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5061. The Effect of Acetylcholine on Memory and Attention

. Normal volunteers and patients with Alzheimer's disease may be eligible for this study of functional brain imaging using positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). These techniques can measure brain activity and identify brain regions involved in memory and attention. Candidates for this study will be screened with a medical and psychiatric history and a physical examination including blood tests, urinalysis, chest X-ray, and electrocardiogram (ECG). Those enrolled (...) -minutes duration. They will be repeated in sequence up to 10 times with a few minutes separation. Subjects will be shown pictures of faces or other visual stimuli and asked to decide whether the pictures are the same or different. Information gained from this study may increase knowledge about how acetylcholine affects the brain's response to memory and attention tasks and perhaps lead to better treatments for the cognitive deficits in Alzheimer's disease. Condition or disease Alzheimer's Disease

2000 Clinical Trials

5062. Early Phase II Trials for Cocaine Medication Development

deficit hyperactivity disorder, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia or any psychotic disorder history of seizures history of allergic reaction to risperidone chronic organic mental disorder significant current suicidal risk pregnancy, lactation or failure to use adequate birth control (for females) unstable physical disorders that may make participation hazardous coronary vascular disease cardiac conduction system disease as indicated by QRS duration >/= 0.11 current use of other prescribed psychotropic (...) , and cocaine subjective effects in patients on methadone maintenance who abused cocaine and whether it had an acceptable side effect profile. This Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase Cocaine-Related Disorders Substance-Related Disorders Drug: Risperidone Drug: Placebo Behavioral: Relapse prevention counseling Phase 2 Detailed Description: This was an 18-week prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled crossover design with placebo lead-in phase and terminal placebo phase. After two weeks

1999 Clinical Trials

5063. New Approaches to Cocaine Abuse Medications (B)

deficit hyperactivity disorder, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia or any psychotic disorder history of seizures history of allergic reaction to risperidone chronic organic mental disorder significant current suicidal risk pregnancy, lactation or failure to use adequate birth control (for females) unstable physical disorders that may make participation hazardous coronary vascular disease cardiac conduction system disease as indicated by QRS duration >/= 0.11 current use of other prescribed psychotropic (...) , and cocaine subjective effects in patients on methadone maintenance who abused cocaine and whether it had an acceptable side effect profile. This Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase Cocaine-Related Disorders Substance-Related Disorders Drug: Risperidone Drug: Placebo Behavioral: Relapse prevention counseling Phase 2 Detailed Description: This was an 18-week prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled crossover design with placebo lead-in phase and terminal placebo phase. After two weeks

1999 Clinical Trials

5064. Study of Melatonin: Sleep Problems in Alzheimer's Disease

by the pineal gland. It has soporific effects with oral administration and is well tolerated. It enhances sleep in normal older people. Melatonin also may help sleep disturbances associated with AD; however, this remains to be proven. Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase Alzheimer Disease Dyssomnias Drug: Melatonin Phase 3 Detailed Description: In Alzheimer's disease , sleep disruption is one of the most common behavioral problems, occurring in 45 percent of patients. These nocturnal awakenings (...) AD. MMSE score 0-26. Hachinski Ischemia Scale score less than or equal to 4. A 2-week history of two or more sleep disorder behaviors, occurring at least once weekly, as reported by the caregiver on the Sleep Disorder Inventory. CT or MRI since the onset of memory problems showing no more than one lacunar infarct in a non-strategic area and no clinical events suggestive of stroke or other intracranial disease since the CT or MRI. Physically acceptable for study as confirmed by medical history

1999 Clinical Trials

5065. Brain Imaging of Childhood Onset Psychiatric Disorders, Endocrine Disorders and Healthy Children

and illness; and (2) discern influences on those trajectories from demographic (e.g. age and sex), cognitive/behavioral (e.g. IQ), and clinical (e.g. presence/absence of a known neurogenetic disorders) factors. Data from the project have resulted in seminal papers on Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Childhood-Onset Schizophrenia, and typical pediatric brain development. The biological bases of male / female differences are explored via studies of subjects with anomalous sex chromosome numbers (...) anatomical resolution. Functional MRIs are diagnostic tests that allow doctors to not only view anatomy, but physiology and function. It is for these reasons that MRIs are excellent methods for studying the brain. In this study, researchers will use MRI to assess brain anatomy and function in X and Y chromosome variation, healthy volunteers, and patients with a variety of childhood onset psychiatric disorders. The disorders include attention deficit disorder, autism, congenital adrenal hyperplasia

