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161. Trend, characteristics, and pharmacotherapy of adults diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a nationwide survey in Taiwan Full Text available with Trip Pro

Trend, characteristics, and pharmacotherapy of adults diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a nationwide survey in Taiwan Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults may result in functional impairment warranting clinical interventions. However, few studies have investigated the diagnosis and treatment rates of adult ADHD in non-Caucasian ethnic groups. This study used nationwide population-based data to investigate the rate of diagnosis, associated (...) characteristics, and pharmacological treatment for adult ADHD in Taiwan.Adults (age ≥18 years) newly diagnosed with ADHD (n=5,397) between January 2000 and December 2011 were enrolled from the National Health Insurance database in Taiwan. All patients were monitored until December 31, 2011. Patients who received treatment with immediate-release methylphenidate (IR-MPH), osmotic release oral system-methylphenidate (OROS-MPH), and atomoxetine (ATX) were analyzed.The cumulative prevalence of adult ADHD was 0.028

2017 Neuropsychiatric disease and treatment

162. Personalized Medication Response Prediction for Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Learning in the Model Space vs. Learning in the Data Space Full Text available with Trip Pro

Personalized Medication Response Prediction for Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Learning in the Model Space vs. Learning in the Data Space Attention-Deficit Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common mental health disorders amongst school-aged children with an estimated prevalence of 5% in the global population (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). Stimulants, particularly methylphenidate (MPH), are the first-line option in the treatment of ADHD (Reeves and Schweitzer

2017 Frontiers in physiology

163. A cost-effectiveness analysis of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate in the treatment of adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in the UK Full Text available with Trip Pro

A cost-effectiveness analysis of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate in the treatment of adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in the UK Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a chronic neurobehavioral disorder in children that may persist into adulthood. Lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX) is approved in many countries for ADHD treatment in children, adolescents, and adults.Estimate the cost-effectiveness of LDX as a first- or second-line treatment for adults with ADHD from (...) the United Kingdom (UK) National Health Service (NHS) perspective compared with methylphenidate extended release (MPH-ER) and atomoxetine (ATX).A 1-year decision-analytic model was developed. Health outcomes included response, non-response and inability to tolerate. Efficacy data were obtained from a mixed-treatment comparison (MTC). Response was a score of 1 or 2 on the Clinical Global Impression-Improvement scale. Tolerability was assessed by discontinuation rates due to adverse events. Utilities were

2017 The European Journal of Health Economics

164. Efficacy and Tolerability of Different Interventions in Children and Adolescents with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Full Text available with Trip Pro

Efficacy and Tolerability of Different Interventions in Children and Adolescents with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Our study is an analysis of multiple publications involving assessing the comparable efficacy and tolerability of six interventions, which are lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX), atomoxetine (ATX), methylphenidate (MPH), clonidine hydrochloride (CLON), guanfacine extended release (GXR), and bupropion, for young patients (6-18 years old) suffering from attention deficit (...) hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).A conventional meta-analysis (MA) was performed to give direct comparisons and a network meta-analysis (NMA) was used to show the combination of direct and indirect evidence. Ranking preference for all the interventions under a certain outcome was given by the surface of cumulative ranking curve area (SUCRA).Overall, 15,025 participants from 73 studies were involved in our analysis. In the pairwise MA, LDX was associated with less withdrawal than ATX for lack of efficacy. MPH

2017 Frontiers in Psychiatry

165. Concordance of actigraphy with polysomnography in children with and without attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Full Text available with Trip Pro

are altered when children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder are treated with medication. Participants (24 attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder; 24 typically developing), aged 6-12 years, completed a 1-week baseline assessment of typical sleep and daytime functioning. Following the baseline week, participants in the attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder group completed a 4-week blinded randomized control trial of methylphenidate hydrochloride, including a 2-week placebo and 2-week (...) methylphenidate hydrochloride treatment period. At the end of each observation (typically developing: baseline; attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: baseline, placebo and methylphenidate hydrochloride treatment), all participants were invited to a sleep research laboratory, where overnight polysomnography and actigraphy were recorded concurrently. Findings from intra-class correlations and Bland-Altman plots were consistent. Actigraphy was found to provide good estimates (e.g. intra-class correlations

2017 Journal of sleep research Controlled trial quality: uncertain

166. Discrete Global but No Focal Gray Matter Volume Reductions in Unmedicated Adult Patients With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. (Abstract)

