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241. Genetic Variations in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Subtypes and Treatment Resistant Cases Full Text available with Trip Pro

Genetic Variations in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Subtypes and Treatment Resistant Cases ObjectiveaaWe evaluated the distribution of alpha-2A adrenergic receptor (ADRA2A) and catechol-o-methyltransferase (COMT) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) among ADHD subtypes and other homogeneous patient populations including treatment-resistant cases and patients with high symptom severity.Methodsaa121 ADHD patients aged 6-18 years were included in the study. Diagnosis and subtypes (...) designation were confirmed using the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (K-SADS) and symptoms were evaluated using the Conners' Parent (CPRS) and Teacher Rating Scales (CTRS). The response to methylphenidate was assessed objectively using the Clinical Global Impression-Severity Scale (CGI-S) and Global Assessment of Functioning Scale (GAS) as well as the Continuous Performance (CPT) and Trail Making tests (TMT-A, B). Patients were genotyped for ADRA2A (rs1800544) and COMT (rs4680

2016 Psychiatry investigation

242. Initiation and Persistence of Pharmacotherapy for Youths with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Taiwan Full Text available with Trip Pro

Initiation and Persistence of Pharmacotherapy for Youths with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Taiwan Pharmacotherapy is an effective therapeutic option for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Understanding the patterns of medication treatment is crucial for clinical practice. This study employed nationwide population-based data to elucidate the initiation and persistence of pharmacotherapy (immediate-release methylphenidate [IR-MPH], osmotic controlled-release (...) formulations of methylphenidate [OROS-MPH] and atomoxetine [ATX]) for youths with ADHD in Taiwan.Patients first receiving an ADHD diagnosis at age 18 or younger between January 2000 and December 2009 (n = 112,140; mean age at ADHD diagnosis: 7.7 years) were selected from Taiwan's National Health Insurance database. All patients were monitored through December 31, 2011, with an average follow-up time of 5.8 years. The initiation of ADHD drug therapy was defined as the first patient prescription

2016 PloS one

243. Treatment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Preschool-Age Children: Child and Adolescent Psychiatrists' Adherence to Clinical Practice Guidelines. (Abstract)

Treatment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Preschool-Age Children: Child and Adolescent Psychiatrists' Adherence to Clinical Practice Guidelines. To compare child and adolescent psychiatrists' (CAPs) practices in the treatment of preschool children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (P-ADHD) with published guidelines, and to determine which clinical factors most influence physicians' decisions to initiate pharmacotherapy for P-ADHD.We developed and mailed the Preschool (...) ADHD Treatment Questionnaire (PATQ) to a randomly selected national sample of ∼2200 CAPs trained in the management of ADHD. The PATQ asked CAPs about their approach to clinical management of children ages 4-5 years with ADHD-specifically, how often they recommend parent training in behavior management, medication as a first- or second-line treatment, and which medication they typically choose first. CAPs also rated the perceived importance of 19 different clinical factors in their decision

2016 Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology

244. Association between medication prescription for atopic diseases and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. (Abstract)

Association between medication prescription for atopic diseases and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Data on the association between atopic diseases and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have been inconclusive.To assess whether children with drug-treated ADHD are more likely to receive treatment for asthma, allergic rhinitis, or eczema before the start of ADHD medication use compared with controls and to examine the effect of parents receiving medication for ADHD (...) and atopic diseases on ADHD medication use in their offspring.We conducted a retrospective nested case-control study among children (6-12 years of age) using the Groningen University prescription database. Cases were defined as children with at least 2 prescriptions of methylphenidate within 12 months. For each case, 4 controls were matched on age, sex, and regional area code. Parental prescription data were linked to cases and controls to assess the influence of parents receiving medication for ADHD

2016 Asthma & Immunology

245. Reinforcement and Stimulant Medication Ameliorate Deficient Response Inhibition in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Reinforcement and Stimulant Medication Ameliorate Deficient Response Inhibition in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. This study examined the degree to which reinforcement, stimulant medication, and their combination impact response inhibition in children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Across three studies, participants with ADHD (n = 111, 25 girls) and typically-developing (TD) controls (n = 33, 6 girls) completed a standard version of the stop (...) signal task (SST) and/or a reinforcement-manipulation SST with performance-contingent points. In two of these studies, these tasks were performed under placebo or 0.3 and 0.6 mg/kg methylphenidate (MPH) conditions. Cross-study comparisons were conducted to test hypotheses regarding the separate and combined effects of reinforcement and methylphenidate on response inhibition among children with ADHD relative to TD controls. Baseline response inhibition was worse among children with ADHD compared