1999 Clinical Trials

5066. A Controlled Study of Olanzapine in Children With Autism

Office of Orphan Products Development Study Details Study Description Go to Brief Summary: This is a 12-week study which investigates the use of olanzapine to decrease disruptive behaviors sometimes associated with Autism in children, aged 3 to 12 years old. The first six weeks of the study are double-blind and placebo controlled, meaning that patients receive either placebo or olanzapine, and that neither the researchers nor the patients know whether or not they are receiving placebo or olanzapine (...) . In the second six weeks all of the patients receive olanzapine. The purpose in using placebo is that it is otherwise impossible to know how effective the drug is or whether or not the drug causes side effects. Patients treated with placebo can have improvement and can have side effects. In the study patients receive a psychiatric evaluation, physical examination, laboratory tests, and study medication (olanzapine or placebo), free of charge. Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase Autistic

2003 Clinical Trials

5067. Brain Imaging of Serotonin Transporters in the Brain

limits. Limits: A total effective dose or 5.0 rem in a year. Any condition that increases risk for MRI (e.g., pacemaker, metallic foreign body in the eye, etc.) Traumatic brain injury, severe systemic disease, poor vision or hearing Major medical conditions or neurological disorders Single radial and ulnar arterial circulation. This will be determined during physical examination (A simple wrist compression test) Individuals who recently donated blood. Unable to lay on one's back for PET/MRI scans (...) . If not is not possible to perform both scans on the same day, an additional visit will be scheduled for the second PET scan. Condition or disease Healthy Serotonin Transporter Detailed Description: The serotonin transporter (SERT) modulates the activity of the central serotonergic system and SERT is also the primary target of the widely prescribed specific serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Until recently, suitable radioligands for in vivo imaging of SERT have not been available. However, a recently developed PET

2003 Clinical Trials

5068. Field Administration of Stroke Therapy

Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) Information provided by (Responsible Party): Jeffrey L. Saver, University of California, Los Angeles Study Details Study Description Go to Brief Summary: The goal of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of field-initiated magnesium sulfate in improving the long-term functional outcome of patients with acute stroke. Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase Cerebrovascular Accident Drug: Magnesium Sulfate Drug: Normal Saline Phase 3 Detailed (...) Description: Stroke is the third leading cause of death and the leading cause of adult disability in the United States. Each year, more than 750,000 Americans suffer a symptomatic stroke. Currently, tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) is the only approved treatment for acute ischemic stroke; however, its usefulness is limited because most patients cannot reach medical attention within the necessary 3-hour time window. In addition, rt-PA cannot be given in the field because it is contraindicated

2003 Clinical Trials

5069. Study of GABA-A Receptors in the Generation of Tics in Patients With Tourette's Syndrome

of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) Information provided by: National Institutes of Health Clinical Center (CC) Study Details Study Description Go to Brief Summary: This study will investigate how the brain generates tics in patients with Tourette's syndrome and which areas of the brain are primarily affected. Tourette's syndrome is a neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by motor and vocal tics, and is associated with behavioral and emotional disturbances, including symptoms of attention deficit (...) hyperactivity disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder. This study will examine whether tic generation is related to changes in brain cell receptors for a chemical messenger called gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Healthy normal volunteers and patients with Tourette's syndrome between 21 and 65 years of age may be eligible for this study. Candidates will be screened with a medical history and physical and neurological examinations. Participants will undergo positron emission tomography (PET) scanning

2002 Clinical Trials

5070. Study of Tics in Patients With Tourette's Syndrome and Chronic Motor Tic Disorder

and Stroke (NINDS) Information provided by: National Institutes of Health Clinical Center (CC) Study Details Study Description Go to Brief Summary: This study will investigate which areas of the brain are primarily involved in and responsible for tics in patients with Tourette's syndrome and chronic motor disorder. Tourette's syndrome is a neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by motor and vocal tics and is associated with behavioral and emotional disturbances, including symptoms of attention deficit (...) hyperactivity disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Chronic motor disorder has the same characteristics as Tourette's syndrome, except that patients do not have vocal tics. Healthy normal volunteers and patients with Tourette's syndrome or chronic motor tic disorder between 18 and 65 years of age may be eligible for this study. Candidates will be screened with a medical history and physical and neurological examinations. Participants will undergo positron emission tomography (PET) scanning to study

