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121. The Cochrane Collaboration withdraws a review on methylphenidate for adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder Full Text available with Trip Pro

The Cochrane Collaboration withdraws a review on methylphenidate for adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder A Cochrane systematic review on immediate-release methylphenidate for adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was withdrawn from the Cochrane Library on 26 May 2016 after substantial criticism of its methods and flawed conclusions. Retraction of scientific papers on this basis is unusual but can be necessary. We provide a summary of the criticism that led (...) by trial investigators and participants, outcome reporting bias, poor evaluation of cardiovascular and psychiatric harms and conflicts of interest of trialists and systematic reviewers. The withdrawal of the Cochrane systematic review signals recognition of previous unreliable clinical ADHD research. We conclude that clinical trials of immediate-release methylphenidate in adults with ADHD are of very low quality. We urgently need well-conducted long-term trials free of bias to assess the benefits

2017 Evidence-based medicine

122. Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Acute Comparator Trials of Lisdexamfetamine and Extended-Release Methylphenidate in Adolescents With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Full Text available with Trip Pro

Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Acute Comparator Trials of Lisdexamfetamine and Extended-Release Methylphenidate in Adolescents With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Psychostimulants are considered first-line pharmacotherapy for youth with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but questions remain regarding the comparative efficacy of amphetamine- and methylphenidate-based agents.Our objective was to describe two acute randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled (...) 70 mg/day (n = 219 randomized); OROS-MPH 72 mg/day (n = 220 randomized); placebo (n = 110 randomized)]. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Rating Scale IV (ADHD-RS-IV) total score changes from baseline (primary endpoint) at week 8 (flexible-dose study) or week 6 (forced-dose study) were assessed with mixed-effects models for repeated measures. Secondary endpoints included improvement on the dichotomized Clinical Global Impressions-Improvement scale (CGI-I; key secondary endpoint

2017 CNS drugs Controlled trial quality: predicted high

123. Pharmacogenetics of methylphenidate in childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: long-term effects Full Text available with Trip Pro

Pharmacogenetics of methylphenidate in childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: long-term effects Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder in which a significant proportion of patients do not respond to treatment. The objective of this study was to examine the role of genetic risk variants in the response to treatment with methylphenidate (MPH). The effectiveness of MPH was evaluated based on variations in the CGI-S and CGAS scales over (...) a 12-month treatment period using linear mixed effects models. A total of 208 ADHD patients and 34 polymorphisms were included in the analysis. For both scales, the response was associated with time, extended-release MPH/both formulations, and previous MPH treatment. For the CGI-S scale, response was associated with SLC6A3 rs2550948, DRD4 promoter duplication, SNAP25 rs3746544, and ADGRL3 rs1868790. Interactions between the response over time and SLC6A3 and DRD2 were found in the CGI-S and CGAS

2017 Scientific reports

124. The effect of methylphenidate-OROS® on the narrative ability of children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder Full Text available with Trip Pro

The effect of methylphenidate-OROS® on the narrative ability of children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder Children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) experience difficulty with expressive language, including form (e.g. grammatical construction) and content (e.g. coherence). The current study aimed to investigate the effect of methylphenidate-Osmotic Release Oral System® (MPH-OROS®) on the narrative ability of children with ADHD and language impairment, through (...) and concentration, it does not improve all aspects of language abilities in children with ADHD. Language difficulties associated with ADHD related to language content and use may be more responsive to stimulant medication than language form, which is likely to be affected by cascading effects of inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity beginning very early in life and to progress over a more protracted period. Therefore, a combination of treatments is advocated to ensure that children with ADHD are successful

2017 The South African Journal of Communication Disorders

125. Are psychiatric comorbidities and associated cognitive functions related to treatment response to methylphenidate in boys with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder? Full Text available with Trip Pro

Are psychiatric comorbidities and associated cognitive functions related to treatment response to methylphenidate in boys with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder? Methylphenidate (MPH) has been found to be an effective medication for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, there are neither consistent nor sufficient findings on whether psychiatric comorbidities and associated cognitive functions of ADHD are related to treatment response to MPH in ADHD children.This study (...) investigated whether psychiatric comorbidities, IQ, and neurocognitive deficits are related to treatment response to MPH in ADHD children. In some ways, it is preferable to have a drug that the effectiveness of which to a disorder is not affected by its associated cognitive functions and psychiatric comorbidities. On the other hand, it is likely that the baseline symptom severity of ADHD is associated with the effectiveness of MPH treatment on the symptoms post treatment.A total of 149 Chinese boys (aged 6