2016 Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology

246. Agomelatine as a Treatment for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Children and Adolescents: A Double-Blind, Randomized Clinical Trial. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Agomelatine as a Treatment for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Children and Adolescents: A Double-Blind, Randomized Clinical Trial. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a chronic neurodevelopmental disorder. Due to lack of response to the medication and significant side effects of the treatment with stimulants, alternative medications should be considered. The aim of this study is to evaluate efficacy of agomelatine in treatment of ADHD.Fifty-four outpatients, children (...) 6-15 years old, with diagnosis of ADHD according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) diagnostic criteria participated in a 6-week, parallel, double-blind, randomized clinical trial. Fifty patients completed 6 weeks of treatment with either ritalin (methylphenidate hydrochloride [MPH]) (20 mg/day in participants below 30 kg and 30 mg/day in patients with weight ≥30 kg) or agomelatine (15 mg/day in patients with weight ≥30 kg and 25

2016 Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

247. Adolescent d-Amphetamine Treatment in a Rodent Model of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Impact on Cocaine Abuse Vulnerability in Adulthood Full Text available with Trip Pro

Adolescent d-Amphetamine Treatment in a Rodent Model of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Impact on Cocaine Abuse Vulnerability in Adulthood Stimulant medications for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adolescents remain controversial with respect to later development of cocaine abuse. Past research demonstrated that adolescent methylphenidate treatment increased several aspects of cocaine self-administration during adulthood using the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR (...) ) model of ADHD. Presently, we determined effects of the alternate stimulant medication, d-amphetamine, on cocaine self-administration.We tested the hypothesis that adolescent d-amphetamine would not increase cocaine self-administration in adult SHR, given that d-amphetamine has a different mechanism of action than methylphenidate.A pharmacologically relevant dose of d-amphetamine (0.5 mg/kg) or vehicle was administered throughout adolescence to SHR and two control strains, Wistar-Kyoto (WKY

2016 Psychopharmacology

248. Dopaminergic modulation of default mode network brain functional connectivity in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder Full Text available with Trip Pro

Dopaminergic modulation of default mode network brain functional connectivity in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder Recent evidence suggests that attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with a range of brain functional connectivity abnormalities, with one of the most prominent being reduced inhibition of the default mode network (DMN) while performing a cognitive task. In this study, we examine the effects of a methylphenidate dose on brain functional connectivity (...) in boys diagnosed with ADHD while they performed a cognitive task.Brain functional connectivity was estimated using steady-state visual evoked potential partial coherence before and 90 min after the administration of a methylphenidate dose to 42 stimulant drug-naïve boys newly diagnosed with ADHD while they performed the A-X version of the continuous performance task (CPT A-X).Methylphenidate robustly reversed the transient functional connectivity increase in the A-X interval seen premedication

2016 Brain and behavior

249. Differences in Utilization Patterns among Medications in Children and Adolescents with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: a 36-Month Retrospective Study Using the Korean Health Insurance Review and Assessment Claims Database Full Text available with Trip Pro

Differences in Utilization Patterns among Medications in Children and Adolescents with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: a 36-Month Retrospective Study Using the Korean Health Insurance Review and Assessment Claims Database We evaluated the differences in utilization patterns including persistence and adherence among medications in children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The current study was performed using data from the Korean Health Insurance (...) Review and Assessment claims database from January 1, 2009 to December 31, 2013. Our study sample consisted of 10,343 children and adolescents with ADHD who were not given their newly prescribed medication in 360 days before the initial claim in 2010. Data were followed up from the initiation of treatment with ADHD medications in 2010 to December 31, 2013. Discontinuation rates for 4 ADHD medications in our sample ranged from 97.7% for immediate-release methylphenidate to 99.4% for atomoxetine using

2016 Journal of Korean medical science

250. Prescribing patterns for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder medications among children and adolescents in Korea, 2007-2011 Full Text available with Trip Pro

Prescribing patterns for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder medications among children and adolescents in Korea, 2007-2011 This study analyzed the prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) medication use among children and adolescents in Korea between January 1, 2007 and December 31, 2011.Using the Korea National Health Insurance claims database, we identified patients between one and 17 years of age who had at least one medical claim for the diagnosis of ADHD (...) (International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision: F90.0). The annual prevalence of ADHD diagnoses was calculated, using national census data from Statistics Korea on the population aged between one and 17 years as the denominator. The prevalence was age-standardized using the 2010 population as the standard population. The number of patients who were treated with methylphenidate and/or atomoxetine and the prevalence of total patients with ADHD that were treated with either drug were also calculated

