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antibiotic resistance

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1. Emergence of antibiotic resistance in immunocompromised host populations: A case study of emerging antibiotic resistant tuberculosis in AIDS patients. (PubMed)

Emergence of antibiotic resistance in immunocompromised host populations: A case study of emerging antibiotic resistant tuberculosis in AIDS patients. The evolution of antibiotic resistance is far outpacing the development of new antibiotics, causing global public health concern about infections that will increasingly be unresponsive to antimicrobials. This risk of emerging antibiotic resistance may be meaningfully altered in highly AIDS-immunocompromised populations. Such populations (...) fundamentally alter the bacterial evolutionary landscape in two ways, which we seek to model and analyze. First, widespread, population-level immunoincompetence creates a novel host environment with disrupted selective pressures. Second, within AIDS-prevalent populations, the recommendation that antibiotics be taken to treat and prevent opportunistic infection raises the risk of selection for drug-resistant pathogens.To determine the impact of HIV/AIDS on the emergence of antibiotic resistance-specifically

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2019 PLoS ONE

2. Carefully managed antibiotic use could halve antibiotic-resistant infections

Carefully managed antibiotic use could halve antibiotic-resistant infections Carefully managed antibiotic use could halve antibiotic-resistant infections Discover Portal Discover Portal Carefully managed antibiotic use could halve antibiotic-resistant infections Published on 17 October 2017 doi: Antibiotic stewardship programmes could halve the number of infections due to antibiotic-resistant bacteria compared with unguided prescribing. Combining these programmes with hand hygiene (...) , such as washing hands with soap and water and using alcohol-based hand-rubs, could reduce antibiotic resistance further. Bacterial resistance to existing antibiotics is increasing, and for some conditions, there aren’t enough new antibiotics available to treat infections caused by resistant bacteria. Antibiotic stewardship involves promoting the appropriate use of antibiotics according to local resistance patterns and aims to give patients the right antibiotics for the right length of time and at the correct

2019 NIHR Dissemination Centre

3. Is the use of chlorhexidine contributing to increased resistance to chlorhexidine and/or antibiotics?

Is the use of chlorhexidine contributing to increased resistance to chlorhexidine and/or antibiotics? 1 Is the use of chlorhexidine contributing to increased resistance to chlorhexidine and/or antibiotics? Technical Report Prepared for National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) Submitted by University of South Australia Division of Health Sciences Submission date 24th April 2017 2 Contents Page 1. Review Team and Background…………………………..…………………………….….3 2. Methods (...) in ‘chlorhexidine resistance’ within different healthcare settings? 2. Does exposure (different dosages, duration of use, and stratification of exposure) to any form of chlorhexidine increase the incidence and/or prevalence of antibiotic-resistant strains of bacteria in any person within different healthcare settings? Table 1: PICOS overview Question 1 Population and setting Intervention Outcome Types of studies Qu 1 All patients (isolates) / participants (isolates) including children and adults in different

2018 National Health and Medical Research Council

4. Topical Antibiotics for the Treatment of Treatment-Resistant Impetigo: Clinical Effectiveness and Guidelines

Topical Antibiotics for the Treatment of Treatment-Resistant Impetigo: Clinical Effectiveness and Guidelines Topical Antibiotics for the Treatment of Treatment-Resistant Impetigo: Clinical Effectiveness and Guidelines | CADTH.ca Find the information you need Topical Antibiotics for the Treatment of Treatment-Resistant Impetigo: Clinical Effectiveness and Guidelines Topical Antibiotics for the Treatment of Treatment-Resistant Impetigo: Clinical Effectiveness and Guidelines Last updated: October (...) 4, 2018 Project Number: RA0968-000 Product Line: Research Type: Drug Report Type: Reference List Result type: Report Question What is the clinical evidence regarding the use of topical antibiotics for the treatment of treatment-resistant impetigo? What are the evidence-based guidelines regarding the treatment of treatment resistant impetigo? Key Message One systematic review with meta-analyses, one non-randomized study, and one evidence-based guideline were identified regarding the clinical

2018 Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health - Rapid Review

5. Carefully managed antibiotic use could halve antibiotic-resistant infections

Carefully managed antibiotic use could halve antibiotic-resistant infections Carefully managed antibiotic use could halve antibiotic-resistant infections Discover Portal Discover Portal Carefully managed antibiotic use could halve antibiotic-resistant infections Published on 17 October 2017 doi: Antibiotic stewardship programmes could halve the number of infections due to antibiotic-resistant bacteria compared with unguided prescribing. Combining these programmes with hand hygiene (...) , such as washing hands with soap and water and using alcohol-based hand-rubs, could reduce antibiotic resistance further. Bacterial resistance to existing antibiotics is increasing, and for some conditions, there aren’t enough new antibiotics available to treat infections caused by resistant bacteria. Antibiotic stewardship involves promoting the appropriate use of antibiotics according to local resistance patterns and aims to give patients the right antibiotics for the right length of time and at the correct