2017 Neuropsychiatric disease and treatment

126. Differential therapeutic effects of atomoxetine and methylphenidate in childhood attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder as measured by near-infrared spectroscopy Full Text available with Trip Pro

Differential therapeutic effects of atomoxetine and methylphenidate in childhood attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder as measured by near-infrared spectroscopy The stimulant methylphenidate (MPH) and the nonstimulant atomoxetine (ATX) are the most commonly-prescribed pharmacological treatments for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, the drug-specific mechanism of action on brain function in ADHD patients is not well known. This study examined differences in prefrontal (...) hemodynamic activity between MPH and ATX in children with ADHD as measured by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) using the Stroop color-word task.Thirty children with ADHD participated in the present study. We used 24-channel NIRS (ETG-4000) to measure the relative concentrations of oxyhemoglobin in the frontal lobes of participants in the drug-naïve condition and those who had received MPH (n = 16) or ATX (n = 14) for 12 weeks. Measurements were conducted every 0.1 s during the Stroop color-word task. We

2017 Child and adolescent psychiatry and mental health

127. Long-term effects of stimulant exposure on cerebral blood flow response to methylphenidate and behavior in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder Full Text available with Trip Pro

Long-term effects of stimulant exposure on cerebral blood flow response to methylphenidate and behavior in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder Stimulant prescription rates for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are increasing, even though potential long-term effects on the developing brain have not been well-studied. A previous randomized clinical trial showed short-term age-dependent effects of stimulants on the DA system. We here assessed the long-term modifying effects (...) of age-of-first-stimulant treatment on the human brain and behavior. 81 male adult ADHD patients were stratified into three groups: 1) early stimulant treatment (EST; <16 years of age) 2) late stimulant treatment (LST: ≥23 years of age) and 3) stimulant treatment naive (STN; no history of stimulant treatment). We used pharmacological magnetic resonance imaging (phMRI) to assess the cerebral blood flow (CBF) response to an oral methylphenidate challenge (MPH, 0.5 mg/kg), as an indirect measure

2017 Brain imaging and behavior

128. Single-Dose Pharmacokinetics of HLD200, a Delayed-Release and Extended-Release Methylphenidate Formulation, in Healthy Adults and in Adolescents and Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Single-Dose Pharmacokinetics of HLD200, a Delayed-Release and Extended-Release Methylphenidate Formulation, in Healthy Adults and in Adolescents and Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. Current extended-release (ER) formulations of psychostimulants used for treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) provide an extended duration of ADHD symptom control; however, the onset of efficacy can be protracted and variable, leaving the early morning untreated (...) . The primary objective was to characterize the single-dose pharmacokinetics and tolerability of HLD200, an evening-dosed, delayed-release (DR) and ER formulation of methylphenidate (MPH), in healthy adults and in adolescents and children with ADHD.The pharmacokinetics and tolerability of a single, oral evening dose of HLD200 (54 mg) were evaluated in two single-center open-label studies: the first in healthy adults (n = 12) and the second in adolescents (n = 18) and children (n = 11) with ADHD. Primary

2017 Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

129. The Effect of Methylphenidate on the Hearing of Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Full Text available with Trip Pro

The Effect of Methylphenidate on the Hearing of Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Introduction  There has been a sudden idiopathic hearing loss case presented after methylphenidate treatment in a child with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Objective  This study was performed to reveal the probable ototoxic side effects of methylphenidate use in patients with ADHD. Methods  Thirty pediatric patients with ADHD were included in the study. Pure tone audiometry (...) , speech discrimination scores, waves I, III, V absolute latencies and waves I-III, I-V, III-V interpeak latencies at the 80 dB nHL intensity after click stimulus auditory brainstem response (ABR) results were compared before and 3 months after methylphenidate treatment. Results  There were no statistically significant difference between pretreatment and posttreatment pure tone and speech audiometry findings and ABR results (p > 0.05 for all parameters). Conclusion  Methylphenidate can be regarded