2002 Clinical Trials

5071. Brain Imaging in Children With AD/HD

Keywords provided by National Institutes of Health Clinical Center (CC): Magnetic Resonance Imaging Diffusion Tensor Imaging Twin Study Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Normal Volunteers Additional relevant MeSH terms: Layout table for MeSH terms Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity Hyperkinesis Attention Deficit and Disruptive Behavior Disorders Neurodevelopmental Disorders Mental Disorders Dyskinesias Neurologic Manifestations Nervous System Diseases Signs and Symptoms (...) Disorder With Hyperactivity Healthy Detailed Description: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common childhood psychiatric disorder, present in between 3 to 10% of children in the United States (Wender et al 2001). It is thought to reflect subtle anomalies in the central nervous system and thus structural neuroimaging has been used extensively to delineate the neurobiology of the disorder. Magnetic resonance imaging has demonstrated structural anomalies in ADHD, affecting all

2001 Clinical Trials

5072. Imaging of Brain Receptors in Healthy Volunteers and in Patients With Schizophrenia

will be screened at the first visit. Group 1 participants will have three more visits; Groups 2 through 5 will have two more visits. Visit 1 All participants will be screened with physical and neurological examinations; blood and urine tests; and neuropsychological tests to assess their ability to learn and remember words and numbers, to pay attention, and to quickly perform motor tasks, such as putting pegs into a piece of wood. In addition, they will have an eye movement test and event-related potential (...) -A-85380 binding among these groups, relationship will be studied between psychiatric symptoms or cognitive dysfunction and the SPECT measurement of the receptors. Further, to study the reliability of the SPECT measurement, a test retest study will be preformed in healthy subjects with a wide range. The proposed study will explore the roles of nAChRs in the psychiatric symptoms, particularly the cognitive deficits in schizophrenia, which is the central impairment of this disorder. New findings

2003 Clinical Trials

5073. Brain Function in Mentally Ill Adolescents

in adolescents with the disorders. This study will use functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to study the parts of the brain that are involved in PTSD and MDD in adolescents. Adolescents with PTSD and/or MDD will be enrolled along with healthy adolescents with or without a history of abuse. Healthy adults will also be enrolled. Participants will be screened with a physical examination; blood tests; and interviews about mood, general degree of nervousness, and behavior. Adolescents and their parents (...) Summary: The purpose of this study is to use brain imaging technology to examine the brain activity of adolescents with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and/or major depressive disorder (MDD) before and after treatment. Adults with PTSD or MDD exhibit abnormalities in the structure and function of certain parts of the brain. Although PTSD and MDD are psychiatric disorders that often emerge in childhood, the relationship between these disorders and brain structures has not been thoroughly studied

2001 Clinical Trials

5074. Studies of Brain Function and Course of Illness in Pediatric Bipolar Disorder

. 5.2.2.2. The child s psychiatrist/treater agrees that the child s response to his/her 4.2.2.3. current treatment makes it clinically appropriate to change the child s current treatment. 5.2.2.4. On the basis of record review and interviews with child and parent, the research team agrees that the child s response to his/her current treatment is no more than minimal (i.e. CGI-I>2). 6. Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) 6.1.1. Age 8-17 6.1.2. Currently meets DSM-IV criteria (...) as hyperarousal (such as insomnia, distractibility, hyperactivity) and extreme responses to frustration (such as frequent, severe temper tantrums). Researchers will describe the moods and behaviors of children with these symptoms and use specialized testing and brain imaging to learn about the brain changes associated with this disorder. Condition or disease Mood Disorder Bipolar Disorder Study Design Go to Layout table for study information Study Type : Observational Estimated Enrollment : 2050 participants

2001 Clinical Trials

5075. Generalized Anxiety Disorder and Social Anxiety Disorder: Their Impact on the Processing of Information and Learning

to the second visit, but participants will perform the tasks while lying in a MRI scanner. Participants will be compensated up to $400 for their involvement in this study. Condition or disease Anxiety Disorders Detailed Description: There have been suggestions that the threshold for amygdala activity is lower in individuals with anxiety disorders than in healthy individuals. However, despite it's immediate plausibility, there have been relatively few tests of this hypothesis. Specifically, there have been (...) , 2003 Last Update Posted : October 6, 2017 Sponsor: National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) Information provided by (Responsible Party): National Institutes of Health Clinical Center (CC) ( National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) ) Study Details Study Description Go to Brief Summary: The purpose of this study is to increase researchers understanding of the biological basis of generalized anxiety disorder and social anxiety disorder. They will investigate how the brain activity associated

