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antibiotic resistance

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1. Topical Antibiotics for the Treatment of Treatment-Resistant Impetigo: Clinical Effectiveness and Guidelines

Topical Antibiotics for the Treatment of Treatment-Resistant Impetigo: Clinical Effectiveness and Guidelines Topical Antibiotics for the Treatment of Treatment-Resistant Impetigo: Clinical Effectiveness and Guidelines | CADTH.ca Find the information you need Topical Antibiotics for the Treatment of Treatment-Resistant Impetigo: Clinical Effectiveness and Guidelines Topical Antibiotics for the Treatment of Treatment-Resistant Impetigo: Clinical Effectiveness and Guidelines Last updated: October (...) 4, 2018 Project Number: RA0968-000 Product Line: Research Type: Drug Report Type: Reference List Result type: Report Question What is the clinical evidence regarding the use of topical antibiotics for the treatment of treatment-resistant impetigo? What are the evidence-based guidelines regarding the treatment of treatment resistant impetigo? Key Message One systematic review with meta-analyses, one non-randomized study, and one evidence-based guideline were identified regarding the clinical

2018 Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health - Rapid Review

2. Is the use of chlorhexidine contributing to increased resistance to chlorhexidine and/or antibiotics?

’ defined by using the clinical breakpoints for resistance as specified by the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility testing (EUCAST) or the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CSLI). 2. Increase in the incidence (rate) of antibiotic-resistant strains of bacteria established through the use of chlorhexidine identifying dosage form, exposure and specific population and / or setting. Antibiotic-resistant strain of bacteria through the use of chlorhexidine to be recorded. 3. Increases (...) to chlorhexidine in a specific population and / or setting. To address the question ‘Does exposure (different dosages, duration of use, and stratification of exposure) to any form of chlorhexidine increases the incidence and/or prevalence of antibiotic- resistant strains of bacteria in any person within different healthcare settings? ’ the outcomes included: ? ‘Resistance against antibiotics’ defined by using the clinical breakpoints for resistance as specified by the European Committee on Antimicrobial

2018 National Health and Medical Research Council

3. Emergence of antibiotic resistance in immunocompromised host populations: A case study of emerging antibiotic resistant tuberculosis in AIDS patients. (Full text)

Emergence of antibiotic resistance in immunocompromised host populations: A case study of emerging antibiotic resistant tuberculosis in AIDS patients. The evolution of antibiotic resistance is far outpacing the development of new antibiotics, causing global public health concern about infections that will increasingly be unresponsive to antimicrobials. This risk of emerging antibiotic resistance may be meaningfully altered in highly AIDS-immunocompromised populations. Such populations (...) fundamentally alter the bacterial evolutionary landscape in two ways, which we seek to model and analyze. First, widespread, population-level immunoincompetence creates a novel host environment with disrupted selective pressures. Second, within AIDS-prevalent populations, the recommendation that antibiotics be taken to treat and prevent opportunistic infection raises the risk of selection for drug-resistant pathogens.To determine the impact of HIV/AIDS on the emergence of antibiotic resistance-specifically

2019 PLoS ONE PubMed abstract

4. AbGRI4, a novel antibiotic resistance island in multiply antibiotic-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii clinical isolates. (Full text)

AbGRI4, a novel antibiotic resistance island in multiply antibiotic-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii clinical isolates. To investigate the genomic context of a novel resistance island (RI) in multiply antibiotic-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii clinical isolates and global isolates.Using a combination of long and short reads generated from the Oxford Nanopore and Illumina platforms, contiguous chromosomes and plasmid sequences were determined. BLAST-based analysis was used to identify the RI (...) insertion target.Genomes of four multiply antibiotic-resistant A. baumannii clinical strains, from a US hospital system, belonging to prevalent MLST ST2 (Pasteur scheme) and ST281 (Oxford scheme) clade F isolates were sequenced to completion. A class 1 integron carrying aadB (tobramycin resistance) and aadA2 (streptomycin/spectinomycin resistance) was identified. The class 1 integron was 6.8 kb, bounded by IS26 at both ends, and embedded in a new target location between an α/β-hydrolase and a reductase

2020 Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy PubMed abstract

5. Integrated one-day surveillance of antimicrobial use, antimicrobial consumption, antimicrobial resistance, healthcare-associated infection, and antimicrobial resistance burden among hospitalized patients in Thailand. (Abstract)