2017 International archives of otorhinolaryngology

130. Pharmacological treatment for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in children with comorbid tic disorders. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Pharmacological treatment for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in children with comorbid tic disorders. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is the most prevalent of the comorbid psychiatric disorders that complicate tic disorders. Medications commonly used to treat ADHD symptoms include the stimulants methylphenidate and amphetamine; nonstimulants, such as atomoxetine; tricyclic antidepressants; and alpha agonists. Due to the impact of ADHD symptoms on the child (...) , clonidine, and the combination of methylphenidate and clonidine. Fear of worsening tics limited dose increases of methylphenidate in one study. High dose dextroamphetamine appeared to worsen tics in one study, although the length of this study was limited.Methylphenidate, clonidine, guanfacine, desipramine and atomoxetine appear to reduce ADHD symptoms in children with tics. Although stimulants have not been shown to worsen tics in most people with tic disorders, they may nonetheless exacerbate tics

2011 Cochrane

131. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Prediction of Treatment Response

a U.S. FDA-regulated Device Product: No Product Manufactured in and Exported from the U.S.: Yes Keywords provided by Joseph Biederman, MD, Massachusetts General Hospital: ADHD Methylphenidate Amphetamine Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Treatment Additional relevant MeSH terms: Layout table for MeSH terms Disease Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity Hyperkinesis Pathologic Processes Attention Deficit and Disruptive Behavior Disorders Neurodevelopmental Disorders Mental Disorders (...) and females, ages 18-55, will be randomized to receive either an amphetamine or a methylphenidate formulation for their ADHD. Before beginning to receive medication treatment, each subject will complete an MRI scan at MIT. Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Drug: Methylphenidate LA (Ritalin) Drug: Mixed Amphetamine Salts XR (Adderall) Phase 4 Study Design Go to Layout table for study information Study Type : Interventional (Clinical Trial) Estimated

2017 Clinical Trials

132. A Study to Evaluate the Efficacy and Safety of Dasotraline in Children 6 to 12 Years Old With Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in a Simulated Classroom Setting.

Device Product: No Keywords provided by Sunovion: Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Additional relevant MeSH terms: Layout table for MeSH terms Disease Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity Hyperkinesis Pathologic Processes Attention Deficit and Disruptive Behavior Disorders Neurodevelopmental Disorders Mental Disorders Dyskinesias Neurologic Manifestations Nervous System Diseases Signs and Symptoms (...) A Study to Evaluate the Efficacy and Safety of Dasotraline in Children 6 to 12 Years Old With Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in a Simulated Classroom Setting. A Study to Evaluate the Efficacy and Safety of Dasotraline in Children 6 to 12 Years Old With Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in a Simulated Classroom Setting. - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information

2017 Clinical Trials

133. Effect of Pycnogenol® on attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Effect of Pycnogenol® on attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial. Methylphenidate (MPH), the first choice medication for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), is associated with serious adverse effects like arrhythmia. Evidence on the association of ADHD with immune and oxidant-antioxidant imbalances offers potential for antioxidant and/or immunomodulatory nutritional supplements as ADHD therapy. One small randomised trial (...) in ADHD suggests, despite various limitations, therapeutic benefit from Pycnogenol®, a herbal, polyphenol-rich extract.This phase III trial is a 10-week, randomised, double-blind, placebo and active treatment controlled multicentre trial with three parallel treatment arms to compare the effect of Pycnogenol® to MPH and placebo on the behaviour of 144 paediatric ADHD and attention-deficit disorder (ADD) patients. Evaluations of behaviour (measured by the ADHD-Rating Scale (primary endpoint

2017 Trials Controlled trial quality: predicted high

134. Pupil Size Tracks Attentional Performance In Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Full Text available with Trip Pro

Pupil Size Tracks Attentional Performance In Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) diagnosis is based on reported symptoms, which carries the potential risk of over- or under-diagnosis. A biological marker that helps to objectively define the disorder, providing information about its pathophysiology, is needed. A promising marker of cognitive states in humans is pupil size, which reflects the activity of an 'arousal' network, related (...) to the norepinephrine system. We monitored pupil size from ADHD and control subjects, during a visuo-spatial working memory task. A sub group of ADHD children performed the task twice, with and without methylphenidate, a norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitor. Off-medication patients showed a decreased pupil diameter during the task. This difference was no longer present when patients were on-medication. Pupil size correlated with the subjects' performance and reaction time variability, two vastly studied

2017 Scientific reports

135. An Investigation of Stimulant Effects on the EEG of Children With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. Full Text available with Trip Pro

