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antibiotic resistance

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181. Impact of an infectious diseases specialist-led antimicrobial stewardship programmes on antibiotic use and antimicrobial resistance in a large Korean hospital Full Text available with Trip Pro

Impact of an infectious diseases specialist-led antimicrobial stewardship programmes on antibiotic use and antimicrobial resistance in a large Korean hospital The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of an infectious diseases specialist (IDS)-led antimicrobial stewardship programmes (ASPs) in a large Korean hospital. An interrupted time series analysis assessing the trends in antibiotic use and antimicrobial resistance rate of major pathogens between September 2015 and August 2017 (...) % CI, -4.43 to -0.79; P = 0.007), and -27.41 DOT/1,000 patient-days per month in ICUs (95% CI, -47.03 to -7.79; P = 0.009). Use of 3rd generation cephalosporins, beta-lactam/beta-lactamase inhibitors, and fluoroquinolones in GWs showed change comparable with that of carbapenems or glycopeptides use. Furthermore, trends of antimicrobial resistance rate of Staphylococcus aureus to gentamicin in GWs, Staphylococcus aureus to ciprofloxacin and oxacillin in ICUs, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa to imipenem

2018 Scientific reports

182. Antibiotic-Resistant Salmonella in the Food Supply and the Potential Role of Antibiotic Alternatives for Control Full Text available with Trip Pro

Antibiotic-Resistant Salmonella in the Food Supply and the Potential Role of Antibiotic Alternatives for Control Salmonella enterica is one of the most ubiquitous enteropathogenic bacterial species on earth, and comprises more than 2500 serovars. Widely known for causing non-typhoidal foodborne infections (95%), and enteric (typhoid) fever in humans, Salmonella colonizes almost all warm- and cold-blooded animals, in addition to its extra-animal environmental strongholds. The last few decades (...) have witnessed the emergence of highly virulent and antibiotic-resistant Salmonella, causing greater morbidity and mortality in humans. The emergence of several Salmonella serotypes resistant to multiple antibiotics in food animals underscores a significant food safety hazard. In this review, we discuss the various antibiotic-resistant Salmonella serotypes in food animals and the food supply, factors that contributed to their emergence, their antibiotic resistance mechanisms, the public health

2018 Foods

183. Agrichemicals and antibiotics in combination increase antibiotic resistance evolution Full Text available with Trip Pro

Agrichemicals and antibiotics in combination increase antibiotic resistance evolution Antibiotic resistance in our pathogens is medicine's climate change: caused by human activity, and resulting in more extreme outcomes. Resistance emerges in microbial populations when antibiotics act on phenotypic variance within the population. This can arise from either genotypic diversity (resulting from a mutation or horizontal gene transfer), or from differences in gene expression due to environmental (...) variation, referred to as adaptive resistance. Adaptive changes can increase fitness allowing bacteria to survive at higher concentrations of antibiotics. They can also decrease fitness, potentially leading to selection for antibiotic resistance at lower concentrations. There are opportunities for other environmental stressors to promote antibiotic resistance in ways that are hard to predict using conventional assays. Exploiting our previous observation that commonly used herbicides can increase

2018 PeerJ

184. Antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli from retail poultry meat with different antibiotic use claims Full Text available with Trip Pro

suggests greater antimicrobial use in conventional turkey production as compared to "raised without antibiotics" and organic systems. However, among E. coli from chicken meat, resistance prevalence was more strongly linked to brand than to production category, which could be caused by brand-level differences during production and/or processing, including variations in antimicrobial use. (...) Antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli from retail poultry meat with different antibiotic use claims We sought to determine if the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli differed across retail poultry products and among major production categories, including organic, "raised without antibiotics", and conventional.We collected all available brands of retail chicken and turkey-including conventional, "raised without antibiotic", and organic products-every two weeks from January

2018 BMC microbiology

185. <i>Syzygium jambos</i> Displayed Antibacterial and Antibiotic-Modulating Activities against Resistant Phenotypes. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Syzygium jambos Displayed Antibacterial and Antibiotic-Modulating Activities against Resistant Phenotypes. The present study was designed to evaluate the antibacterial activities of methanol extracts of bark and leaves of Syzygium jambos, as well as their synergistic effects with selected antibiotics against drug-resistant Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The crude extracts were subjected to qualitative phytochemical screening; broth microdilution method was used (...) with ciprofloxacin (CIP), TET, and ERY against Gram-negative bacteria. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that Syzygium jambos has antibacterial and antibiotic-modulating activities.