2018 NIHR Dissemination Centre

6. Antibiotic resistance among bacterial conjunctival pathogens collected in the Antibiotic Resistance Monitoring in Ocular Microorganisms (ARMOR) surveillance study. (PubMed)

Antibiotic resistance among bacterial conjunctival pathogens collected in the Antibiotic Resistance Monitoring in Ocular Microorganisms (ARMOR) surveillance study. The Antibiotic Resistance Monitoring in Ocular Microorganisms (ARMOR) surveillance study evaluates in vitro antibiotic resistance among Staphylococcus aureus, coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS), Streptococcus pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Haemophilus influenzae isolates from ocular infections. Here we report resistance (...) rates and trends among conjunctival-sourced ocular isolates collected across the US from 2009 through 2016. A total of 1198 conjunctival isolates (483 S. aureus, 305 CoNS, 208 H. influenzae, 118 S. pneumoniae, and 84 P. aeruginosa) were collected from patients with presumed bacterial conjunctivitis from 57 sites across 40 states. A large proportion of staphylococci demonstrated resistance to oxacillin and azithromycin, while resistance was low against the majority of antibiotics tested for S

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2018 PLoS ONE

7. Factors affecting the geographic variability of antibiotic-resistant healthcare-associated infections in the United States using the CDC Antibiotic Resistance Patient Safety Atlas. (PubMed)

Factors affecting the geographic variability of antibiotic-resistant healthcare-associated infections in the United States using the CDC Antibiotic Resistance Patient Safety Atlas. We utilized publicly available data from the Centers for Disease Control to explore possible causes of state-to-state variability in antibiotic-resistant healthcare-associated infections. Outpatient antibiotic prescribing rates of fluoroquinolones and cephalosporins explained some variability in extended-spectrum (...) cephalosporin-resistant Escherichia coli after adjusting for differences in age and healthcare facility composition.

2019 Infection control and hospital epidemiology

8. Restricting the use of antibiotics in food-producing animals and its associations with antibiotic resistance in food-producing animals and human beings: a systematic review and meta-analysis. (PubMed)

Restricting the use of antibiotics in food-producing animals and its associations with antibiotic resistance in food-producing animals and human beings: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Antibiotic use in human medicine, veterinary medicine, and agriculture has been linked to the rise of antibiotic resistance globally. We did a systematic review and meta-analysis to summarise the effect that interventions to reduce antibiotic use in food-producing animals have on the presence of antibiotic (...) -resistant bacteria in animals and in humans.On July 14, 2016, we searched electronic databases (Agricola, AGRIS, BIOSIS Previews, CAB Abstracts, MEDLINE, Embase, Global Index Medicus, ProQuest Dissertations, Science Citation Index) and the grey literature. The search was updated on Jan 27, 2017. Inclusion criteria were original studies that reported on interventions to reduce antibiotic use in food-producing animals and compared presence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria between intervention

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2018 The Lancet. Planetary health

9. Selection and co-selection of antibiotic resistances among Escherichia coli by antibiotic use in primary care: An ecological analysis. (PubMed)

Selection and co-selection of antibiotic resistances among Escherichia coli by antibiotic use in primary care: An ecological analysis. The majority of studies that link antibiotic usage and resistance focus on simple associations between the resistance against a specific antibiotic and the use of that specific antibiotic. However, the relationship between antibiotic use and resistance is more complex. Here we evaluate selection and co-selection by assessing which antibiotics, including those (...) mainly prescribed for respiratory tract infections, are associated with increased resistance to various antibiotics among Escherichia coli isolated from urinary samples.Monthly primary care prescribing data were obtained from National Health Service (NHS) Digital. Positive E. coli records from urine samples in English primary care (n = 888,207) between April 2014 and January 2016 were obtained from the Second Generation Surveillance System. Elastic net regularization was used to evaluate associations

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2019 PLoS ONE

10. Are Latino Cultural Beliefs Increasing Antibiotic Resistance in the US?

Are Latino Cultural Beliefs Increasing Antibiotic Resistance in the US? Are Latino Cultural Beliefs Increasing Antibiotic Resistance in the US? – Clinical Correlations Search Are Latino Cultural Beliefs Increasing Antibiotic Resistance in the US? June 8, 2018 3 min read By Daniela Rebollo Salazar Peer Reviewed In the past ten years, the number of bacterial pathogens resistant to multiple antibiotics has dramatically increased. The emergence of resistant microorganisms is a direct product (...) better strategies to control the rise of antimicrobial resistant pathogens—a major global public health problem. Latin American countries have fewer restrictions on the sale of antimicrobial agents, and the existing . 3 This enables the self-diagnosing and self-medicating practices that many members of the Latino community are accustomed to. Furthermore, cultural beliefs and misconceptions regarding the purpose and function of antibiotics play a major role in their misuse among the Latino population