2016 Epidemiology and health

251. Early Interventions in Children With Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

: No Keywords provided by Guilherme Vanoni Polanczyk, University of Sao Paulo: Parental training Preschool age Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Additional relevant MeSH terms: Layout table for MeSH terms Disease Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity Hyperkinesis Pathologic Processes Attention Deficit and Disruptive Behavior Disorders Neurodevelopmental Disorders Mental Disorders Dyskinesias Neurologic Manifestations Nervous System Diseases Signs and Symptoms Methylphenidate Central (...) to neurobiological measures. Implications: This study proposes an innovative and relevant analysis, which will enable the field to advance the knowledge of biological mechanisms related to ADHD and to treatment response. Also, the study will expand the evidence to guide early prevention strategies and early intervention. Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase Attention Deficit Disorder With Hyperactivity Preschool Child Drug: Methylphenidate Behavioral: Parental training Other: Psychoeducational

2016 Clinical Trials

252. Behavioral Effects of Neurofeedback Compared to Stimulants and Physical Activity in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Behavioral Effects of Neurofeedback Compared to Stimulants and Physical Activity in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Randomized Controlled Trial. The efficacy of neurofeedback as a treatment for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and whether neurofeedback is a viable alternative for stimulant medication, is still an intensely debated subject. The current randomized controlled trial compared neurofeedback to (1) optimally titrated methylphenidate and (2) a semi-active (...) and March 2014.Intention-to-treat analyses revealed an improvement in parent-reported behavior on the SDQ and the SWAN Hyperactivity/Impulsivity scale, irrespective of received intervention (ηp² = 0.21-0.22, P ≤ .001), whereas the SWAN Inattention scale revealed more improvement in children who received methylphenidate than neurofeedback and physical activity (ηp² = 0.13, P ≤ .001). Teachers reported a decrease of ADHD symptoms on all measures for methylphenidate, but not for neurofeedback or physical

2016 Journal of Clinical Psychiatry Controlled trial quality: predicted high

253. Combined Stimulant and Guanfacine Administration in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Controlled, Comparative Study. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Combined Stimulant and Guanfacine Administration in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Controlled, Comparative Study. Because models of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) therapeutics emphasize benefits of both enhanced dopaminergic and noradrenergic signaling, strategies to enhance D1 and α2A agonism may yield enhanced clinical and cognitive responses. This study tested the hypothesis that combined effects of a dopamine and noradrenergic agonist, d-methylphenidate (...) events occurred. Sedation, somnolence, lethargy, and fatigue were greater in both guanfacine groups. All treatments were well tolerated.COMB showed consistent evidence of clinical benefits over monotherapies, possibly reflecting advantages of greater combined dopaminergic and α2A agonism. Adverse events were generally mild to moderate, and COMB treatment showed no differences in safety or tolerability.Single Versus Combination Medication Treatment for Children With Attention Deficit Hyperactivity

2016 Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Controlled trial quality: uncertain

254. Cognitive Effects of Stimulant, Guanfacine, and Combined Treatment in Child and Adolescent Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Cognitive Effects of Stimulant, Guanfacine, and Combined Treatment in Child and Adolescent Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. Psychostimulants are partially effective in reducing cognitive dysfunction associated with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Cognitive effects of guanfacine, an alternative treatment, are poorly understood. Given its distinct action on α2A receptors, guanfacine may have different or complementary effects relative to stimulants. This study tested (...) to the comparison group.Combined treatment with DMPH and GUAN yielded greater improvements in working memory than placebo or GUAN alone, but the combined treatment was not superior to DMPH alone and did not extend to other cognitive domains. Although GUAN may be a useful add-on treatment to psychostimulants, additional strategies appear to be necessary to achieve normalization of cognitive function in ADHD.Single Versus Combination Medication Treatment for Children With Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

2016 Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Controlled trial quality: predicted high

255. Lisdexamfetamine dimesylate - Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

with other long acting agents. Background: Lisdexamfetamine is approved by Health Canada for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children aged six to 12 years. It is a prodrug of dextroamphetamine. Following oral administration, lisdexamfetamine is rapidly absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract and converted to the active form, dextroamphetamine. The recommended starting dose of lisdexamfetamine is 30 mg daily with titration to a maximum of 50 mg daily. It is available (...) Lisdexamfetamine dimesylate - Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder Common Drug Review CEDAC Meeting – November 18, 2009 Page 1 of 5 Notice of CEDAC Final Recommendation – December 18, 2009 © 2009 CADTH CEDAC FINAL RECOMMENDATION LISDEXAMFETAMINE DIMESYLATE (Vyvanse – Shire Canada Inc.) Indication: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Recommendation: The Canadian Expert Drug Advisory Committee (CEDAC) recommends that lisdexamfetamine not be listed. Reason for the Recommendation