Discrete Global but No Focal Gray Matter Volume Reductions in Unmedicated Adult Patients With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. Gray matter reduction mainly in the anterior cingulate cortex, the basal ganglia, and the cerebellum has been reported in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Yet, respective data remain contradictory and inconclusive. To clarify if structural alteration in these brain areas can be verified in a large cohort of adult patients and if a history (...) of stimulant medication has an effect on brain structure, magnetic resonance imaging was performed in the context of a clinical trial on the efficacy of group psychotherapy, clinical management, methylphenidate, and placebo (Comparison of Methylphenidate and Psychotherapy in Adult ADHD Study Trial).Between January 2007 and August 2010, 1480 patients from seven study centers across Germany, aged 18 to 58, were prescreened; 518 were assessed for eligibility; 433 were randomized; and 187 were eligible

2017 Biological psychiatry Controlled trial quality: uncertain

167. An Evaluation Approach for the Performance of Dosing Regimens in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Treatment. Full Text available with Trip Pro

An Evaluation Approach for the Performance of Dosing Regimens in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Treatment. Stimulant medications, with methylphenidate as the main agent, are the most prescribed for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Nevertheless, real challenges still remain for clinicians concerned with adaptation of the therapeutic regimens, in terms of doses and timing, to children's daily activities. The aim of this study was to optimize short-acting (...) Treatment study of Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder indicates that there is still room for improvement in the current practice especially for the last dose administration to avoid side effects such as sleep disturbance.The developed approach and its associated web-based interface provide an efficient way to evaluate and adapt the methylphenidate regimens to children's daily activities. In addition, this approach could be used as proof of concept to further implement combination

2017 Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology

168. Multimodal treatment in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a 6-month follow-up. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Multimodal treatment in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a 6-month follow-up. Different treatment approaches aimed at reducing attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) core symptoms are available. However, factors such as intolerance, side-effects, lack of efficacy, high new technology costs, and placebo effect have spurred on an increasing interest in alternative or complementary treatment.The aim of this study is to explore efficacy of multimodal (...) treatment consisting of standard stimulant medication (methylphenidate) and neurofeedback (NF) in combination, and to compare it with the single treatment in 6-month follow-up in ADHD children and adolescents.This randomized controlled trial with 6-month follow-up comprised three treatment arms: multimodal treatment (NF + MED), MED alone, and NF alone. A total of 130 ADHD children/adolescents participated, and 62% completed the study. ADHD core symptoms were recorded pre-/post-treatment, using parents

2017 Nordic journal of psychiatry Controlled trial quality: uncertain

169. Saikosaponin A Alleviates Symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder through Downregulation of DAT and Enhancing BDNF Expression in Spontaneous Hypertensive Rats. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Saikosaponin A Alleviates Symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder through Downregulation of DAT and Enhancing BDNF Expression in Spontaneous Hypertensive Rats. The disturbed dopamine availability and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression are due in part to be associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In this study, we investigated the therapeutical effect of saikosaponin a (SSa) isolated from Bupleurum Chinese DC, against spontaneously (...) hypertensive rat (SHR) model of ADHD. Methylphenidate and SSa were orally administered for 3 weeks. Activity was assessed by open-field test and Morris water maze test. Dopamine (DA) and BDNF were determined in specific brain regions. The mRNA or protein expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), dopamine transporter (DAT), and vesicles monoamine transporter (VMAT) was also studied. Both MPH and SSa reduced hyperactivity and improved the spatial learning memory deficit in SHRs. An increased DA concentration

2017 Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine (eCAM)

170. Alterations in pain response are partially reversed by methylphenidate (Ritalin) in adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). (Abstract)

Alterations in pain response are partially reversed by methylphenidate (Ritalin) in adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterized by dysregulation of sensory processing and neurobiology of dopamine. Although cumulative evidence suggests that dopamine is involved in pain processing, pain perception in ADHD subjects and the effect of dopamine agonists such as methylphenidate (MP, Ritalin) on it have rarely been (...) studied.The aims of this study were to (1) psychophysically assess sensitivity to pain in ADHD subjects as compared to controls and (2) examine the effects of MP on pain response in ADHD subjects.Thirty subjects with ADHD and 30 age- and gender-matched controls participated in a preliminary trial. Pain threshold, intensity, and tolerance in response to cold pain stimulation were measured for both groups (ADHD with no treatment). In addition, the ADHD group was reassessed following a single dose of MP

