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antibiotic resistance

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43421. Antibiotic activity against urinary tract infection (UTI) isolates of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE): results from the 2002 North American Vancomycin Resistant Enterococci Susceptibility Study (NAVRESS). Full Text available with Trip Pro

Antibiotic activity against urinary tract infection (UTI) isolates of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE): results from the 2002 North American Vancomycin Resistant Enterococci Susceptibility Study (NAVRESS). The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) in urinary isolates in North America, and the activity of various antibiotics against VRE.Twenty-eight medical centres in the United States and 10 centres in Canada assessed the prevalence (...) of VRE in urinary isolates in 2002. Each study site was asked to collect up to a maximum of 50 consecutive VRE (Enterococcus faecium, Enterococcus faecalis only) urinary isolates. Susceptibility was determined by NCCLS broth microdilution. The prevalence of vanA and vanB resistance genotypes was determined by multiplex PCR.From the 28 US medical centres, a total of 697 VRE (616 [88.4%] E. faecium and 81 [11.6%] E. faecalis) were received. Approximately 75% of all VRE (E. faecium and E. faecalis

2003 Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy

43422. Efficacies of quinupristin-dalfopristin combined with vancomycin in vitro and in experimental endocarditis due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in relation to cross-resistance to macrolides, lincosamides, and streptogramin B- type antibiotic Full Text available with Trip Pro

Efficacies of quinupristin-dalfopristin combined with vancomycin in vitro and in experimental endocarditis due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in relation to cross-resistance to macrolides, lincosamides, and streptogramin B- type antibiotic A beneficial effect of the combination of quinupristin-dalfopristin and vancomycin was observed against two methicillin-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus harboring or not harboring the ermC gene, which codes for constitutive macrolide (...) , lincosamide, and streptogramin B resistance. The beneficial effect was observed in time-kill studies, in which the drugs were used at inhibitory concentrations, and in a rabbit model of endocarditis, in which the combination was highly bactericidal and more active than monotherapies.

2002 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

43423. Agricultural use of antibiotics and the evolution and transfer of antibiotic-resistant bacteria Full Text available with Trip Pro

Agricultural use of antibiotics and the evolution and transfer of antibiotic-resistant bacteria Microbial Resistance to antibiotics is on the rise, in part because of inappropriate use of antibiotics in human medicine but also because of practices in the agricultural industry. Intensive animal production involves giving livestock animals large quantities of antibiotics to promote growth and prevent infection. These uses promote the selection of antibiotic resistance in bacterial populations (...) . The resistant bacteria from agricultural environments may be transmitted to humans, in whom they cause disease that cannot be treated by conventional antibiotics. The author reviews trends in antibiotic use in animal husbandry and agriculture in general. The development of resistance is described, along with the genetic mechanisms that create resistance and facilitate its spread among bacterial species. Particular aspects of resistance in bacterial species common to both the human population

1998 CMAJ: Canadian Medical Association Journal

43424. Resistance to antibiotics : Prescribing of antibiotics needs to be rational Full Text available with Trip Pro

Resistance to antibiotics : Prescribing of antibiotics needs to be rational 9831591 1999 01 07 2018 11 13 0959-8138 317 7171 1998 Nov 28 BMJ (Clinical research ed.) BMJ Resistance to antibiotics. Prescribing of antibiotics needs to be rational. 1521 Pearson P P McWhinney P P Stanley P P eng Comment Letter England BMJ 8900488 0959-8138 AIM IM BMJ. 1998 Apr 25;316(7140):1255-6 9554890 BMJ. 1998 Apr 25;316(7140):1261 9599047 Advertising as Topic Drug Resistance, Microbial Humans Periodicals

1998 BMJ : British Medical Journal

43425. Contributors to antibiotic resistance : Antibiotics should not be first treatment for acne Full Text available with Trip Pro