2018 Clinical Correlations

11. Reducing antibiotic resistance

Reducing antibiotic resistance Reducing antibiotic resistance - NPS MedicineWise Log In Menu Featured topics Professional development Publications An independent peer-reviewed journal providing critical commentary on drugs and therapeutics. Timely, independent, evidence-based information on new drugs and medical tests, and changes to the PBS and MBS. Featured topics Talk to a professional Information for consumers on prescription, over-the-counter and complementary medicines. Provides consumers (...) October 2018 Featured topic 20 years of helping Australians make better decisions about medicines, medical tests and other health technologies Partner with us Latest projects Search Search Search Search POPULAR Log in Log in All fields are required Email address* Password* Log in Breadcrumb And Text Resize Reducing antibiotic resistance Australia has one of the highest rates of antibiotic use in the world, ranking 8th among 29 countries evaluated by the OECD. For consumers , check out Key points

2017 National Prescribing Service Limited (Australia)

12. Universal Glove and Gown Use and Acquisition of Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria in the ICU: A Randomized Trial

Universal Glove and Gown Use and Acquisition of Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria in the ICU: A Randomized Trial PEDSCCM.org Criteria abstracted from series in Review Posted: founded 1995 Questions or comments?

2016 PedsCCM Evidence-Based Journal Club

13. Automated annotation of mobile antibiotic resistance in Gram-negative bacteria: the Multiple Antibiotic Resistance Annotator (MARA) and database. (PubMed)

Automated annotation of mobile antibiotic resistance in Gram-negative bacteria: the Multiple Antibiotic Resistance Annotator (MARA) and database. Multiresistance in Gram-negative bacteria is often due to acquisition of several different antibiotic resistance genes, each associated with a different mobile genetic element, that tend to cluster together in complex conglomerations. Accurate, consistent annotation of resistance genes, the boundaries and fragments of mobile elements, and signatures (...) of insertion, such as DR, facilitates comparative analysis of complex multiresistance regions and plasmids to better understand their evolution and how resistance genes spread.To extend the Repository of Antibiotic resistance Cassettes (RAC) web site, which includes a database of 'features', and the Attacca automatic DNA annotation system, to encompass additional resistance genes and all types of associated mobile elements.Antibiotic resistance genes and mobile elements were added to RAC, from existing

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2018 Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy

14. Seasonal Variations in Water-Quality, Antibiotic Residues, Resistant Bacteria and Antibiotic Resistance Genes of Escherichia coli Isolates from Water and Sediments of the Kshipra River in Central India (PubMed)

Seasonal Variations in Water-Quality, Antibiotic Residues, Resistant Bacteria and Antibiotic Resistance Genes of Escherichia coli Isolates from Water and Sediments of the Kshipra River in Central India To characterize the seasonal variation, over one year, in water-quality, antibiotic residue levels, antibiotic resistance genes and antibiotic resistance in Escherichia coli isolates from water and sediment of the Kshipra River in Central India.Water and sediment samples were collected from seven (...) selected points from the Kshipra River in the Indian city of Ujjain in the summer, rainy season, autumn and winter seasons in 2014. Water quality parameters (physical, chemical and microbiological) were analyzed using standard methods. High-performance liquid chromatography⁻tandem mass spectrometry was used to determine the concentrations of antibiotic residues. In river water and sediment samples, antibiotic resistance and multidrug resistance patterns of isolated E. coli to 17 antibiotics were tested

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2018 International journal of environmental research and public health

15. The magnitude of antibiotic resistance to Helicobacter pylori in Africa and identified mutations which confer resistance to antibiotics: systematic review and meta-analysis. (PubMed)

The magnitude of antibiotic resistance to Helicobacter pylori in Africa and identified mutations which confer resistance to antibiotics: systematic review and meta-analysis. Worldwide Helicobacter pylori (H.pylori) treatment is of great challenge due to increased antibiotic resistance. The burden of H. pylori antibiotic resistance in Africa is high with unclear information regarding the real magnitude. This systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to investigate the magnitude (...) of H.pylori antibiotic resistance in Africa to gain insight of the extent of the problem among H.pylori naïve treatment patients.The search was performed in the academic databases, Embase, PubMed, Web of Science and Africa Wide Information. ProQuest Dissertation and Theses, Scopus, Ethos, Africa Index Medicus (WHO), BioMed Central Proceedings, BASE, British Library, Open grey, Library of Congress and the New York Academy of Grey Literature Report were additionally searched for grey literature. Published

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2018 BMC Infectious Diseases

16. Knowledge of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance among Norwegian pharmacy customers - a cross-sectional study. (PubMed)

