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21. Levels of Proneness to Boredom in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder On and Off Methylphenidate Treatment. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Levels of Proneness to Boredom in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder On and Off Methylphenidate Treatment. Objective: To evaluate the relationship between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) severity and propensity for boredom in children with ADHD, both on and off methylphenidate (MPH). Methods: A group of children and adolescents with ADHD (n = 30), aged 7-18 years, were assessed using the Parent-Reported-ADHD Rating Scale-5 (PR-ADHD-RS-5) and Short Boredom (...) parameters, causing them to approach pretreatment levels. Clinicians and parents should be aware of the possibility of increased PtB in children with ADHD who discontinue MPH treatment. Structured daily activity and continuation of MPH treatment may preserve the beneficial effects of MPH on academic and leisure activities and may prevent aggravation of subjective boredom sensations that could lead to risky sensation-seeking behaviors and overuse of electronic devices.

2020 Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology

22. Indole Tryptophan Metabolism and Cytokine S100B in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Daily Fluctuations, Responses to Methylphenidate, and Interrelationship with Depressive Symptomatology. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Indole Tryptophan Metabolism and Cytokine S100B in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Daily Fluctuations, Responses to Methylphenidate, and Interrelationship with Depressive Symptomatology. Background: Indole tryptophan metabolites (ITMs), mainly produced at the gastrointestinal level, participate in bidirectional gut-brain communication and have been implicated in neuropsychiatric pathologies, including attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Method: A total (...) of 179 children, 5-14 years of age, including a healthy control group (CG, n = 49), and 107 patients with ADHD participated in the study. The ADHD group was further subdivided into predominantly attention deficit (PAD) and predominantly hyperactive impulsive (PHI) subgroups. Blood samples were drawn at 20:00 and 09:00 hours, and urine was collected between blood draws, at baseline and after 4.63 ± 2.3 months of methylphenidate treatment in the ADHD group. Levels and daily fluctuations of ITM were

2020 Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology

23. Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Flexible-Dose Titration Study of Methylphenidate Hydrochloride Extended-Release Capsules (Aptensio XR) in Preschool Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Flexible-Dose Titration Study of Methylphenidate Hydrochloride Extended-Release Capsules (Aptensio XR) in Preschool Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. Objectives: To assess the efficacy and safety of a methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release capsule (MPH-MLR) formulation in treating attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in preschool children. Methods: Children aged 4 to <6 years with qualifying ADHD Rating Scale (...)  = 0.002. During open-label dosing, the most common AEs (≥10%) were decreased appetite, decreased weight, insomnia, hypertension, emotional disorder, and affect lability. Conclusion: Results demonstrate MPH-MLR efficacy in preschool children and a safety profile consistent with known AEs of methylphenidate when used for ADHD.

2020 Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology

24. The Effects of Methylphenidate Treatment on Child Growth in Thai Children and Adolescents with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. (Abstract)

The Effects of Methylphenidate Treatment on Child Growth in Thai Children and Adolescents with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. Objectives: To determine the effects of methylphenidate treatment on child growth in Thai pediatric patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Methods: The medical records of children and adolescents with ADHD, between 5 and 18 years of age, who received pharmacological treatment with methylphenidate as a sole psychiatric medication for ≥1 (...) increase in weight z-scores was observed (mean difference = 0.0271, 95% CI = 0.0179-0.0362, p < 0.001). Longitudinal analysis observed that weight z-scores were significantly decreased during the first year of therapy, but regained in the second year and continued to increase in subsequent years of therapy. Conclusion: Treatment with methylphenidate in our cohort of Thai pediatric patients with ADHD was not associated with growth deficits, except for a slightly significant decrease in weight during

2020 Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology

25. Pre-Existing Comorbid Emotional Symptoms Moderate Short-Term Methylphenidate Adverse Effects in a Randomized Trial of Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Pre-Existing Comorbid Emotional Symptoms Moderate Short-Term Methylphenidate Adverse Effects in a Randomized Trial of Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. Objective: We sought to ascertain whether baseline anxiety/depression and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms impacted the experience of short-term methylphenidate (MPH) adverse effects (AEs) in 7- to 11-year-old children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (n = 171) undergoing a double-blind MPH (...) crossover trial. Method: The Vanderbilt ADHD Diagnostic Parent Rating Scale measured baseline child anxiety/depression and ODD symptomology. The parent-completed Pittsburgh Side Effect Rating Scale assessed the AEs of anxiety, sadness, and irritability at baseline, on placebo, and on three MPH dosages. For each AE, we evaluated comorbidity main effects, dose main effects, and comorbidity × dose interactions. Results: Baseline anxiety/depression × dose and ODD × dose interactions were significant