Integrated one-day surveillance of antimicrobial use, antimicrobial consumption, antimicrobial resistance, healthcare-associated infection, and antimicrobial resistance burden among hospitalized patients in Thailand. Surveillance of antimicrobial use (AMU), antimicrobial consumption (AMC), antimicrobial resistance (AMR), healthcare-associated infection (HAI), and AMR burden are usually measured by time-consuming and expensive multiple separate longitudinal surveys. This study aimed (...) , respectively. The most common infection was pneumonia. Community-associated infection (CAI) was observed in 64.9%, and 34.1% had HAI. Prevalence of AMR was highest in A. baumannii infection. AMR in bacteria was more prevalent among HAI than among CAI. Consumption of all antibiotics was 18,103 defined daily doses. HAI prevalence was 14.0%. Health and economic burden were much higher in patients with antibiotic-resistant infection.Integrated one-day surveillance of these important parameters among

2020 Journal of Infection

6. Are Latino Cultural Beliefs Increasing Antibiotic Resistance in the US?

better strategies to control the rise of antimicrobial resistant pathogens—a major global public health problem. Latin American countries have fewer restrictions on the sale of antimicrobial agents, and the existing . 3 This enables the self-diagnosing and self-medicating practices that many members of the Latino community are accustomed to. Furthermore, cultural beliefs and misconceptions regarding the purpose and function of antibiotics play a major role in their misuse among the Latino population (...) Are Latino Cultural Beliefs Increasing Antibiotic Resistance in the US? Are Latino Cultural Beliefs Increasing Antibiotic Resistance in the US? – Clinical Correlations Search Are Latino Cultural Beliefs Increasing Antibiotic Resistance in the US? June 8, 2018 3 min read By Daniela Rebollo Salazar Peer Reviewed In the past ten years, the number of bacterial pathogens resistant to multiple antibiotics has dramatically increased. The emergence of resistant microorganisms is a direct product

2018 Clinical Correlations

7. Correction: Impact of extensive antibiotic treatment on faecal carriage of antibiotic-resistant enterobacteria in children in a low resistance prevalence setting. (Full text)

Correction: Impact of extensive antibiotic treatment on faecal carriage of antibiotic-resistant enterobacteria in children in a low resistance prevalence setting. [This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0187618.].

2018 PLoS ONE PubMed abstract

8. Antibiotic resistance among bacterial conjunctival pathogens collected in the Antibiotic Resistance Monitoring in Ocular Microorganisms (ARMOR) surveillance study. (Full text)

Antibiotic resistance among bacterial conjunctival pathogens collected in the Antibiotic Resistance Monitoring in Ocular Microorganisms (ARMOR) surveillance study. The Antibiotic Resistance Monitoring in Ocular Microorganisms (ARMOR) surveillance study evaluates in vitro antibiotic resistance among Staphylococcus aureus, coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS), Streptococcus pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Haemophilus influenzae isolates from ocular infections. Here we report resistance (...) rates and trends among conjunctival-sourced ocular isolates collected across the US from 2009 through 2016. A total of 1198 conjunctival isolates (483 S. aureus, 305 CoNS, 208 H. influenzae, 118 S. pneumoniae, and 84 P. aeruginosa) were collected from patients with presumed bacterial conjunctivitis from 57 sites across 40 states. A large proportion of staphylococci demonstrated resistance to oxacillin and azithromycin, while resistance was low against the majority of antibiotics tested for S

2018 PLoS ONE PubMed abstract

9. Correlation between biofilm formation and antibiotic resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa: a meta-analysis. (Abstract)

Correlation between biofilm formation and antibiotic resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa: a meta-analysis. Biofilm formation is one of the important resistance mechanisms in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This study aimed to consider the correlation between biofilm formation and antibiotic resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa through a systematic review and meta-analysis. This study was conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) strategies (...) . Scientific databases were searched by MeSH terms and keywords such as "Pseudomonas aeruginosa", "biofilm formation", "antibiotic resistance", "prevalence" AND "Iran", to obtain articles published from 1st January 2016 to 30th November 2019. Studies recording biofilm formation and antibiotic resistance in P. aeruginosa recovered from clinical samples of Iranian patients were included. Data analysis was performed using CMA software. The combined biofilm formation rate was reported as 87.6 % (95% CI: 80

2020 Le infezioni in medicina

10. Restricting the use of antibiotics in food-producing animals and its associations with antibiotic resistance in food-producing animals and human beings: a systematic review and meta-analysis. (Full text)

Restricting the use of antibiotics in food-producing animals and its associations with antibiotic resistance in food-producing animals and human beings: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Antibiotic use in human medicine, veterinary medicine, and agriculture has been linked to the rise of antibiotic resistance globally. We did a systematic review and meta-analysis to summarise the effect that interventions to reduce antibiotic use in food-producing animals have on the presence of antibiotic (...) -resistant bacteria in animals and in humans.On July 14, 2016, we searched electronic databases (Agricola, AGRIS, BIOSIS Previews, CAB Abstracts, MEDLINE, Embase, Global Index Medicus, ProQuest Dissertations, Science Citation Index) and the grey literature. The search was updated on Jan 27, 2017. Inclusion criteria were original studies that reported on interventions to reduce antibiotic use in food-producing animals and compared presence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria between intervention