Knowledge of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance among Norwegian pharmacy customers - a cross-sectional study. Antibiotic resistance is a global health threat. Public knowledge is considered a prerequisite for appropriate use of antibiotics and limited spread of antibiotic resistance. Our aim was to examine the level of knowledge of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance among Norwegian pharmacy customers, and to assess to which degree beliefs, attitudes and sociodemographic factors (...) are associated with this knowledge.A questionnaire based, cross-sectional study was conducted among pharmacy customers in three Norwegian cities. The questionnaire covered 1) knowledge of antibiotics (13 statements) and antibiotic resistance (10 statements), 2) the general beliefs about medicines questionnaire (BMQ general) (three subdomains, four statements each), 3) attitudes toward antibiotic use (four statements), and 4) sociodemographic factors, life style and health. High knowledge level was defined

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2019 BMC Public Health

17. Prevalence of antibiotic resistance in fecal flora before transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy and the clinical impact of targeted antibiotic prophylaxis. (PubMed)

Prevalence of antibiotic resistance in fecal flora before transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy and the clinical impact of targeted antibiotic prophylaxis. In this study, we aimed to evaluate ciprofloxacin resistance and the presence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producing organisms (ESBLs) in the population of patients with indication to undergo prostate biopsy. Our additional aim was to compare the targeted antibiotic prophylaxis and sepsis rates after transrectal ultrasound (...) (10.4%). There were no statistically significant differences between antibiotic resistance and urologic operations, urinary tract infections, prior catheterization history, the presence of a catheter during prostate biopsy and antibiotic usage history due to a high PSA level.In our study, the rates of ESBL presence and ciprofloxacin resistance in rectal flora were not negligible. However, by obtaining rectal swab cultures prior to performing transrectal prostate biopsies and using targeted

2019 Archivos Espanoles de Urologia

18. Extended antibiotic treatment in salmon farms select multiresistant gut bacteria with a high prevalence of antibiotic resistance genes. (PubMed)

Extended antibiotic treatment in salmon farms select multiresistant gut bacteria with a high prevalence of antibiotic resistance genes. The high use of antibiotics for the treatment of bacterial diseases is one of the main problems in the mass production of animal protein. Salmon farming in Chile is a clear example of the above statement, where more than 5,500 tonnes of antibiotics have been used over the last 10 years. This has caused a great impact both at the production level (...) and on the environment; however, there are still few works in relation to it. In order to demonstrate the impact of the high use of antibiotics on fish gut microbiota, we have selected four salmon farms presenting a similar amount of fish of the Atlantic salmon species (Salmo salar), ranging from 4,500 to 6,000 tonnes. All of these farms used treatments with high doses of antibiotics. Thus, 15 healthy fish were selected and euthanised in order to isolate the bacteria resistant to the antibiotics oxytetracycline

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2018 PLoS ONE

19. Antibiotic resistance is lower in Staphylococcus aureus isolated from antibiotic-free raw meat as compared to conventional raw meat. (PubMed)

Antibiotic resistance is lower in Staphylococcus aureus isolated from antibiotic-free raw meat as compared to conventional raw meat. The frequent use of antibiotics contributes to antibiotic resistance in bacteria, resulting in an increase in infections that are difficult to treat. Livestock are commonly administered antibiotics in their feed, but there is current interest in raising animals that are only administered antibiotics during active infections. Staphylococcus aureus (SA) is a common (...) pathogen of both humans and livestock raised for human consumption. SA has achieved high levels of antibiotic resistance, but the origins and locations of resistance selection are poorly understood. We determined the prevalence of SA and MRSA in conventional and antibiotic-free (AF) meat products, and also measured rates of antibiotic resistance in these isolates. We isolated SA from raw conventional turkey, chicken, beef, and pork samples and also from AF chicken and turkey samples. We found that SA

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2018 PLoS ONE

20. Regulation of virulence and antibiotic resistance in Gram-positive microbes in response to cell wall-active antibiotics. (PubMed)

Regulation of virulence and antibiotic resistance in Gram-positive microbes in response to cell wall-active antibiotics. Antibiotic stress can evoke considerable genotypic and phenotypic changes in Gram-positive bacteria. Here, we review recent studies describing altered virulence expression in response to cell wall-acting antibiotics and discuss mechanisms that coordinate regulation of the antibiotic response.Pleiotropic effects induced by antibiotic exposure include alterations to bacterial (...) metabolism, cell wall structure and antibiotic resistance. In addition, subinhibitory concentrations of cell wall-active (CWA) antibiotics have increasingly been shown to induce the production of exotoxins and biofilm formation that may influence virulence. Remarkably, phenotypes associated with comparable antibiotic stresses can vary considerably, emphasizing the need to better understand the response to CWA antibiotics. Recent studies support both direct antibiotic recognition and recognition

2019 Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases

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