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161. Multimodal treatment in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a 6-month follow-up. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Multimodal treatment in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a 6-month follow-up. Different treatment approaches aimed at reducing attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) core symptoms are available. However, factors such as intolerance, side-effects, lack of efficacy, high new technology costs, and placebo effect have spurred on an increasing interest in alternative or complementary treatment.The aim of this study is to explore efficacy of multimodal (...) treatment consisting of standard stimulant medication (methylphenidate) and neurofeedback (NF) in combination, and to compare it with the single treatment in 6-month follow-up in ADHD children and adolescents.This randomized controlled trial with 6-month follow-up comprised three treatment arms: multimodal treatment (NF + MED), MED alone, and NF alone. A total of 130 ADHD children/adolescents participated, and 62% completed the study. ADHD core symptoms were recorded pre-/post-treatment, using parents

2017 Nordic journal of psychiatry Controlled trial quality: uncertain

162. Saikosaponin A Alleviates Symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder through Downregulation of DAT and Enhancing BDNF Expression in Spontaneous Hypertensive Rats. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Saikosaponin A Alleviates Symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder through Downregulation of DAT and Enhancing BDNF Expression in Spontaneous Hypertensive Rats. The disturbed dopamine availability and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression are due in part to be associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In this study, we investigated the therapeutical effect of saikosaponin a (SSa) isolated from Bupleurum Chinese DC, against spontaneously (...) hypertensive rat (SHR) model of ADHD. Methylphenidate and SSa were orally administered for 3 weeks. Activity was assessed by open-field test and Morris water maze test. Dopamine (DA) and BDNF were determined in specific brain regions. The mRNA or protein expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), dopamine transporter (DAT), and vesicles monoamine transporter (VMAT) was also studied. Both MPH and SSa reduced hyperactivity and improved the spatial learning memory deficit in SHRs. An increased DA concentration

2017 Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine (eCAM)

163. Alterations in pain response are partially reversed by methylphenidate (Ritalin) in adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). (Abstract)

Alterations in pain response are partially reversed by methylphenidate (Ritalin) in adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterized by dysregulation of sensory processing and neurobiology of dopamine. Although cumulative evidence suggests that dopamine is involved in pain processing, pain perception in ADHD subjects and the effect of dopamine agonists such as methylphenidate (MP, Ritalin) on it have rarely been (...) studied.The aims of this study were to (1) psychophysically assess sensitivity to pain in ADHD subjects as compared to controls and (2) examine the effects of MP on pain response in ADHD subjects.Thirty subjects with ADHD and 30 age- and gender-matched controls participated in a preliminary trial. Pain threshold, intensity, and tolerance in response to cold pain stimulation were measured for both groups (ADHD with no treatment). In addition, the ADHD group was reassessed following a single dose of MP

2015 Pain Practice

164. Early life stress induces attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-like behavioral and brain metabolic dysfunctions: functional imaging of methylphenidate treatment in a novel rodent model Full Text available with Trip Pro

Early life stress induces attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-like behavioral and brain metabolic dysfunctions: functional imaging of methylphenidate treatment in a novel rodent model In a novel animal model Octodon degus we tested the hypothesis that, in addition to genetic predisposition, early life stress (ELS) contributes to the etiology of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder-like behavioral symptoms and the associated brain functional deficits. Since previous neurochemical (...) , mesolimbic and subcortical brain areas. Finally, the pharmacological intervention provided further evidence that the behavioral and metabolic dysfunctions are due to impaired dopaminergic neurotransmission. Elevating dopamine in ELS animals by methylphenidate normalized locomotor hyperactivity and attention-deficit and ameliorated brain metabolic hypoactivity in a dose-dependent manner.

2016 Brain structure & function

165. Neuropharmacological effect of methylphenidate on attention network in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder during oddball paradigms as assessed using functional near-infrared spectroscopy. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Neuropharmacological effect of methylphenidate on attention network in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder during oddball paradigms as assessed using functional near-infrared spectroscopy. The current study aimed to explore the neural substrate for methylphenidate effects on attentional control in school-aged children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), which can be applied to young children with ADHD more (...) . Thus, right prefrontal activation would serve as an objective neurofunctional biomarker to indicate the effectiveness of methylphenidate on ADHD children in attentional control. fNIRS monitoring enhances early clinical diagnosis and the treatment of ADHD children, especially those with an inattention phenotype.