2020 Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology

26. Dose-Response Effects of Long-Acting Liquid Methylphenidate in Children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD): A Pilot Study. (Abstract)

Dose-Response Effects of Long-Acting Liquid Methylphenidate in Children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD): A Pilot Study. Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms are common in youth with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and are frequently treated with stimulant medications. Twenty-seven children were randomized to different dose titration schedules, and ADHD symptoms, tolerability, and aberrant behaviors were assessed weekly (...) during a 6-week trial with long-acting liquid methylphenidate (MPH). MPH at low to moderate doses was effective in reducing ADHD symptoms and was well tolerated in young children with ASD and ADHD. Future studies are needed to assess generalization and maintenance of efficacy.

2018 Journal of autism and developmental disorders Controlled trial quality: uncertain

27. Trends in attention-deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) medications among children and young adults in Ireland: a repeated cross-sectional study from 2005 to 2015. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Trends in attention-deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) medications among children and young adults in Ireland: a repeated cross-sectional study from 2005 to 2015. This study examined the prescribing patterns of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) medications in Ireland between 2005 and 2015 in children, adolescents and young adults, and concomitant use of psychotropic medication.Repeated cross-sectional study.Community setting using pharmacy claims data in Ireland.Children (...) and young adults aged 0-24 years.Authorised medications used to treat ADHD during the study period, methylphenidate, dexamfetamine, lisdexamfetamine dimesylate and atomoxetine were extracted from a national pharmacy claims database. Dispensing of concomitant psychotropic medications including antipsychotics, anxiolytics, hypnotics/sedatives and antidepressants were examined.The number on any ADHD medication ranged from 1913 in 2005 to 4853 in 2015, and the prevalence rate per 1000 eligible population

2020 BMJ open

28. Dispensation of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) medications in patients receiving opioid agonist therapy; a national prospective cohort study in Norway from 2015 to 2017. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Dispensation of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) medications in patients receiving opioid agonist therapy; a national prospective cohort study in Norway from 2015 to 2017. It is estimated that up to a third of patients on opioid agonist therapy (OAT) have attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Treatment by ADHD medication, including a centrally acting stimulant (CAS) or atomoxetine is one of the essential approaches. This study evaluates the use of dispensed ADHD (...) . The three most dispensed CAS were short- and intermediate-acting methylphenidate (55%), lisdexamphetamine (24%), and dexamphetamine (17%) in 2017. Buprenorphine, rather than methadone, as OAT opioid (adjusted odds ratio: 1.6, CI: 1.2-2.1) was associated with being dispensed ADHD medication. Among patients who received CAS and OAT opioids each calendar year, the dispensed doses of methylphenidate increased from 63 mg/day in 2015 to 76 mg/day in 2017 (p = 0.01). Sixty percent of patients receiving ADHD

2020 BMC Psychiatry

29. Distinct Methylphenidate-Evoked Response Measured Using Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy During Go/No-Go Task as a Supporting Differential Diagnostic Tool Between Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Autism Spectrum Disorder Comorbid Children Full Text available with Trip Pro

Distinct Methylphenidate-Evoked Response Measured Using Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy During Go/No-Go Task as a Supporting Differential Diagnostic Tool Between Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Autism Spectrum Disorder Comorbid Children Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been frequently reported as co-occurring with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, ASD-comorbid ADHD is difficult to diagnose since clinically significant symptoms are similar in both (...) disorders. Therefore, we propose a classification method of differentially recognizing the ASD-comorbid condition in ADHD children. The classification method was investigated based on functional brain imaging measured by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) during a go/no-go task. Optimization and cross-validation of the classification method was carried out in medicated-naïve and methylphenidate (MPH) administered ADHD and ASD-comorbid ADHD children (randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled

2019 Frontiers in human neuroscience Controlled trial quality: uncertain

30. Comparison of the effects of methylphenidate and the combination of methylphenidate and risperidone in preschool children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Comparison of the effects of methylphenidate and the combination of methylphenidate and risperidone in preschool children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common psychiatric disorder among preschool children but the number of controlled clinical trials regarding psychopharmacological treatment in this age group is limited. The aim of this study was to compare methylphenidate with the combination of methylphenidate (...) and risperidone in preschool children with ADHD. Forty-two preschool children, aged 3-6 years, diagnosed with ADHD by a child and adolescent psychiatrist according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition-Text Revision criteria, were enrolled in a 6-week, single-blind clinical trial and administered with methylphenidate (5-30 mg/dl) or the combination of methylphenidate and risperidone (0.25-2 mg/dl) in Iran. Treatment outcomes were assessed using the Conners' Rating Scale