Contributors to antibiotic resistance : Antibiotics should not be first treatment for acne 10066222 1999 04 22 2018 11 13 0959-8138 318 7184 1999 Mar 06 BMJ (Clinical research ed.) BMJ Contributors to antibiotic resistance. Antibiotics should not be first treatment for acne. 669 Cheesbrough M J MJ Royal Infirmary, Huddersfield HD3 3EA. eng Letter England BMJ 8900488 0959-8138 0 Anti-Bacterial Agents AIM IM Acne Vulgaris drug therapy Anti-Bacterial Agents therapeutic use Drug Resistance

1999 BMJ : British Medical Journal

43426. Controlling antibiotic resistance by quelling the epidemic of overuse and misuse of antibiotics. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Controlling antibiotic resistance by quelling the epidemic of overuse and misuse of antibiotics. 9789653 1998 11 16 2018 11 13 0008-350X 44 1998 Sep Canadian family physician Medecin de famille canadien Can Fam Physician Controlling antibiotic resistance by quelling the epidemic of overuse and misuse of antibiotics. 1769-73, 1780-4 Conly J J eng fre Comment Editorial Review Canada Can Fam Physician 0120300 0008-350X 0 Anti-Bacterial Agents IM Can Fam Physician. 1998 Sep;44:1881-8 9789668 Anti (...) -Bacterial Agents therapeutic use Canada Drug Prescriptions statistics & numerical data Drug Resistance, Microbial Drug Utilization statistics & numerical data trends Global Health Humans Infection drug therapy epidemiology microbiology 30 1998 10 28 1998 10 28 0 1 1998 10 28 0 0 ppublish 9789653 PMC2277853 FEMS Microbiol Lett. 1992 Jun 1;72(2):195-8 1505742 Can Dis Wkly Rep. 1991 Apr 6;17(14):72-4 2054854 Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 1992 Oct;13(10):582-6 1469266 N Engl J Med. 1993 Feb 25;328(8):521-6

1998 Canadian Family Physician

43427. Antibiotic prescribing and antibiotic resistance in community practice: retrospective study, 1996-8 Full Text available with Trip Pro

Antibiotic prescribing and antibiotic resistance in community practice: retrospective study, 1996-8 10550088 1999 12 17 2018 11 13 0959-8138 319 7219 1999 Nov 06 BMJ (Clinical research ed.) BMJ Antibiotic prescribing and antibiotic resistance in community practice: retrospective study, 1996-8. 1239-40 Magee J T JT Department of Medical Microbiology, University Hospital of Wales, Cardiff CF14 4XW. Pritchard E L EL Fitzgerald K A KA Dunstan F D FD Howard A J AJ eng Journal Article Research (...) Support, Non-U.S. Gov't England BMJ 8900488 0959-8138 0 Anti-Bacterial Agents AIM IM Anti-Bacterial Agents supply & distribution Drug Resistance, Microbial Family Practice statistics & numerical data Humans Retrospective Studies Wales epidemiology 1999 11 5 1999 11 5 0 1 1999 11 5 0 0 ppublish 10550088 PMC28274 J Antimicrob Chemother. 1994 Aug;34(2):239-46 7814284 J Med Microbiol. 1989 Feb;28(2):73-83 2644434

1999 BMJ : British Medical Journal

43428. Antibiotic resistance correlates with use of antibiotics by local practices Full Text available with Trip Pro

Antibiotic resistance correlates with use of antibiotics by local practices 10550124 1999 11 18 1756-1833 319 7219 1999 Nov 06 BMJ (Clinical research ed.) BMJ Antibiotic resistance correlates with use of antibiotics by local practices F eng Journal Article England BMJ 8900488 0959-8138 1999 11 5 1999 11 5 1999 11 5 0 0 ppublish 10550124 PMC1116996

1999 BMJ : British Medical Journal

43429. Excretion of β-Lactam Antibiotics in Sweat—a Neglected Mechanism for Development of Antibiotic Resistance? Full Text available with Trip Pro