2015 Neurophotonics Controlled trial quality: uncertain

166. Factors Associated With Adherence to Methylphenidate Treatment in Adult Patients With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Substance Use Disorders. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Factors Associated With Adherence to Methylphenidate Treatment in Adult Patients With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Substance Use Disorders. Adherence to treatment is one of the most consistent factors associated with a favorable addiction treatment outcome. Little is known about factors associated with treatment adherence in individuals affected with comorbid attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and substance use disorders (SUD). This study aimed to explore whether treatment (...) doses were associated with long-term treatment adherence in individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and SUD.

2016 Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology

167. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, methylphenidate use and the risk of developing schizophrenia spectrum disorders: A nationwide population-based study in Taiwan. (Abstract)

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, methylphenidate use and the risk of developing schizophrenia spectrum disorders: A nationwide population-based study in Taiwan. This study estimated the risk of developing psychotic disorders by comparing children with ADHD to non-ADHD controls, and to examine whether methylphenidate (MPH) treatment influences the risks of psychotic disorders. A nationwide cohort of patients who were newly diagnosed with ADHD (n=73,049) and age- and gender-matched (...) controls (n=73,049) were selected from Taiwan's National Health Insurance database from January 2000 to December 2011. All participants were observed until December 31, 2011. Cox regression models were used to estimate the effects of ADHD diagnosis and MPH use on subsequent outcomes. Having a diagnosis of any psychotic disorder and of schizophrenia were set as two different outcomes and were analyzed separately. Compared to the control group, the ADHD group showed significantly increased risk

2015 Schizophrenia Research

168. Comparative efficacy of methylphenidate and atomoxetine in oppositional defiant disorder comorbid with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Comparative efficacy of methylphenidate and atomoxetine in oppositional defiant disorder comorbid with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is frequently comorbid with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and is associated with substantial functional impairments. Methylphenidate and atomoxetine are well-established drugs for the management of ADHD. Some studies from Western countries have reported these drugs to be effective in the management (...) of ODD comorbid with ADHD. This study aimed to assess if methylphenidate and atomoxetine are efficacious in treating Indian children with ODD comorbid with ADHD.In this prospective, open-label study, 37 patients of age 6-14 years with a diagnosis of ODD comorbid with ADHD randomly received either methylphenidate (dose 0.2-1 mg/kg/day) or atomoxetine (dose 0.5-1.2 mg/kg/day) for 8 weeks. Improvements in ADHD and ODD symptoms were assessed using Vanderbilt ADHD diagnostic parent rating scale (VADPRS

2015 International journal of applied & basic medical research Controlled trial quality: uncertain

169. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder | Topics A to Z | CKS | NICE Search CKS… Menu Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder Last revised in May 2018 Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a behavioural syndrome characterized by hyperactivity, impulsivity, and inattention. Diagnosis Management Prescribing information Background information Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: Summary Attention (...) deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a behavioural syndrome characterized by hyperactivity, impulsivity, and inattention. ADHD should be suspected if the core symptoms of hyperactivity, inattention, and/or impulsivity have been present since childhood. These core symptoms are age-inappropriate and result in significant psychological, social, and/or educational functional impairment. When assessing a child with possible ADHD it is important to note that: Symptoms typically appear in children 3–7

2015 NICE Clinical Knowledge Summaries

170. Comparison of therapeutic effects of omega-3 and methylphenidate (ritalin(®)) in treating children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. (Abstract)

Comparison of therapeutic effects of omega-3 and methylphenidate (ritalin(®)) in treating children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a fixed pattern of disregard and hyperactivity that is much more severe than what is normal in children of the same age. Multiple drugs are used for the treatment of children with ADHD; however, their side effects and efficacy are not clearly known. This study was designed to evaluate and compare (...) the therapeutic effects of two drugs, that is, omega-3 and methylphenidate hydrochloride (Ritalin(®)), used to treat patients with ADHD.In a randomized, placebo control clinical trial in Yazd, Iran, 85 ADHD children were divided into two experimental and one control groups. Thus, 29 subjects were treated with Ritalin(®), 28 subjects received omega-3, and the remaining 28 received placebo. The data collection tools used in this study consisted of the Conners' Parent Rating Scale and Teacher Rating Scale

2015 Iranian journal of psychiatry and behavioral sciences Controlled trial quality: uncertain

171. Cost-Effectiveness of Extended-Release Methylphenidate in Children and Adolescents with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Sub-Optimally Treated with Immediate Release Methylphenidate Full Text available with Trip Pro