2019 Journal of advanced pharmaceutical technology & research Controlled trial quality: uncertain

31. Effects of Folic Acid on Appetite in Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Treated with Methylphenidate: A Randomized Double-Blind Clinical Trial Full Text available with Trip Pro

Effects of Folic Acid on Appetite in Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Treated with Methylphenidate: A Randomized Double-Blind Clinical Trial The highly effective medications in treating attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms are stimulants like methylphenidate. However, they have adverse effects like reduced appetite. We investigated the effects of folic acid on reduced appetite caused by the use of methylphenidate in children with ADHD.This (...) randomized double-blind clinical trial evaluated 70 outpatients, aged between 6 and 12 years, with a diagnosis of ADHD. The children were recruited from the Outpatient Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinic of Golestan Hospital (Ahwaz, Iran) between 2016 and 2017. The study subjects were randomly assigned to 2 groups: Group 1 received an average dose of methylphenidate (1 mg/kg) plus folic acid (5 mg/d) and Group 2 received an average dose of methylphenidate (1 mg/kg) plus a placebo (5 mg of sucrose

2018 Iranian journal of medical sciences Controlled trial quality: uncertain

32. Methylphenidate extended-release oral suspension for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a practical guide for pharmacists Full Text available with Trip Pro

Methylphenidate extended-release oral suspension for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a practical guide for pharmacists Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental condition that affects children, adolescents, and adults worldwide. The purpose of this review was to inform pharmacists of the numerous options to treat ADHD, with a focus on one of the more recently approved formulations, methylphenidate extended-release oral suspension (MEROS (...) ). Symptoms of ADHD can negatively impact an individual's health and quality of life and impair function in multiple settings. Psychostimulants such as methylphenidate- and amphetamine-based agents are first-line pharmacologic treatments for ADHD. However, there are multiple formulations, including immediate release (administered two to three times/day), solid extended release (ER), or transdermal patch. MEROS is a once daily, long-acting liquid preparation that has demonstrated favorable safety

2017 Integrated pharmacy research & practice

33. Sleep disorders in children and young people with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: melatonin

, Starreveld JS et al. (2003) Melatonin for treatment of sleeping disorders in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a preliminary open label study. European Journal of Pediatrics 162: 554–5 van der Heijden KB, Smits MG, Someren EJ et al. (2007) Effect of melatonin on sleep, behavior, and cognition in ADHD and chronic sleep-onset insomnia. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 46: 233–41 Waldron D, Bramble D, Gringas P (2005) Melatonin: prescribing practices (...) , characterised by poor quality of sleep, in adults who are aged 55 years or over. Additional melatonin products are available from special-order manufacturers or specialist importing companies, or can be purchased directly online. No high-quality studies were identified that provided evidence for the efficacy of prolonged- release melatonin tablets (licensed in the UK) used off-label in children with sleep disorders and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Limited evidence for unlicensed

2013 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence - Advice

34. Does L-Methylfolate Supplement Methylphenidate Pharmacotherapy in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder?: Evidence of Lack of Benefit From a Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Randomized Clinical Trial. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Does L-Methylfolate Supplement Methylphenidate Pharmacotherapy in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder?: Evidence of Lack of Benefit From a Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Randomized Clinical Trial. Interventions for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may be inadequate for some patients. There is evidence that supplementation with L-methylfolate augments antidepressant agent effects and thus might also augment ADHD treatment effects by a common catecholaminergic (...) mechanism.Forty-four adults with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition diagnosis of ADHD participated in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 12-week trial of 15 mg of L-methylfolate in combination with osmotic-release oral system methylphenidate. Osmotic-release oral system methylphenidate was dose optimized over the first 6 weeks. We evaluated the effects on ADHD symptoms, self-report on the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function of executive function

2019 Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

35. A Quantitative Comparison Approach for Methylphenidate Drug Regimens in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Treatment. (Abstract)

A Quantitative Comparison Approach for Methylphenidate Drug Regimens in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Treatment. Different methylphenidate (MPH) formulations, immediate release (IR) or extended release (ER), have been developed to treat Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). A better use of these formulations, with a proper choice of their timing, dosage, and combination, can help to attain optimal therapeutic effect while maintaining a good quality of life. In this study (...) clinical situations, the three-methods strategy is able to distinguish the regimens proposed for each. A combined regimen of IR and ER taken at the same time performs better than a single ER dose.The proposed statistical strategy is able to differentiate ADHD regimens in various clinically relevant situations, and adapt the use of MPH drugs to a patient's daily routine. Since it does not compare fixed doses and formulations but rather any MPH regimen, our approach generalizes the current context