2018 The Lancet. Planetary health PubMed abstract

11. Reducing antibiotic resistance

of antibiotic resistance. This year, we're urging people that it's time to take antibiotic resistance seriously. NPS MedicineWise has created a suite of resources you can download, print and share to raise awareness about antibiotic resistance and help preserve the power of antibiotics. Australian Prescriber: Antimicrobial use and resistance in Australia John Turnidge Aust Prescr 2017;40:2-31 Feb 2017 Managing the emergence and increasing resistance to antimicrobials in hospitals and the community has (...) become an urgent national and international problem. As part of a plan to tackle this, Australia is developing a coordinated national program to monitor antimicrobial use and resistance. Sometimes, parents need reassurance rather than antibiotics When their children are unwell, parents and carers often visit their GP for reassurance. They want to check their child doesn’t have a serious illness and have the opportunity to discuss what is worrying them about their child’s cold, cough, earache or sore

2017 National Prescribing Service Limited (Australia)

12. Antimicrobial resistance (AMR): applying All Our Health

prevent ill health and promote wellbeing as part of their everyday practice. The information below will help front-line health and care staff use their trusted relationships with patients, families and communities to promote the benefits of preventing antimicrobial resistance ( of ‘All Our Health’ topics. Infections that cannot be treated continue to develop. The rapid spread of multidrug resistant organisms means that we may not be able to treat everyday infections or diseases with antibiotics (...) in the near future. Many existing antimicrobials are becoming less effective as bacteria, viruses, protozoa and fungi are adapting and becoming resistant to medicines. Inappropriate use of these valuable medicines has also added to the problem. Without effective antibiotics, even minor surgery and routine operations could become high risk procedures if serious infections can’t be treated. Access the antimicrobial resistance e-learning session An is now available to use. and 5 Year Action Plan set out

2019 Public Health England

13. Infectious Diseases Society of America Guidance on the Treatment of Antimicrobial Resistant Gram-Negative Infections

, antimicrobial resistant pathogens caused more than 2.8 million infections and over 35,000 deaths annually in the United States from 2012 through 2017, according to the 2019 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Antibiotic Resistant Threats Report [2]. The selection of effective antibiotics for the treatment of infections by resistant pathogens is challenging [3]. Although there has been an increase in the availability of novel antibiotics to combat resistant infections in recent years [3 (...) will be disseminated on multiple platforms and updated as new data emerge. Treatment of antimicrobial resistant Gram-negative bacterial infections was chosen as the initial topic for a guidance document. The overarching goal of this guidance document is to assist clinicians – including those with and without infectious diseases expertise – in selecting antibiotic therapy for infections caused by ESBL-E, CRE, and DTR- P. aeruginosa . Future iterations of this document will address other resistant pathogens

2020 Infectious Diseases Society of America

14. Factors affecting the geographic variability of antibiotic-resistant healthcare-associated infections in the United States using the CDC Antibiotic Resistance Patient Safety Atlas. (Abstract)

Factors affecting the geographic variability of antibiotic-resistant healthcare-associated infections in the United States using the CDC Antibiotic Resistance Patient Safety Atlas. We utilized publicly available data from the Centers for Disease Control to explore possible causes of state-to-state variability in antibiotic-resistant healthcare-associated infections. Outpatient antibiotic prescribing rates of fluoroquinolones and cephalosporins explained some variability in extended-spectrum (...) cephalosporin-resistant Escherichia coli after adjusting for differences in age and healthcare facility composition.

2019 Infection control and hospital epidemiology

15. Gross national income and antibiotic resistance in invasive isolates: analysis of the top-ranked antibiotic-resistant bacteria on the 2017 WHO priority list. (Abstract)

(15.3%, 95% CI 11.6%-19.1%). The rate of increase per unit decrease in log GNI per capita was lower in MRSA (9.5%, 95% CI 5.2%-13.7%).The prevalence of invasive infections caused by the WHO top-ranked antibiotic-resistant bacteria is inversely associated with GNI per capita at the global level. Public health interventions designed to limit the burden of antimicrobial resistance should also consider determinants of poverty and inequality, especially in lower-middle income and low income countries.© (...) Gross national income and antibiotic resistance in invasive isolates: analysis of the top-ranked antibiotic-resistant bacteria on the 2017 WHO priority list. To assess the association between country income status and national prevalence of invasive infections caused by the top-ranked bacteria on the WHO priority list: carbapenem-resistant (CR) Acinetobacter spp., Klebsiella spp. and Pseudomonas aeruginosa; third-generation cephalosporin-resistant (3GCR) Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp

2019 Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy

16. Selection and co-selection of antibiotic resistances among Escherichia coli by antibiotic use in primary care: An ecological analysis. (Full text)

Selection and co-selection of antibiotic resistances among Escherichia coli by antibiotic use in primary care: An ecological analysis. The majority of studies that link antibiotic usage and resistance focus on simple associations between the resistance against a specific antibiotic and the use of that specific antibiotic. However, the relationship between antibiotic use and resistance is more complex. Here we evaluate selection and co-selection by assessing which antibiotics, including those (...) mainly prescribed for respiratory tract infections, are associated with increased resistance to various antibiotics among Escherichia coli isolated from urinary samples.Monthly primary care prescribing data were obtained from National Health Service (NHS) Digital. Positive E. coli records from urine samples in English primary care (n = 888,207) between April 2014 and January 2016 were obtained from the Second Generation Surveillance System. Elastic net regularization was used to evaluate associations

2019 PLoS ONE PubMed abstract

17. Primary care physicians' attitudes and perceptions towards antibiotic resistance and outpatient antibiotic stewardship in the USA: a qualitative study. (Full text)

Primary care physicians' attitudes and perceptions towards antibiotic resistance and outpatient antibiotic stewardship in the USA: a qualitative study. At least 30% of outpatient antibiotic prescriptions are unnecessary. Outpatient antibiotic stewardship is needed to improve prescribing and address the threat of antibiotic resistance. A better understanding of primary care physicians (PCPs) attitudes towards antibiotic prescribing and outpatient antibiotic stewardship is needed to identify (...) barriers to stewardship implementation and help tailor stewardship strategies. The aim of this study was to assess PCPs current attitudes towards antibiotic resistance, inappropriate antibiotic prescribing and the feasibility of outpatient stewardship efforts.Eight focus groups with PCPs were conducted by an independent moderator using a moderator guide. Focus groups were audio recorded, transcribed and coded for major themes using deductive and inductive content analysis methods.Focus groups were

2020 BMJ open PubMed abstract

18. Ex vivo anti-microbial efficacy of various formaldehyde releasers against antibiotic resistant and antibiotic sensitive microorganisms involved in infectious keratitis. (Full text)

-propanol (NP)] against 5 different microbial pathogens including two antibiotic-resistant species [methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA), and Candida albicans (CA)]. Standard in vitro antimicrobial testing methods were used.The results for MSSA were similar to those for MRSA. DAU, DMDM, and SMG all showed effectiveness with greater effects generally observed with longer (...) against different cultures. Our antimicrobial armamentarium could potentially be broadened by DAU, DMDM, SMG and other FARs for antibiotic-resistant keratitis. Further testing in live animal models are indicated.

2020 BMC Ophthalmology PubMed abstract

19. Community knowledge and practices regarding antibiotic use in rural Mozambique: where is the starting point for prevention of antibiotic resistance? (Full text)

Community knowledge and practices regarding antibiotic use in rural Mozambique: where is the starting point for prevention of antibiotic resistance? Antibiotic misuse and other types of unnecessary use of antibiotics can contribute to accelerate the process of antibiotic resistance, which is considered a global concern, mostly affecting low-and middle-income countries (LMICs). In Mozambique there is limited evidence on community knowledge and practices regarding antibiotics and antibiotic (...) resistance. As part of the ABACUS project, this paper describes knowledge and practices of antibiotic use among the general population in the semi-rural district of Manhiça to inform evidence-based communication intervention strategies for safer antibiotic use.The study was conducted in Manhiça, a semi-rural district of Southern Mozambique. Sixteen in-depth interviews and four focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted with community members to explore lay knowledge and practices regarding antibiotics

2020 BMC Public Health PubMed abstract

20. National Surveillance of Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Bacteremic Gram-Negative Bacteria with Emphasis on Community-Acquired Resistant Isolates: Report from the 2019 Surveillance of Multicenter Antimicrobial Resistance in Taiwan (SMART). (Abstract)

National Surveillance of Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Bacteremic Gram-Negative Bacteria with Emphasis on Community-Acquired Resistant Isolates: Report from the 2019 Surveillance of Multicenter Antimicrobial Resistance in Taiwan (SMART). A multicenter collection of bacteremic isolates of Escherichia coli (n = 423), Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 372), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n = 300), and Acinetobacter baumannii complex (n = 199) was analyzed for susceptibility. Xpert Carba-R assay and sequencing (...) for mcr genes were performed for carbapenem- or colistin-resistant isolates. Nineteen (67.8%) carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae (n = 28) and one (20%) carbapenem-resistant E. coli (n = 5) isolate harbored blaKPC (n = 17), blaOXA-48 (n = 2), and blaVIM (n = 1) genes.Copyright © 2020 American Society for Microbiology.

2020 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

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