Cost-Effectiveness of Extended-Release Methylphenidate in Children and Adolescents with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Sub-Optimally Treated with Immediate Release Methylphenidate Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a common psychiatric disorder in children and adolescents. Immediate-release methylphenidate (IR-MPH) is the medical treatment of first choice. The necessity to use several IR-MPH tablets per day and associated potential social stigma at school often leads (...) ) discontinued treatment, and (4) natural remission. ER-MPH options included methylphenidate osmotic release oral system (MPH-OROS) and Equasym XL/Medikinet CR. Both direct costs and indirect costs were included in the analysis, and effects were expressed as quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). Univariate, multivariate as well as probabilistic sensitivity analysis were conducted and the main outcomes were incremental cost-effectiveness ratios.Switching sub-optimally treated patients from IR-MPH to MPH-OROS

2015 PloS one

172. Altered white matter tract property related to impaired focused attention, sustained attention, cognitive impulsivity and vigilance in attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Altered white matter tract property related to impaired focused attention, sustained attention, cognitive impulsivity and vigilance in attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder. The neural substrate for clinical symptoms and neuropsychological performance in individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has rarely been studied and has yielded inconsistent results. We sought to compare the microstructural property of fibre tracts associated with the prefrontal cortex and its (...) with the clinical symptom of inattention in youths with ADHD. Finally, youths with ADHD had differential association patterns of the 10 fibre tract GFA values with attention performance compared with controls.Ten of the youths with ADHD were treated with methylphenidate, which may have long-term effects on microstructural property.Our study highlights the importance of the SLF, cingulum bundle and frontostriatal tracts for clinical symptoms and attention performance in youths with ADHD and demonstrates

2015 Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience

173. Telephone-assisted self-help for parents of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder who have residual functional impairment despite methylphenidate treatment: a randomized controlled trial. (Abstract)

Telephone-assisted self-help for parents of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder who have residual functional impairment despite methylphenidate treatment: a randomized controlled trial. Self-help parenting interventions have been shown to be effective in the management of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and may be useful when there are barriers to face-to-face therapist-led parent trainings. Previous studies indicate that behavioral interventions (...) might be a useful adjunct to medication in children with residual ADHD symptoms, and regarding comorbid oppositional symptoms and multiple domains of functional impairment. In the present study, we examined whether a telephone-assisted self-help (TASH) parenting behavioral intervention (written materials plus telephone counseling) enhanced the effects of methylphenidate treatment in children with ADHD.In this randomized controlled trial, parents of 103 school-aged children with ADHD and residual

2016 Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry Controlled trial quality: uncertain

174. Effect of Aptensio XR (Methylphenidate HCl Extended-Release) Capsules on Sleep in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Effect of Aptensio XR (Methylphenidate HCl Extended-Release) Capsules on Sleep in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. To evaluate measures of sleep (exploratory endpoints) in two pivotal studies of a multilayer bead extended-release methylphenidate (MPH-MLR) treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children.Study 1 evaluated the time course of response to MPH-MLR (n = 26) patients in an analog classroom setting through four phases: screening (≤28 days), open (...) , Parasomnias, and Sleep-disordered Breathing subscales decreased (improved, Study 1) significant only for CSHQ Night Wakings (p < 0.05); in Study 2 CSHQ total and Bedtime Resistance, Sleep Duration, Night Wakings, Parasomnias, and Daytime Sleepiness, and ASHQ total, Bedtime, Sleep Behavior, and Morning Waking all significantly improved (p < 0.05).In both studies, there was minimal negative impact of MPH-MLR on sleep during the brief DB phase and none during the longer duration OL phase. Some measures

2016 Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

175. Atomoxetine could improve intra-individual variability in drug-naïve adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder comparably with methylphenidate: A head-to-head randomized clinical trial. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Atomoxetine could improve intra-individual variability in drug-naïve adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder comparably with methylphenidate: A head-to-head randomized clinical trial. Intra-individual variability in reaction time (IIV-RT) is common in individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). It can be improved by stimulants. However, the effects of atomoxetine on IIV-RT are inconclusive. We aimed to investigate the effects of atomoxetine on IIV-RT (...) , and directly compared its efficacy with methylphenidate in adults with ADHD.An 8-10 week, open-label, head-to-head, randomized clinical trial was conducted in 52 drug-naïve adults with ADHD, who were randomly assigned to two treatment groups: immediate-release methylphenidate (n=26) thrice daily (10-20 mg per dose) and atomoxetine once daily (n=26) (0.5-1.2 mg/kg/day). IIV-RT, derived from the Conners' continuous performance test (CCPT), was represented by the Gaussian (reaction time standard error, RTSE