2018 Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine (eCAM)

186. Synergistic antibacterial activity between penicillenols and antibiotics against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Full Text available with Trip Pro

Synergistic antibacterial activity between penicillenols and antibiotics against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Penicillenol A2 (isolated from deep-sea fungus Penicillium biourgeianum DFFSCS023) has good antibacterial activity against methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus and in combination with beta-lactam antibiotics it could significantly decrease methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) survival, which provides a novel treatment consideration for MRSA-caused

2018 Royal Society Open Science

187. Rethinking urinary antibiotic breakpoints: analysis of urinary antibiotic concentrations to treat multidrug resistant organisms Full Text available with Trip Pro

Rethinking urinary antibiotic breakpoints: analysis of urinary antibiotic concentrations to treat multidrug resistant organisms The present study analyzed whether renally eliminated antibiotics achieve sufficient urinary concentrations based on their pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic principles to effectively eradicate organisms deemed resistant by automated susceptibility testing.Lower median minimum inhibitory concentrations against enterobacteriaceae were noted for ceftriaxone, cefepime (...) , and doripenem when comparing Etest® to Vitek®. All Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates were susceptible to cefepime, ciprofloxacin, and doripenem with both susceptibility methods, but higher median minimum inhibitory concentrations were observed with Etest®. Urine concentrations/time profiles were calculated for standard doses of ceftriaxone, cefepime, doripenem, and ciprofloxacin. The data presented in the current study suggests high urine concentrations of antibiotics may effectively eradicate bacteria which

2018 BMC research notes

188. Previous antibiotic exposure and antibiotic resistance of commensal Staphylococcus aureus in Spanish primary care Full Text available with Trip Pro

(The appropriateness of prescribing antibiotics in primary care in Europe concerning antibiotic resistance) study. Outpatients aged 4 or more who did not present an infectious disease and had not taken antibiotic or had not been hospitalised in the previous 3 months were invited to participate. Nasal swabs were collected for S. aureus culture, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing was carried out. Antibiotics dispensed boxes in the previous 4 years were extracted from Information System for Research in Primary (...) Previous antibiotic exposure and antibiotic resistance of commensal Staphylococcus aureus in Spanish primary care Commensal flora of healthy people is becoming an important reservoir of resistant bacteria.To evaluate the relationship of previous antibiotic-dispensed and resistance pattern of strains of Staphylococcus aureus in primary care patients.A cross-sectional study was carried out in seven primary care centres in Catalonia, Spain, from October 2010 to May 2011, as part of the APRES

2018 The European journal of general practice

189. Tristemma hirtum and Five Other Cameroonian Edible Plants with Weak or No Antibacterial Effects Modulate the Activities of Antibiotics against Gram-Negative Multidrug-Resistant Phenotypes Full Text available with Trip Pro

Tristemma hirtum and Five Other Cameroonian Edible Plants with Weak or No Antibacterial Effects Modulate the Activities of Antibiotics against Gram-Negative Multidrug-Resistant Phenotypes In order to contribute to the fight against infectious diseases, the in vitro antibacterial activity and the antibiotic-potentiating effects of Tristemma hirtum and five other Cameroonian edible plants have been evaluated against Gram-negative multidrug-resistant (MDR) phenotypes. The microdilution method (...) was used to evaluate the bacterial susceptibility of the extracts and their combination to common antibiotics. The phytochemical screening of the extracts was carried out according to standard methods. Phytochemical analysis of the extracts revealed the presence of alkaloids, triterpenes, steroids, and polyphenols, including flavonoids in most of the tested extracts. The entire tested extracts showed moderate (512 μg/mL ≤ MIC ≤ 2048 μg/mL) to weak (MIC > 2048 μg/mL) antibacterial activities against

2018 The Scientific World Journal

190. Antibiotic resistance and antibiotic prescribing by dentists in England 2007-2016. (Abstract)

Antibiotic resistance and antibiotic prescribing by dentists in England 2007-2016. The early prescribers of penicillin realised that antibiotics should be used wisely and as an adjunct to traditional surgical provision. They predicted that inappropriate use would increase sensitisation to the drug. National Health Service dentists prescribed almost 10% of antibiotics issued in NHS general practice in 2016 and an audit shows that many of these may have been prescribed inappropriately. One (...) of the causes of antimicrobial resistance is over prescription of the drugs. This paper recalls the recommendations of some early users of penicillin, reports on the current prescription patterns of dentists in England, describes the mechanism of acquisition of anti-microbial resistance and discusses dentists' role in attempting to reduce the problem.

