibiotic-resistant Legionella in China. Our aim was to determine the azithromycin resistance mechanism of L. pneumophila serogroup 1 in China. The sensitivities of 149 L. pneumophila serogroup 1 strains, isolated from clinical cases (...) or environmental water in China from 2002 to 2016, to five antibiotics, including erythromycin, azithromycin, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, and rifampin, were evaluated. The mechanisms of the resistance of L. pneumophila serogroup 1 to azithromycin were studied. The expression levels of efflux pump gene lpeAB and the MIC of azithromycin-resistant strains in the presence and absence of the efflux pump inhibitor carbonyl cyanide-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP) were determined. All 149 strains were sensitive

2019 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

46. Antibiotic resistance profiles and multidrug resistance patterns of Streptococcus pneumoniae in pediatrics: A multicenter retrospective study in mainland China. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Antibiotic resistance profiles and multidrug resistance patterns of Streptococcus pneumoniae in pediatrics: A multicenter retrospective study in mainland China. Emergent resistance to antibiotics among Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates is a severe problem worldwide. Antibiotic resistance profiles for S pneumoniae isolates identified from pediatric patients in mainland China remains to be established.The clinical features, antimicrobial resistance, and multidrug resistance patterns of S (...) the proportions of ceftriaxone resistance were 8.2% and 18.1%, respectively. Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine was administered to only 4.1% of patients. Penicillin and ceftriaxone resistance, underling diseases, antibiotic resistant risk factors, and poor prognosis appeared more frequently in invasive pneumococcal diseases. The incidence of multidrug resistance (MDR) was 46.1% in patients with invasive pneumococcal disease which was more than in patients with non-invasive pneumococcal disease (18.3%). Patients

2019 Medicine

47. Penicillin-binding protein typing, antibiotic resistance gene identification and molecular phylogenetic analysis of meropenem-resistant <i>Streptococcus pneumoniae</i> serotype 19A-CC3111 strains in Japan. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Penicillin-binding protein typing, antibiotic resistance gene identification and molecular phylogenetic analysis of meropenem-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 19A-CC3111 strains in Japan. Since the introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines, the prevalence of non-meropenem-susceptible pneumococci has been increasing in Japan. In an earlier study, we demonstrated that the multidrug-resistant serotype 15A-ST63 in Japan has a specific pbp1a sequence (pbp1a--13) that could (...) promote meropenem resistance. To trace the origin of pbp1a, we analyzed isolates of serotype 19A-CC3111, which is the most prevalent non-meropenem-susceptible clone in Japan. We analyzed a total of 119 serotype 19A-CC3111 strains recovered in Japan using whole-genome sequencing. Of the 119 isolates, 53 (44.5%) harbored pbp1a-13, indicating that the clone may be the primary reservoir of the pbp1a type, and the pbp1a region may be horizontally transferred between different serotype strains. The single

2019 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

48. Strong correlation between the rates of intrinsically antibiotic-resistant species and the rates of acquired resistance in Gram-negative species causing bacteraemia, EU/EEA, 2016. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Strong correlation between the rates of intrinsically antibiotic-resistant species and the rates of acquired resistance in Gram-negative species causing bacteraemia, EU/EEA, 2016. BackgroundAntibiotic resistance, either intrinsic or acquired, is a major obstacle for treating bacterial infections.AimOur objective was to compare the country-specific species distribution of the four Gram-negative species Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter species (...) and the proportions of selected acquired resistance traits within these species.MethodWe used data reported for 2016 to the European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance Network (EARS-Net) by 30 countries in the European Union and European Economic Area.ResultsThe country-specific species distribution varied considerably. While E. coli accounted for 31.9% to 81.0% (median: 69.0%) of all reported isolates, the two most common intrinsically resistant species P. aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp. combined (PSEACI

2019 Euro Surveillance

49. Faecal microbiota transplant for eradication of multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae: a lesson in applying best practice? Re: 'A five-day course of oral antibiotics followed by faecal transplantation to eradicate carriage of multidrug-resistant Enteroba Full Text available with Trip Pro

Faecal microbiota transplant for eradication of multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae: a lesson in applying best practice? Re: 'A five-day course of oral antibiotics followed by faecal transplantation to eradicate carriage of multidrug-resistant Enteroba 30685497 2019 06 14 1469-0691 25 7 2019 Jul Clinical microbiology and infection : the official publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Faecal microbiota transplant (...) for eradication of multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae: a lesson in applying best practice? Re: 'A five-day course of oral antibiotics followed by faecal transplantation to eradicate carriage of multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae: A Randomized Clinical Trial'. 912-913 S1198-743X(19)30030-8 10.1016/j.cmi.2019.01.010 Mullish B H BH Division of Integrative Systems Medicine and Digestive Disease, St Mary's Hospital Campus, Imperial College London, London, UK. Ghani R R Division of Integrative Systems

2019 Clinical microbiology and infection : the official publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Controlled trial quality: uncertain

50. Optimizing Contact Precautions to Curb the Spread of Antibiotic-resistant Bacteria in Hospitals: A Multicenter Cohort Study to Identify Patient Characteristics and Healthcare Personnel Interactions Associated With Transmission of Methicillin-resistant Sta Full Text available with Trip Pro