2015 Pain Practice

171. Early life stress induces attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-like behavioral and brain metabolic dysfunctions: functional imaging of methylphenidate treatment in a novel rodent model Full Text available with Trip Pro

Early life stress induces attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-like behavioral and brain metabolic dysfunctions: functional imaging of methylphenidate treatment in a novel rodent model In a novel animal model Octodon degus we tested the hypothesis that, in addition to genetic predisposition, early life stress (ELS) contributes to the etiology of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder-like behavioral symptoms and the associated brain functional deficits. Since previous neurochemical (...) , mesolimbic and subcortical brain areas. Finally, the pharmacological intervention provided further evidence that the behavioral and metabolic dysfunctions are due to impaired dopaminergic neurotransmission. Elevating dopamine in ELS animals by methylphenidate normalized locomotor hyperactivity and attention-deficit and ameliorated brain metabolic hypoactivity in a dose-dependent manner.

2016 Brain structure & function

172. Treatment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Adolescents: A Systematic Review. (Abstract)

Treatment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Adolescents: A Systematic Review. Although attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is highly prevalent in adolescents and often persists into adulthood, most studies about treatment were performed in children. Less is known about ADHD treatment in adolescents.To review the evidence for pharmacological and psychosocial treatment of ADHD in adolescents.The databases of CINAHL Plus, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, ERIC, and the Cochrane Database (...) . Psychosocial treatments were associated with more robust (Cohen d range, 0.51-5.15) improvements in academic and organizational skills, such as homework completion and planner use.Evidence supports the use of extended-release methylphenidate and amphetamine formulations, atomoxetine, and extended-release guanfacine to improve symptoms of ADHD in adolescents. Psychosocial treatments incorporating behavior contingency management, motivational enhancement, and academic, organizational, and social skills

2016 JAMA

173. Neuropharmacological effect of methylphenidate on attention network in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder during oddball paradigms as assessed using functional near-infrared spectroscopy. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Neuropharmacological effect of methylphenidate on attention network in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder during oddball paradigms as assessed using functional near-infrared spectroscopy. The current study aimed to explore the neural substrate for methylphenidate effects on attentional control in school-aged children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), which can be applied to young children with ADHD more (...) . Thus, right prefrontal activation would serve as an objective neurofunctional biomarker to indicate the effectiveness of methylphenidate on ADHD children in attentional control. fNIRS monitoring enhances early clinical diagnosis and the treatment of ADHD children, especially those with an inattention phenotype.

2015 Neurophotonics Controlled trial quality: uncertain

174. Factors Associated With Adherence to Methylphenidate Treatment in Adult Patients With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Substance Use Disorders. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Factors Associated With Adherence to Methylphenidate Treatment in Adult Patients With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Substance Use Disorders. Adherence to treatment is one of the most consistent factors associated with a favorable addiction treatment outcome. Little is known about factors associated with treatment adherence in individuals affected with comorbid attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and substance use disorders (SUD). This study aimed to explore whether treatment (...) doses were associated with long-term treatment adherence in individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and SUD.

2016 Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology

175. Comparative efficacy of methylphenidate and atomoxetine in oppositional defiant disorder comorbid with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Comparative efficacy of methylphenidate and atomoxetine in oppositional defiant disorder comorbid with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is frequently comorbid with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and is associated with substantial functional impairments. Methylphenidate and atomoxetine are well-established drugs for the management of ADHD. Some studies from Western countries have reported these drugs to be effective in the management (...) of ODD comorbid with ADHD. This study aimed to assess if methylphenidate and atomoxetine are efficacious in treating Indian children with ODD comorbid with ADHD.In this prospective, open-label study, 37 patients of age 6-14 years with a diagnosis of ODD comorbid with ADHD randomly received either methylphenidate (dose 0.2-1 mg/kg/day) or atomoxetine (dose 0.5-1.2 mg/kg/day) for 8 weeks. Improvements in ADHD and ODD symptoms were assessed using Vanderbilt ADHD diagnostic parent rating scale (VADPRS

2015 International journal of applied & basic medical research Controlled trial quality: uncertain

176. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, methylphenidate use and the risk of developing schizophrenia spectrum disorders: A nationwide population-based study in Taiwan. (Abstract)