2018 British Dental Journal

191. Egyptian community pharmacists' attitudes and practices towards antibiotic dispensing and antibiotic resistance; a cross- sectional survey in Greater Cairo. (Abstract)

Egyptian community pharmacists' attitudes and practices towards antibiotic dispensing and antibiotic resistance; a cross- sectional survey in Greater Cairo. Antibiotic resistance is an increasing worldwide crisis. In Egypt, it is prohibited by law to dispense antibiotics with no prescription; however, there are no active and enforced governmental policies and lows to regulate such process. This led to increased antibiotic dispensing and consumption.To assess some basic knowledge and attitudes (...) towards antibiotic resistance and practice of antibiotic dispensing among Egyptian community pharmacists in Greater Cairo.An observational cross-sectional self-administrated survey targeting licensed community pharmacists in Greater Cairo, Egypt. The survey was validated by both face and content validation.Exactly 531 pharmacists were invited to join the survey, and only 461 pharmacists agreed to participate. Approximately, half of the participants (51.2%) were considered to have good basic knowledge

2018 Current medical research and opinion

192. Antibiotic-mediated changes in the fecal microbiome of broiler chickens define the incidence of antibiotic resistance genes Full Text available with Trip Pro

Antibiotic-mediated changes in the fecal microbiome of broiler chickens define the incidence of antibiotic resistance genes Antimicrobial agents have been widely used in animal farms to prevent and treat animal diseases and to promote growth. Antimicrobial agents may change the bacterial community and enhance the resistome in animal feces. We used metagenome-wide analysis to investigate the changes in bacterial community, variations in antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), and their bacterial (...) resistance genes with the treatment of therapeutic dose of chlortetracycline.We provided the first metagenomic insights into antibiotic-mediated alteration of ARG-harboring bacterial hosts at community-wide level in chicken feces. These results indicated that the changes in the structure of antibiotic-induced feces microbial communities accompany changes in the abundance of bacterial hosts carrying specific ARGs in the feces microbiota. These findings will help to optimize therapeutic schemes

2018 Microbiome

193. Outpatient Antibiotic Stewardship: A Growing Frontier—Combining Myxovirus Resistance Protein A With Other Biomarkers to Improve Antibiotic Use Full Text available with Trip Pro

Outpatient Antibiotic Stewardship: A Growing Frontier—Combining Myxovirus Resistance Protein A With Other Biomarkers to Improve Antibiotic Use The majority of oral antibiotics are prescribed in outpatient primary and urgent care clinics for acute respiratory infections. Effective antibiotic stewardship must include proper prescribing for outpatients as well as for those in a hospital or long-term care facility.Major databases, including MEDLINE and the Cochrane Library, were searched (...) for prospective human clinical studies, including children and/or adults published between January 1966 and November 2017 that evaluated Myxovirus resistance protein A (MxA) as a biomarker for diagnosing viral infections as well as both C-reactive protein (CRP) and procalcitonin (PCT) as potential biomarkers for identifying and differentiating true bacterial upper respiratory infection (URI) from colonization.Ten prospective human studies, totaling 1683 patients, were identified that evaluated MxA as a viral

2018 Open forum infectious diseases

194. Self-Medication with Antibiotics, Attitude and Knowledge of Antibiotic Resistance among Community Residents and Undergraduate Students in Northwest Nigeria Full Text available with Trip Pro

Self-Medication with Antibiotics, Attitude and Knowledge of Antibiotic Resistance among Community Residents and Undergraduate Students in Northwest Nigeria This study set out to evaluate self-medicated antibiotics and knowledge of antibiotic resistance among undergraduate students and community members in northern Nigeria. Antibiotic consumption pattern, source of prescription, illnesses commonly treated, attitude towards antibiotics, and knowledge of antibiotic resistance were explored using (...) a structured questionnaire. Responses were analyzed and summarized using descriptive statistics. Of the 1230 respondents from undergraduate students and community members, prescription of antibiotics by a physician was 33% and 57%, respectively, amongst undergraduate students and community members. We tested the respondents’ knowledge of antibiotic resistance (ABR) and found that undergraduate students displayed less knowledge that self-medication could lead to ABR (32.6% and 42.2% respectively

2018 Diseases

195. Antimicrobial resistance and antibiotic stewardship programs in the ICU: insistence and persistence in the fight against resistance. A position statement from ESICM/ESCMID/WAAAR round table on multi-drug resistance. (Abstract)

Antimicrobial resistance and antibiotic stewardship programs in the ICU: insistence and persistence in the fight against resistance. A position statement from ESICM/ESCMID/WAAAR round table on multi-drug resistance. Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a clear and present danger to patients in any intensive care unit (ICU) around the world. Whereas AMR may affect any patient in the hospital, patients in the ICU are particularly at risk of acquiring AMR infections due to the intensity (...) of the treatment, use of invasive devices, increased risk of transmission and exposure to antibiotics. AMR is present in every ICU, although prevalence is geographically different and AMR pathogens encountered are variable. Intensive care and infectious disease specialists from the European Society of Intensive Care Medicine, European Society of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases and World Alliance Against Antimicrobial Resistance, united in the ANTARCTICA (Antimicrobial Resistance in Critical Care