Optimizing Contact Precautions to Curb the Spread of Antibiotic-resistant Bacteria in Hospitals: A Multicenter Cohort Study to Identify Patient Characteristics and Healthcare Personnel Interactions Associated With Transmission of Methicillin-resistant Sta Healthcare personnel (HCP) acquire antibiotic-resistant bacteria on their gloves and gowns when caring for intensive care unit (ICU) patients. Yet, contact precautions for patients with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA

2019 Clinical Infectious Diseases

51. Antimicrobial resistance in methicillin-resistant <i>Staphylococcus aureus</i> to newer antimicrobial agents. (Abstract)

Antimicrobial resistance in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus to newer antimicrobial agents. Infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) result in significant morbidity and mortality for patients in both community and health care settings. This is primarily due to the difficulty in treating MRSA, which is often resistant to multiple classes of antibiotics. Understanding the mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in MRSA provides insight (...) into the optimal use of antimicrobial agents in clinical practice and also underpins critical aspects of antimicrobial stewardship programs. In this review we delineate the mechanisms, prevalence, and clinical importance of resistance to antibiotics licensed in the past 20 years that target MRSA, as well as new drugs in the pipeline which are likely to be licensed soon. Current gaps in scientific knowledge about MRSA resistance mechanisms are discussed, and topics in the epidemiology of AMR in S. aureus

2019 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

52. Predicting Antibiotic Resistance in Gram-Negative Bacilli from Resistance Genes. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Predicting Antibiotic Resistance in Gram-Negative Bacilli from Resistance Genes. We developed a rapid high-throughput PCR test and evaluated highly antibiotic-resistant clinical isolates of Escherichia coli (n = 2,919), Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 1,974), Proteus mirabilis (n = 1,150), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n = 1,484) for several antibiotic resistance genes for comparison with phenotypic resistance across penicillins, cephalosporins, carbapenems, aminoglycosides, trimethoprim (...) -sulfamethoxazole, fluoroquinolones, and macrolides. The isolates originated from hospitals in North America (34%), Europe (23%), Asia (13%), South America (12%), Africa (7%), or Oceania (1%) or were of unknown origin (9%). We developed statistical methods to predict phenotypic resistance from resistance genes for 49 antibiotic-organism combinations, including gentamicin, tobramycin, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, ertapenem, imipenem, cefazolin, cefepime, cefotaxime, ceftazidime

2019 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

53. Antibiotic resistance profiles of deep surgical site infections in hip hemiarthroplasty; comparing low dose single antibiotic versus high dose dual antibiotic impregnated cement Full Text available with Trip Pro

Antibiotic resistance profiles of deep surgical site infections in hip hemiarthroplasty; comparing low dose single antibiotic versus high dose dual antibiotic impregnated cement Objectives: The incidence of fractured neck of femur (FNOF) is increasing yearly. Many of these patients undergo hip hemiarthroplasty. High dose dual-antibiotic cement (HDDAC) has been shown to reduce rates of deep surgical site infection (SSI) when compared to the current standard low dose single-antibiotic cement (...) (LDSAC) in a quasi-randomised controlled trial. Some concerns exist regarding the use of HDDAC and the development of antibiotic resistance. We reviewed cases of infection in LDSAC and HDDAC bone cement with regard to causative organism and resistance profile. Methods: A retrospective analysis was undertaken of all hemiarthroplasties within our trust from April 2008 to December 2014. We identified all patients in this time period who acquired a deep SSI. The infecting organisms and susceptibility

2018 Journal of Bone and Joint Infection

54. A horizontally gene transferred copper resistance locus confers hyper‐resistance to antibacterial copper toxicity and enables survival of community acquired methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus USA300 in macrophages Full Text available with Trip Pro

A horizontally gene transferred copper resistance locus confers hyper‐resistance to antibacterial copper toxicity and enables survival of community acquired methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus USA300 in macrophages Excess copper is highly toxic and forms part of the host innate immune system's antibacterial arsenal, accumulating at sites of infection and acting within macrophages to kill engulfed pathogens. We show for the first time that a novel, horizontally gene transferred copper (...) lipoprotein, confer copper hyper-resistance compared to typical S. aureus strains. The copXL genes form an operon that is tightly repressed in low copper environments by the copper regulator CsoR. Significantly, CopX and CopL are important for S. aureus USA300 intracellular survival within macrophages. Therefore, the emergence of new S. aureus clones with the copXL locus has significant implications for public health because these genes confer increased resistance to antibacterial copper toxicity