2010 Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health - Common Drug Review

256. Treating nicotine dependence by targeting attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with OROS methylphenidate: the role of baseline ADHD severity and treatment response. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Treating nicotine dependence by targeting attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with OROS methylphenidate: the role of baseline ADHD severity and treatment response. To determine whether treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with osmotic-release oral system (OROS) methylphenidate promotes abstinence from smoking among smokers with ADHD who have greater severity of ADHD symptoms at baseline or greater improvement in ADHD during treatment.This is a secondary (...) analysis of data from a randomized, double-blind, 11-week trial conducted between December 2005 and January 2008 at 6 clinical sites; the original trial was sponsored by the National Drug Abuse Clinical Trials Network. Adult cigarette smokers (aged 18-55 years) who met DSM-IV criteria for ADHD were randomly assigned to OROS methylphenidate (72 mg/d) (n = 127) or matching placebo (n = 128). All participants received nicotine patches (21 mg/d) and weekly individual smoking cessation counseling. Logistic

2013 Journal of Clinical Psychiatry Controlled trial quality: uncertain

257. Using the test of variables of attention to determine the effectiveness of modafinil in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): a prospective methylphenidate-controlled trial. (Abstract)

Using the test of variables of attention to determine the effectiveness of modafinil in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): a prospective methylphenidate-controlled trial. The efficacy of modafinil in comparison with methylphenidate in treatment of pediatric attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has not been thoroughly investigated. This study compared the effect of modafinil versus methylphenidate on continuous attention task in children with ADHD, using (...) the Test of Variables of Attention. Twenty-eight participants completed a baseline test followed by administration of a single dose of either methylphenidate or modafinil, after which the test was repeated. The test was performed a third time, after each subject received a dose of the medication not previously administered. Comparison of scores showed mean baseline, postmethylphenidate, and postmodafinil scores of -2.04, 0.017, and 0.09, respectively. No difference was found between improvements

2012 Journal of child neurology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

258. Normal Neurochemistry in the Prefrontal and Cerebellar Brain of Adults with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Normal Neurochemistry in the Prefrontal and Cerebellar Brain of Adults with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder. In an attempt to extend earlier neurochemical findings, we organized a magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) study as part of a large, government-funded, prospective, randomized, multicenter clinical trial comparing the effectiveness of specific psychotherapy with counseling and stimulant (...) of other MRS studies on ADHD and a somewhat skeptical neuropsychiatric research perspective. As in other neuropsychiatric disorders, the unclear nosological status of ADHD might be an explanation for false-negative findings.

2015 Frontiers in behavioral neuroscience Controlled trial quality: uncertain

259. Use of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Token Economy to Alleviate Dysfunctional Behavior in Children with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Full Text available with Trip Pro

Use of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Token Economy to Alleviate Dysfunctional Behavior in Children with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Medication has proved highly efficacious as a means of alleviating general symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, many patients remain functionally impaired by inappropriate behavior. The present study analyzed the use of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) with the Token-Economy (TE) technique to alleviate problem (...) behavior for 25 participants with ADHD, all children (19 boys, mean age 10.11) on long-term methylphenidate medication, who were given 20 CBT sessions with 10 weeks of TE introduced as of session 5. Their ten most acute problem behaviors were selected and written records kept. On weekdays, parents recorded each inappropriate behavior and provided a suitable model for their actions. At weekly sessions, problem behaviors were counted and incident-free participants rewarded with a token. To analyze

2015 Frontiers in Psychiatry

260. Intra-individual reaction time variability based on ex-Gaussian distribution as a potential endophenotype for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. (Abstract)

Intra-individual reaction time variability based on ex-Gaussian distribution as a potential endophenotype for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Intra-individual variability in reaction time (IIV-RT), defined by standard deviation of RT (RTSD), is considered as an endophenotype for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Ex-Gaussian distributions of RT, rather than RTSD, could better characterize moment-to-moment fluctuations in neuropsychological performance. However, data (...) of response variability based on ex-Gaussian parameters as an endophenotypic candidate for ADHD are lacking.We assessed 411 adolescents with clinically diagnosed ADHD based on the DSM-IV-TR criteria as probands, 138 unaffected siblings, and 138 healthy controls. The output parameters, mu, sigma, and tau, of an ex-Gaussian RT distribution were derived from the Conners' continuous performance test. Multi-level models controlling for sex, age, comorbidity, and use of methylphenidate were applied.Compared

2015 Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica

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