2017 Intensive Care Medicine

196. Frequency of rescreening of patients positive for antibiotic resistant organisms: clinical evidence and guidelines

Frequency of rescreening of patients positive for antibiotic resistant organisms: clinical evidence and guidelines Frequency of rescreening of patients positive for antibiotic resistant organisms: clinical evidence and guidelines Frequency of rescreening of patients positive for antibiotic resistant organisms: clinical evidence and guidelines CADTH Record Status This is a bibliographic record of a published health technology assessment from a member of INAHTA. No evaluation of the quality (...) of this assessment has been made for the HTA database. Citation CADTH. Frequency of rescreening of patients positive for antibiotic resistant organisms: clinical evidence and guidelines. Ottawa: Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health (CADTH). Rapid Response. 2015 Authors' conclusions Four non-randomized studies regarding the frequency of rescreening of patients positive for antibiotic resistant organisms were identified. Final publication URL Indexing Status Subject indexing assigned by CRD MeSH

2015 Health Technology Assessment (HTA) Database.

197. Contact precautions for patients previously positive for antibiotic resistant organisms: guidelines

Contact precautions for patients previously positive for antibiotic resistant organisms: guidelines Contact precautions for patients previously positive for antibiotic resistant organisms: guidelines Contact precautions for patients previously positive for antibiotic resistant organisms: guidelines CADTH Record Status This is a bibliographic record of a published health technology assessment from a member of INAHTA. No evaluation of the quality of this assessment has been made for the HTA (...) database. Citation CADTH. Contact precautions for patients previously positive for antibiotic resistant organisms: guidelines. Ottawa: Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health (CADTH). Rapid Response. 2015 Authors' conclusions No evidence-based guidelines were identified regarding the management of patients in acute care who have previously tested positive, but are currently negative for antibiotic resistant organisms. Final publication URL Indexing Status Subject indexing assigned by CRD

2015 Health Technology Assessment (HTA) Database.

198. Prevalence and antibiotic resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in water samples in central Italy and molecular characterization of oprD in imipenem resistant isolates. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Prevalence and antibiotic resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in water samples in central Italy and molecular characterization of oprD in imipenem resistant isolates. This study aimed to analyse the prevalence, antibiotic resistance and genetic relatedness of P. aeruginosa isolates obtained from potable and recreational water samples (n. 8,351) collected from different settings (swimming pools, n. 207; healthcare facilities, n 1,684; accommodation facilities, n. 1,518; municipal waterworks, n (...) . 4,500; residential buildings, n. 235). Possible mechanisms underlying resistance to imipenem, with particular focus on those involving oprD-based uptake, were also explored.Isolation and identification of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was performed according to the standardized procedure UNI EN ISO 16266:2008 followed by PCR confirmation. Antibiotic Susceptibility testing was conducted according to EUCAST standardized disk diffusion method. Genetic relatedness of strains was carried out by RAPD

2017 PLoS ONE

199. Antibiotic Resistance Patterns and Molecular Characterization of Methicillin-Resistant <i>Staphylococcus aureus</i> in Clinical Settings Study in Rwanda. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Antibiotic Resistance Patterns and Molecular Characterization of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Clinical Settings Study in Rwanda. The escalating burden of infections attributable to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in East African countries is calling for interventional strategies to control the spread of this strain. The present study aimed at determining the prevalence, antimicrobial profiles, and staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) typing (...) of MRSA strains. This was a cross-sectional laboratory-based study involving 226 non-duplicated S. aureus isolates from different clinical samples of patients attending a referral hospital in Kigali. Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method was used for drug susceptibility testing. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus were confirmed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for the mecA gene and SCCmec type PCR assay was used for genotyping. Of 138 S. aureus, 39 (31.2%) were found to be MRSA strains. The mean

2018 American Journal of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene

200. Utilization of vector autoregressive and linear transfer models to follow up the antibiotic resistance spiral in Gram-negative bacteria from cephalosporin consumption to colistin resistance. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Utilization of vector autoregressive and linear transfer models to follow up the antibiotic resistance spiral in Gram-negative bacteria from cephalosporin consumption to colistin resistance. Increasing antibiotic resistance may reciprocally affect consumption and lead to using broader-spectrum alternatives; a vicious cycle that may gradually limit therapeutic options. The study aims at demonstrating the abovementioned vicious cycle in Gram-negative bacteria and at showing the utility of vector (...) and decreased carbapenem resistance of P. aeruginosa but not of A. baumannii.Vector autoregressive models allow analysis of consumption and resistance series in a bidirectional manner. The reconstructed resistance spiral involved cephalosporin use augmenting cephalosporin resistance primarily in E. coli. This led to increased carbapenem use, provoking spread of carbapenem resistant A. baumannii and consequent colistin use. Emergence of panresistance is fuelled by such antibiotic resistance spirals.

2018 Clinical Infectious Diseases

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