Excretion of β-Lactam Antibiotics in Sweat—a Neglected Mechanism for Development of Antibiotic Resistance? The concentrations of beta-lactam antibiotics after standard doses were measured in blood and apocrine (axilla) and eccrine (forearm) sweat from six adult healthy persons. All persons had ceftazidime (axilla, 28.4 microg/ml; forearm, 11 microg/ml) and ceftriaxone (axilla, 8.9 microg/ml; forearm, 2.5 microg/ml) in sweat, and one person had cefuroxime in sweat (axilla, 7.8 microg/ml) (all (...) data are mean peaks). Three persons had benzylpenicillin (axilla, 2.6 to 0.1 microg/ml) and one had phenoxymethylpenicillin (axilla, 0.4 microg/ml) in sweat. Excretion of beta-lactam antibiotics in the sweat may explain why staphylococci so rapidly become resistant to these drugs.

2000 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

43430. Prophylactic treatment of anthrax with antibiotics : Indiscriminate use of antibiotics will lead to resistance in organisms Full Text available with Trip Pro

Prophylactic treatment of anthrax with antibiotics : Indiscriminate use of antibiotics will lead to resistance in organisms 11691746 2001 12 05 2018 11 13 0959-8138 323 7320 2001 Nov 03 BMJ (Clinical research ed.) BMJ Prophylactic treatment of anthrax with antibiotics. 1017-8 Hart C A CA Beeching N J NJ eng Editorial England BMJ 8900488 0959-8138 AIM IM BMJ. 2002 Feb 9;324(7333):364 11858182 Anthrax prevention & control Antibiotic Prophylaxis Bioterrorism Drug Resistance, Bacterial Humans

2001 BMJ : British Medical Journal

43431. Antibiotic resistance and antibiotic sensitivity based treatment in Helicobacter pylori infection: advantages and outcome. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Antibiotic resistance and antibiotic sensitivity based treatment in Helicobacter pylori infection: advantages and outcome. To compare two strategies for the eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection.Groups 1 and 2 each consisted of 75 consecutive patients. Patients in group 1 were treated with two antibiotics based on antibiotic susceptibility testing; those in group 2 received amoxycillin and clarithromycin for eight days, together with either ranitidine or omeprazole. Eradication rate (...) was assessed in both groups six months after treatment.In group 1, H pylori grew in culture in 63/75 cases. Susceptibility testing showed that 35/63 isolates were resistant to metronidazole, 10/63 to clarithromycin, 2/63 to ampicillin, 1/63 to tetracycline, and 5/63 to both clarithromycin and metronidazole. In group 1 the infection was eradicated in 96% of the initial 75 subjects, and in 98% of the subjects treated according to the antibiotic assay (62/63). As two patients were lost at follow up

2001 Archives of disease in childhood Controlled trial quality: uncertain

43432. Antibiotic resistance of subgingival species during and after antibiotic therapy. (Abstract)

Antibiotic resistance of subgingival species during and after antibiotic therapy. The purpose of the present investigation was to determine the percentage and identity of antibiotic-resistant species in subgingival plaque and saliva samples from chronic periodontitis patients treated by scaling and root planing followed by orally administered amoxicillin or metronidazole.In all, 20 chronic periodontitis patients were selected for study. After clinical and microbiological monitoring, subjects (...) were randomly assigned to receive either orally administered amoxicillin at the dosage of 500 mg, 3 times daily for 14 days or orally administered metronidazole at the dosage of 250 mg, 3 times daily for 14 days. For the antibiotic resistance determinations, subgingival plaque samples were taken from six posterior teeth at baseline, and 90 days; and from two randomly selected teeth at 3, 7 and 14 days during and after antibiotic administration. Samples were plated on enriched blood agar plates