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, methylphenidate use and the risk of developing schizophrenia spectrum disorders: A nationwide population-based study in Taiwan. This study estimated the risk of developing psychotic disorders by comparing children with ADHD to non-ADHD controls, and to examine whether methylphenidate (MPH) treatment influences the risks of psychotic disorders. A nationwide cohort of patients who were newly diagnosed with ADHD (n=73,049) and age- and gender-matched (...) controls (n=73,049) were selected from Taiwan's National Health Insurance database from January 2000 to December 2011. All participants were observed until December 31, 2011. Cox regression models were used to estimate the effects of ADHD diagnosis and MPH use on subsequent outcomes. Having a diagnosis of any psychotic disorder and of schizophrenia were set as two different outcomes and were analyzed separately. Compared to the control group, the ADHD group showed significantly increased risk

2015 Schizophrenia Research

177. Comparison of therapeutic effects of omega-3 and methylphenidate (ritalin(®)) in treating children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. (Abstract)

Comparison of therapeutic effects of omega-3 and methylphenidate (ritalin(®)) in treating children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a fixed pattern of disregard and hyperactivity that is much more severe than what is normal in children of the same age. Multiple drugs are used for the treatment of children with ADHD; however, their side effects and efficacy are not clearly known. This study was designed to evaluate and compare (...) the therapeutic effects of two drugs, that is, omega-3 and methylphenidate hydrochloride (Ritalin(®)), used to treat patients with ADHD.In a randomized, placebo control clinical trial in Yazd, Iran, 85 ADHD children were divided into two experimental and one control groups. Thus, 29 subjects were treated with Ritalin(®), 28 subjects received omega-3, and the remaining 28 received placebo. The data collection tools used in this study consisted of the Conners' Parent Rating Scale and Teacher Rating Scale

2015 Iranian journal of psychiatry and behavioral sciences Controlled trial quality: uncertain

178. Cost-Effectiveness of Extended-Release Methylphenidate in Children and Adolescents with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Sub-Optimally Treated with Immediate Release Methylphenidate Full Text available with Trip Pro

Cost-Effectiveness of Extended-Release Methylphenidate in Children and Adolescents with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Sub-Optimally Treated with Immediate Release Methylphenidate Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a common psychiatric disorder in children and adolescents. Immediate-release methylphenidate (IR-MPH) is the medical treatment of first choice. The necessity to use several IR-MPH tablets per day and associated potential social stigma at school often leads (...) ) discontinued treatment, and (4) natural remission. ER-MPH options included methylphenidate osmotic release oral system (MPH-OROS) and Equasym XL/Medikinet CR. Both direct costs and indirect costs were included in the analysis, and effects were expressed as quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). Univariate, multivariate as well as probabilistic sensitivity analysis were conducted and the main outcomes were incremental cost-effectiveness ratios.Switching sub-optimally treated patients from IR-MPH to MPH-OROS

2015 PloS one

179. Altered white matter tract property related to impaired focused attention, sustained attention, cognitive impulsivity and vigilance in attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Altered white matter tract property related to impaired focused attention, sustained attention, cognitive impulsivity and vigilance in attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder. The neural substrate for clinical symptoms and neuropsychological performance in individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has rarely been studied and has yielded inconsistent results. We sought to compare the microstructural property of fibre tracts associated with the prefrontal cortex and its (...) with the clinical symptom of inattention in youths with ADHD. Finally, youths with ADHD had differential association patterns of the 10 fibre tract GFA values with attention performance compared with controls.Ten of the youths with ADHD were treated with methylphenidate, which may have long-term effects on microstructural property.Our study highlights the importance of the SLF, cingulum bundle and frontostriatal tracts for clinical symptoms and attention performance in youths with ADHD and demonstrates

2015 Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience

180. Telephone-assisted self-help for parents of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder who have residual functional impairment despite methylphenidate treatment: a randomized controlled trial. (Abstract)

Telephone-assisted self-help for parents of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder who have residual functional impairment despite methylphenidate treatment: a randomized controlled trial. Self-help parenting interventions have been shown to be effective in the management of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and may be useful when there are barriers to face-to-face therapist-led parent trainings. Previous studies indicate that behavioral interventions (...) might be a useful adjunct to medication in children with residual ADHD symptoms, and regarding comorbid oppositional symptoms and multiple domains of functional impairment. In the present study, we examined whether a telephone-assisted self-help (TASH) parenting behavioral intervention (written materials plus telephone counseling) enhanced the effects of methylphenidate treatment in children with ADHD.In this randomized controlled trial, parents of 103 school-aged children with ADHD and residual

2016 Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry Controlled trial quality: uncertain

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