2019 Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology

36. Crocus sativus L. Versus Methylphenidate in Treatment of Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Randomized, Double-Blind Pilot Study. (Abstract)

Crocus sativus L. Versus Methylphenidate in Treatment of Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Randomized, Double-Blind Pilot Study. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common neuropsychiatric disorders of childhood and adolescence. About 30% of patients do not respond to stimulants or cannot tolerate their side effects. Thus, alternative medication, like herbal medicine, should be considered. The aim of this trial is to compare the safety (...) ). Symptoms were assessed using the Teacher and Parent Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Rating Scale-IV (ADHD-RS-IV) at baseline and weeks 3 and 6.Fifty patients completed the trial. General linear model repeated measures showed no significant difference between the two groups on Parent and Teacher Rating Scale scores (F = 0.749, df = 1.317, p = 0.425, and F = 0.249, df = 1.410, p = 0.701, respectively). Changes in Teacher and Parent ADHD Rating Scale scores from baseline to the study end were

2019 Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

37. Effect of omega-3 plus methylphenidate as an alternative therapy to reduce attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder in children. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Effect of omega-3 plus methylphenidate as an alternative therapy to reduce attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder in children. Attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common chronic behavioral disorders in school-aged children.This study aimed to evaluate the effect of omega-3 supplementation as an alternative therapy for ADHD, which can be caused by vitamin and mineral deficiencies.This was a double-blinded clinical trial study. Sixty-six children with ADHD (aged 6 (...) -12 years) referred to our child and adolescent psychiatric educational and therapeutic clinic were selected based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision criteria. Instruments including the Parent ADHD Rating Scale were used to assess ADHD at 0, 2, 4, and 8 weeks during the study.The results showed no statistically significant difference between the methylphenidate with omega-3 group and methylphenidate with placebo group based on the Parents ADHD

2019 Korean journal of pediatrics Controlled trial quality: uncertain

38. The effect of adding ferrous sulfate to methylphenidate on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children. Full Text available with Trip Pro

The effect of adding ferrous sulfate to methylphenidate on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children. Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common psychiatric disorders in children with several complications. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of adding ferrous sulfate to methylphenidate in decreasing ADHD symptoms. This study was a double-blind, randomized clinical trial. In this study, 42 nonanemic children with ADHD and serum ferritin (...) , and repeated measures ANOVA in SPSS 16. The scores on CSI-4 decreased significantly at month 2 in both groups (P < 0.001). The scores on attention deficit and hyperactivity subscales of the CSI-4 were significantly lower in the case group than the control group (P < 0.05). The total score on CSI-4 decreased more markedly in the case group (P < 0.04). Use of ferrous sulfate plus methylphenidate can be effective in reducing ADHD symptoms in nonanemic children with low serum ferritin.

2019 Journal of advanced pharmaceutical technology & research Controlled trial quality: uncertain

39. Effectiveness of parental training, methylphenidate treatment, and their combination on academic achievements and behavior at school of children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. (Abstract)

Effectiveness of parental training, methylphenidate treatment, and their combination on academic achievements and behavior at school of children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. This study aimed to compare the effectiveness of parental training (PT), methylphenidate treatment (MPH), and the combination of PT and MPH treatment (PT/MPH) on school achievements in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Twenty eight ADHD patients (age: 10.1±1.11 years) were (...) ). Methylphenidate alone is superior to either parental training or parental training/methylphenidate in improving academics and conduct at school.

2019 International clinical psychopharmacology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

40. A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study of HLD200, a Delayed-Release and Extended-Release Methylphenidate, in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: An Evaluation of Safety and Efficacy Throughout the Day and Across Settings. Full Text available with Trip Pro

A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study of HLD200, a Delayed-Release and Extended-Release Methylphenidate, in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: An Evaluation of Safety and Efficacy Throughout the Day and Across Settings. Objectives: HLD200, a once-daily, evening-dosed, delayed-release and extended-release methylphenidate (DR/ER-MPH), was designed to provide therapeutic effect beginning upon awakening and lasting into the evening. This pivotal, randomized (...) , double-blind, multicenter, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial assessed improvements in functional impairment across the day using multiple validated measures tailored for different settings and time of day in children (6-12 years) with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Methods: Following a 6-week, open-label titration of DR/ER-MPH to an optimal dose (20, 40, 60, 80, or 100 mg/day) and dosing time (8:00 PM ±1.5 hours), participants were randomized to treatment-optimized DR/ER-MPH

2019 Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology Controlled trial quality: predicted high

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