2003 Clinical Trials

5076. The Treatment of Children and Adolescents With Treatment-Resistant Depression

; depressed for less than 6 months. EXCLUSION CRITERIA: Any medical condition that increases risk for SSRI or lithium treatment or for MRI exam. This will include screening for standard MRI scanning contraindications such as metallic implants or pacemakers. Pregnancy. Current use of any psychoactive substance beyond ab SSRI; current suicidal ideation; current diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) of sufficient severity to require pharmacotherapy. Current diagnoses: Tourette's (...) by: National Institutes of Health Clinical Center (CC) Study Details Study Description Go to Brief Summary: This study seeks to learn about brain function in adolescents with depression and to determine whether adding lithium carbonate to antidepressant medication can reduce depression in children and adolescents. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) will examine brain chemistry and function. Condition or disease Bipolar Disorder Detailed Description

2002 Clinical Trials

5077. Reward-Related Processes and Brain Function

of decision-making and reward-related processes, lie at the root of maladaptive behavior in many psychiatric disorders, including major depression (MD). Little is known of the cognitive and neural mechanisms that underlie MD in adolescents. Adolescence is a key period during which many psychiatric disorders first emerge, and studies during this developmental stage may provide a unique window to address primary deficits associated with the disorders. In particular, major depression shows a marked increase (...) Adolescents with major depression Adolescents with anxiety disorder (generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia, or/and separation anxiety disorder) The study involves three visits, as follows: Visit 1 Visit 1 consists of three parts for both child and adult participants: Part 1: Staff will meet with participants for a standard psychiatric interview, which will include questions about the participants feelings, experiences and behavior both past and present. For adolescent participants, staff will meet

2002 Clinical Trials

5078. Child & Adolescent Bipolar Disorder Brain Imaging and Treatment Study

CRITERIA: IQ<70 Active psychosis Any clinical condition in need of immediate care Any chronic medical illness resulting in impaired CNS function Any condition that would interfere with the participants ability to perform behavioral research tasks Limitations with English that would interfere with understanding consent/assent, interview, or task instructions. NIMH IRP Employee family member Amish Community healthy volunteer children & adolescents: INCLUSION CRITERIA: Age 8-17 No serious physical (...) , such as steroids Pregnant or breast-feeding. Active suicidal or homicidal thoughts or plans NIMH IRP Employee/family member Healthy volunteer children and adolescents: INCLUSION CRITERIA: Age- and sex- matched to the bipolar patients. Have an identified primary care physician. Speaks English EXCLUSION CRITERIA I.Q. < 70 Any serious medical condition or condition that interferes with fMRI scanning Pregnancy Past or current diagnosis of any anxiety disorder (panic disorder, GAD, Separation Anxiety Disorder

2000 Clinical Trials

5079. Antisocial Behavior: Passing From Parent to Child to Grandchild

. Their parents were also assessed for psychosocial influences. One hundred children then participated in a nutritional, exercise, and educational enrichment intervention from ages 3 to 5 years old. The intervention has been shown to increase physiological arousal and attention at age 11 years and to reduce conduct disorder at age 17 years. These 3-year-old children are now 30-year-old adults. This study will retest these adults on psychophysiological, psychosocial, cognitive, behavioral, parenting (...) . This study is part of a project evaluating antisocial behavior in families; it focuses on the passage of such behavior from one generation to the next. Condition or disease Dyssocial Behavior Antisocial Personality Disorder Detailed Description: While it is well-known that antisocial behavior runs in families, little is known about the specific mechanisms by which it is transmitted from one generation to the next. This prospective study will examine biological influences on transgenerational continuity

2003 Clinical Trials

5080. Behavioral Effects of Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Children

by (Responsible Party): Ronald D. Chervin, M.D., M.S., University of Michigan Study Details Study Description Go to Brief Summary: Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) in children may be responsible for disruptive daytime behaviors such as inattention and hyperactivity. Many children undergo tonsillectomy for SDB and disruptive daytime behaviors. However, the link between SDB and disruptive behavior is not clearly understood. This study will evaluate the relationship between SDB and disruptive behavior. Condition (...) or disease Sleep-disordered Breathing Sleep Apnea, Obstructive ADHD Detailed Description: While adenotonsillectomy (AT) remains one of the most common surgical procedures performed in children, indications for AT have changed in recent years. Surgeons now perform AT for suspected obstructive SDB and for daytime behaviors that may be a consequence of SDB, such as inattention and hyperactivity. However, whether SDB causes these and other disruptive behaviors is not well known. Further, the precise nature

2003 Clinical Trials

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