2016 Journal of psychopharmacology (Oxford, England) Controlled trial quality: uncertain

176. Intrinsic Brain Connectivity Following Long-Term Treatment with Methylphenidate in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. (Abstract)

Intrinsic Brain Connectivity Following Long-Term Treatment with Methylphenidate in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. Although widely used for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) across the life span, the effects of methylphenidate (MPH) on the brain are not completely understood. Functional neuroimaging techniques may help increase knowledge about the mechanisms of MPH action.To evaluate changes in functional connectivity patterns (...) of the default mode network (DMN) in children with ADHD following long-term treatment with MPH.Twenty-three right-handed treatment-naïve boys with ADHD underwent a protocol of intrinsic functional connectivity before and after 6 months of treatment with MPH. Functional connectivity was analyzed using a region of interest (ROI) approach and independent component analysis (ICA).ROI analyses showed no significant changes in connectivity between regions of the DMN following treatment, with a relatively small

2016 Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology

177. Effects of Methylphenidate on Sleep Functioning in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Effects of Methylphenidate on Sleep Functioning in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. To examine the effects of stimulant medication on the sleep functioning of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and identify predictors of sleep problems as a side effect of taking stimulant medication.One hundred sixty-three stimulant-naïve children (72% boys) aged 7 to 11 years diagnosed with ADHD (120 with ADHD predominantly inattentive type, 43 with ADHD (...) combined type) participated in a 4-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of once-daily (long-acting) methylphenidate (MPH). Parents completed weekly side-effect ratings including an item related to sleep problems.Ten percent of patients had parent-rated sleep problems before the initiation of medication. Rates of parent-rated sleep problems during MPH titration generally increased with increasing MPH dose (placebo: 8%; low dose: 18%; medium dose: 15%; high dose: 25%). Differences

2016 Journal of developmental and behavioral pediatrics : JDBP

178. Guanfacine extended release for children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: efficacy following prior methylphenidate treatment. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Guanfacine extended release for children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: efficacy following prior methylphenidate treatment. Guanfacine extended release (GXR) and atomoxetine (ATX) are nonstimulant treatments for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). As nonstimulant treatments are often used after stimulants in ADHD, GXR was assessed relative to prior stimulant treatment in a randomized controlled trial (RCT), in which ATX was included as a reference (...) , were collected at baseline. Change from baseline ADHD-RS-IV score and the proportion of responders were assessed by prior stimulant exposure. Of 163 RCT and 296 RWS participants who had previously received stimulant treatment, 142 and 224, respectively, had received methylphenidate (MPH); due to the low number of participants and the heterogeneity of non-MPH treatments, we only report data for prior MPH treatment. The most frequent reasons for stopping MPH were lack of effectiveness or side effects

2016 Neuropsychiatric disease and treatment Controlled trial quality: uncertain

179. Switch in Therapy from Methylphenidate to Atomoxetine in Children and Adolescents with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: An Analysis of Patient Records. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Switch in Therapy from Methylphenidate to Atomoxetine in Children and Adolescents with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: An Analysis of Patient Records. The purpose of this study was to investigate therapy switching from methylphenidate (MPH) to atomoxetine (ATX) in a clinical sample of Danish children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD); specifically, to determine the duration of MPH treatment before switching to ATX, and the reasons leading to a switch (...) in therapy.We included 55 patients with ADHD who switched from first-line MPH to second-line ATX during January 01, 2012 and May 15, 2014. Patient and treatment characteristics along with clinical reasons for switching therapy were extracted from individual patients' records.Mean duration of MPH treatment until switch to ATX was 11.2 months (range = 0.3-28.5 months); 36% of the patients switched within the first 6 months, 56% within the first year, and 76% within 1.5 years of initiating MPH; 24% continued

2016 Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology

180. Memantine versus Methylphenidate in Children and Adolescents with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Double-Blind, Randomized Clinical Trial. (Abstract)

Memantine versus Methylphenidate in Children and Adolescents with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Double-Blind, Randomized Clinical Trial. The aim of this randomized clinical trial was to assess the efficacy of memantine versus methylphenidate in the treatment of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.Forty participants (34 boys and 6 girls) aged 6-11 who were diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder based on (DSM-IV-TR) criteria were selected (...) memantine was less effective than methylphenidate in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, it may be considered as an alternative treatment.

2016 Iranian journal of psychiatry Controlled trial quality: uncertain

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