2018 Environmental microbiology

55. Five alternative Helicobacter pylori antibiotics to counter high levofloxacin and metronidazole resistance in the Dominican Republic. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Five alternative Helicobacter pylori antibiotics to counter high levofloxacin and metronidazole resistance in the Dominican Republic. The prevalence of Helicobacter pylori resistance to levofloxacin and metronidazole was high in the Dominican Republic. We used two-fold agar dilution method to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration of five alternative antibiotics in 63 Dominican strains. We also assessed the genetic mutations associated with the antibiotic resistance using next (...) -generation sequencing. We revealed that all 63 strains were sensitive towards sitafloxacin, furazolidone, and rifabutin. In contrast, the prevalence of rifaximin and garenoxacin resistance were high (82.5% and 34.9%, respectively). Patients more than or equal to 60 years old had the highest risk of double-antibiotic resistance (7/9, 77.8%, OR = 31.5, P = 0.009) and garenoxacin resistances (8/9, 88.9%, OR = 45.33, P = 0.002) with an increasing risk simultaneously by age (P = 0.004, r = 0.357). Almost all

2019 PLoS ONE

56. Changing paradigm of antibiotic resistance amongst Escherichia coli isolates in Indian pediatric population. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Changing paradigm of antibiotic resistance amongst Escherichia coli isolates in Indian pediatric population. Antimicrobial resistance happens when microorganisms mutates in manners that render the drugs like antibacterial, antiviral, antiparasitic and antifungal, ineffective. The normal mutation process is encouraged by the improper use of antibiotics. Mutations leading to quinolone resistance occur in a highly conserved region of the quinolone resistance-determining region (QRDR) of DNA gyrAse (...) and topoisomerase IV gene. We analyzed antibiotic resistant genes and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in gyrA and parC genes in QRDR in 120 E. coli isolates (both diarrheagenic and non-pathogenic) recovered from fresh stool samples collected from children aged less than 5 years from Delhi, India. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed according to standard clinical and laboratory standards institute (CLSI) guidelines. Phylogenetic analysis showed the clonal diversity and phylogenetic relationships

2019 PLoS ONE

57. Medical prescribing and antibiotic resistance: A game-theoretic analysis of a potentially catastrophic social dilemma. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Medical prescribing and antibiotic resistance: A game-theoretic analysis of a potentially catastrophic social dilemma. The availability of antibiotics presents medical practitioners with a prescribing dilemma. On the one hand, antibiotics provide a safe and effective treatment option for patients with bacterial infections, but at a population level, over-prescription reduces their effectiveness by facilitating the evolution of bacteria that are resistant to antibiotic medication. A game (...) -theoretic investigation, including analysis of equilibrium strategies, evolutionarily stability, and replicator dynamics, reveals that rational doctors, motivated to attain the best outcomes for their own patients, will prescribe antibiotics irrespective of the level of antibiotic resistance in the population and the behavior of other doctors, although they would achieve better long-term outcomes if their prescribing were more restrained. Ever-increasing antibiotic resistance may therefore be inevitable

2019 PLoS ONE

58. Multiple antibiotic resistance as a risk factor for mortality and prolonged hospital stay: A cohort study among neonatal intensive care patients with hospital-acquired infections caused by gram-negative bacteria in Vietnam. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Multiple antibiotic resistance as a risk factor for mortality and prolonged hospital stay: A cohort study among neonatal intensive care patients with hospital-acquired infections caused by gram-negative bacteria in Vietnam. Antibiotic resistance (ABR) is an increasing burden for global health. The prevalence of ABR in Southeast Asia is among the highest worldwide, especially in relation to hospital-acquired infections (HAI) in intensive care units (ICU). However, little is known about morbidity (...) and mortality attributable to ABR in neonates.This study aimed to assess mortality and the length of hospitalization attributable to ABR in gram-negative bacteria (GNB) causing HAI in a Vietnamese neonatal ICU (NICU).We conducted a prospective cohort study (n = 296) in a NICU in Hanoi, Vietnam, from March 2016 to October 2017. Patients isolated with HAI caused by GNB were included. The exposure was resistance to multiple antibiotic classes, the two outcomes were mortality and length of hospital stay (LOS

2019 PLoS ONE

59. Antibacterial activity of lysozyme-chitosan oligosaccharide conjugates (LYZOX) against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Antibacterial activity of lysozyme-chitosan oligosaccharide conjugates (LYZOX) against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. The recent emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria requires the development of new antibiotics or new agents capable of enhancing antibiotic activity. This study evaluated the antibacterial activity of lysozyme-chitosan oligosaccharide conjugates (LYZOX) against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii (...) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), which should resolve the problem of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Bactericidal tests showed that LYZOX killed 50% more P. aeruginosa (NBRC 13275), A. baumannii and MRSA than the control treatment after 60 min. In addition, LYZOX was shown to inhibit the growth of P. aeruginosa (NBRC 13275 and PAO1), A. baumannii and MRSA better than its components. To elucidate the antibacterial mechanism of LYZOX, we performed cell membrane integrity assays, N-phenyl-1

2019 PLoS ONE

60. Development and validation of a multiplex UHPLC-MS/MS method for the determination of the investigational antibiotic against multi-resistant tuberculosis macozinone (PBTZ169) and five active metabolites in human plasma. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Development and validation of a multiplex UHPLC-MS/MS method for the determination of the investigational antibiotic against multi-resistant tuberculosis macozinone (PBTZ169) and five active metabolites in human plasma. The emergence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains resistant to current first-line antibiotic regimens constitutes a major global health threat. New treatments against multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) are thus eagerly needed in particular in countries with a high MDR

2019 PLoS ONE

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