2002 Journal of clinical periodontology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

43433. Antibiotic resistance in pathogenic and producing bacteria, with special reference to beta-lactam antibiotics. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Antibiotic resistance in pathogenic and producing bacteria, with special reference to beta-lactam antibiotics. 7035856 1982 04 12 2018 11 13 0146-0749 45 4 1981 Dec Microbiological reviews Microbiol. Rev. Antibiotic resistance in pathogenic and producing bacteria, with special reference to beta-lactam antibiotics. 591-619 Ogawara H H eng Journal Article Review United States Microbiol Rev 7806086 0146-0749 0 Anti-Bacterial Agents 0 Cephalosporins 0 Penicillins 0 beta-Lactams EC 3.5.2.6 beta (...) -Lactamases IM Anti-Bacterial Agents pharmacology Bacteria drug effects genetics metabolism Cell Wall drug effects metabolism Cephalosporins biosynthesis pharmacology Chemical Phenomena Chemistry Penicillin Resistance Penicillins biosynthesis pharmacology Soil Microbiology Species Specificity Streptomyces drug effects metabolism beta-Lactamases metabolism beta-Lactams biosynthesis pharmacology 257 1981 12 1 1981 12 1 0 1 1981 12 1 0 0 ppublish 7035856 PMC281529 Biochemistry. 1978 May 30;17(11):2180-4

1981 Microbiological reviews

43434. Antibiotic resistance of fecal coliforms after long-term withdrawal of therapeutic and subtherapeutic antibiotic use in a swine herd. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Antibiotic resistance of fecal coliforms after long-term withdrawal of therapeutic and subtherapeutic antibiotic use in a swine herd. Tetracycline resistance of fecal coliforms isolated from swine decreased from 82 to 42%, a decrease of less than 50%, after the use of all forms of antimicrobial agents were discontinued in the herd for 126 months.

1983 Applied and environmental microbiology

43435. Antibiotic resistant propionibacteria in acne: need for policies to modify antibiotic usage. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Antibiotic resistant propionibacteria in acne: need for policies to modify antibiotic usage. 8461769 1993 05 05 2018 11 13 0959-8138 306 6877 1993 Feb 27 BMJ (Clinical research ed.) BMJ Antibiotic resistant propionibacteria in acne: need for policies to modify antibiotic usage. 555-6 Eady E A EA Department of Microbiology, University of Leeds. Jones C E CE Tipper J L JL Cove J H JH Cunliffe W J WJ Layton A M AM eng Journal Article England BMJ 8900488 0959-8138 0 Anti-Bacterial Agents AIM IM (...) Acne Vulgaris drug therapy microbiology Anti-Bacterial Agents therapeutic use Clinical Protocols Drug Resistance, Microbial Drug Utilization England Humans Propionibacterium acnes drug effects Skin microbiology 1993 2 27 1993 2 27 0 1 1993 2 27 0 0 ppublish 8461769 PMC1677174 Cutis. 1976 Mar;17(3):593-6 138553 Br J Dermatol. 1989 Jul;121(1):51-7 2527056 J Am Acad Dermatol. 1983 Jan;8(1):41-5 6219134 J Invest Dermatol. 1979 Apr;72(4):187-90 429800

1993 BMJ : British Medical Journal

43436. Discovery and development of new antibiotics: the problem of antibiotic resistance. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Discovery and development of new antibiotics: the problem of antibiotic resistance. 8460908 1993 04 28 2018 11 13 0066-4804 37 3 1993 Mar Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. Discovery and development of new antibiotics: the problem of antibiotic resistance. 377-83 Silver L L LL Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Merck Research Laboratory, Rahway, New Jersey 07065-0900. Bostian K A KA eng Journal Article Review United States Antimicrob Agents (...) Chemother 0315061 0066-4804 0 Anti-Bacterial Agents IM Animals Anti-Bacterial Agents therapeutic use Drug Design Drug Resistance, Microbial Humans 56 1993 3 1 1993 3 1 0 1 1993 3 1 0 0 ppublish 8460908 PMC187680 Science. 1989 Mar 31;243(4899):1731-4 2467383 Microbiologica. 1988 Oct;11(4):289-97 3216794 Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1988 Nov;32(11):1710-9 3252753 Biochemistry. 1989 May 2;28(9):3886-94 2546585 J Antimicrob Chemother. 1989 Jun;23(6):817-20 2668250 Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1989 Jun;33(6

1993 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

43437. Susceptibility of multiply antibiotic-resistant pneumococci to the new quinoline antibiotics, nalidixic acid, coumermycin, and novobiocin. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Susceptibility of multiply antibiotic-resistant pneumococci to the new quinoline antibiotics, nalidixic acid, coumermycin, and novobiocin. The susceptibility of 10 multiply antibiotic-resistant strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae to several quinoline antibiotics and to coumermycin, novobiocin, and penicillin was determined. The MIC of penicillin for all test isolates was greater than or equal to 4 micrograms/ml. Ciprofloxacin was the most active quinoline derivative tested, followed (...) by norfloxacin. These isolates of S. pneumoniae were not inhibited by the remaining quinolines at achievable concentrations in serum. Coumermycin and ciprofloxacin were the most active antibiotics tested in this study.

1984 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

43438. Effects of antibiotic treatment of nonlactating dairy cows on antibiotic resistance patterns of bovine mastitis pathogens. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Effects of antibiotic treatment of nonlactating dairy cows on antibiotic resistance patterns of bovine mastitis pathogens. Antibiotic resistance patterns of the major groups of bovine mastitis pathogens (Streptococcus agalactiae, other streptococci, Staphylococcus aureus, and Staphylococcus epidermidis) were examined by determining the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 13 different antibiotics against bacterial isolates from dairy cattle. The bacterial strains were obtained from milk (...) 90% of the isolates, and the antibiotic concentration necessary to inhibit 50% of the isolates. Increased resistance to all 13 antibiotics was observed with Streptococcus agalactiae isolates from the high antibiotic use herds. However, there was relatively little difference between the two groups in the resistance patterns of the other bacterial species examined. The most important finding of the study was the identification of a multiple beta-lactam resistance phenotype in Streptococcus

1983 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

43439. Antibiotic resistance: what is the impact of agricultural uses of antibiotics on children's health? (Abstract)

Antibiotic resistance: what is the impact of agricultural uses of antibiotics on children's health? Antimicrobial resistance has reached crisis stage in human medicine. The rapid acceleration of multidrug-resistant bacteria in the past 2 decades has overtaken new drug development, and patients and clinicians are faced with the prospect of untreatable infections. Although much of the problem stems from overuse and misuse of antimicrobial agents in human medicine, large-scale use (...) of antimicrobials in agriculture also contributes to the crisis. Agricultural uses of antibiotics produce environmental exposures in a variety of reservoirs, which select for resistant microbes and microbial genes. This article presents the major lines of evidence documenting the risks to human health of some of the agricultural uses of antimicrobials. A brief review of the microbiologic antecedents of resistance is followed by a discussion of agricultural uses of antimicrobials and a targeted review

2003 Pediatrics

43440. The effect of antibiotic rotation on colonization with antibiotic-resistant bacilli in a neonatal intensive care unit. (Abstract)

The effect of antibiotic rotation on colonization with antibiotic-resistant bacilli in a neonatal intensive care unit. This study was designed to test whether rotation of antibiotics can reduce colonization with resistant Gram-negative bacilli in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU).A monthly rotation of gentamicin, piperacillin-tazobactam, and ceftazidime was compared with unrestricted antibiotic use in side-by-side NICU populations (rotation team vs control team). Pharyngeal and rectal (...) samples were obtained 3 times a week and tested for Gram-negative bacilli resistant to each of the rotation antibiotics. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis determined the numbers of genetically discordant resistant organisms on each team. The association between colonization with a resistant bacillus (the primary outcome) and team assignment was tested.A total of 1062 infants were studied during a 1-year period. A total of 10.7% infants on the rotation team versus 7.7% on the control team were

2002 Pediatrics

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