An Investigation of Stimulant Effects on the EEG of Children With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. Stimulant medications are the most commonly prescribed treatment for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (AD/HD). These medications result in a normalization of the EEG. However, past research has found that complete normalization of the EEG is not always achieved. One reason for this may be that studies have used different medications interchangeably, or groups of subjects (...) on different stimulants. This study investigated whether methylphenidate and dexamphetamine produce different levels of normalization of the EEG in children with AD/HD. Three groups of 20 boys participated in this study. There were 2 groups with a diagnosis of AD/HD; one group, good responders to methylphenidate, and the second, good responders to dexamphetamine. The third group was a normal control group. Baseline EEGs were recorded using an eyes-closed resting condition, and analyzed for total power

2018 Clinical EEG and Neuroscience Controlled trial quality: uncertain

136. Effects of Mindful Parenting Training on Clinical Symptoms in Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Parenting Stress: Randomized Controlled Trial. (Abstract)

Effects of Mindful Parenting Training on Clinical Symptoms in Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Parenting Stress: Randomized Controlled Trial. Children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at risk of impairment in multiple domains. This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of mindful parenting training in reducing clinical symptoms in children with ADHD and parenting stress of their parents.This randomized clinical trial was conducted on 2 (...) groups (experimental and control) in 3 phases (pretest, posttest, and 8 weeks' follow-up). Sixty children with ADHD, who had been referred by the child psychiatrist in the Iranian city of Kashan in the second half of the year 2016, were selected along with their mothers. The mothers were assigned to one of the 2 groups via permuted blocked randomization. The mothers completed the parenting stress index-short form (PSI-SF 36) and the Swanson, Nolan, and Pelham Parent and Teacher rating scale (SNAP-IV

2018 Iranian journal of medical sciences Controlled trial quality: uncertain

137. Effect of vitamin D treatment in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. (Abstract)

Effect of vitamin D treatment in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. In this research the symptom improvement of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) of children was assessed by oral vitamin D administration in Tabriz, Iran.In this double-blind, randomized clinical trials, 96 children (2-18 years) were enrolled to placebo and vitamin D groups. Children took vitamin D pearl (50,000 IU/week) or placebo for 6 weeks. Children, who had the change in methylphenidate (...) dosage and received any anticonvulsants and corticosteroids were excluded from the research. ADHD symptoms were diagnosed by Conners parent rating scale (CPRS) test at baseline and after intervention. ADHD Conners divided into inattention (IA), hyperactivity/impulsivity (H/I) and combination type (C) subscales. Vitamin D serum level was assessed at baseline and after 8 weeks in both groups.The differences between CPRS and its subscales were not significant at baseline (P > 0.05). The Conners IA score

2018 World journal of pediatrics : WJP Controlled trial quality: uncertain

138. Effectiveness of neurofeedback versus medication for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. (Abstract)

Effectiveness of neurofeedback versus medication for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Neurofeedback (NF) is an operant conditioning procedure that trains participants to self-regulate brain activity. NF is a promising treatment for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but there have been only a few randomized controlled trials comparing the effectiveness of NF with medication with various NF protocols. The aim of this study was therefore to evaluate the effectiveness (...) of unipolar electrode NF using theta/beta protocol compared with methylphenidate (MPH) for ADHD.Children with newly diagnosed ADHD were randomly organized into NF and MPH groups. The NF group received 30 sessions of NF. Children in the MPH group were prescribed MPH for 12 weeks. Vanderbilt ADHD rating scales were completed by parents and teachers to evaluate ADHD symptoms before and after treatment. Student's t-test and Cohen's d were used to compare symptoms between groups and evaluate the effect size

2018 Pediatrics international : official journal of the Japan Pediatric Society Controlled trial quality: uncertain

139. New stimulant formulations for pediatric attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a case-based approach for the primary care provider. (Abstract)

New stimulant formulations for pediatric attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a case-based approach for the primary care provider. To provide an up-to-date clinical review of U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved stimulant medications for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), including a framework for individualized treatment by primary care pediatric providers.Stimulant medications are first-line agents for pediatric ADHD. Since 2012, 11 novel stimulant medications (...) have been approved by the FDA for the treatment of ADHD. Because of an expanded formulary of available methylphenidate-based and amphetamine-based stimulants, primary care providers may be unfamiliar with some novel medications outside a select formulary.The current broad formulary of methylphenidate-based and amphetamine-based stimulants provides primary care clinicians with a greater opportunity for personalized medicine within the patient-centered medical home. Through a systematic review

2018 Current Opinion in Pediatrics

140. l-Carnosine as Adjunctive Therapy in Children and Adolescents with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial. Full Text available with Trip Pro

l-Carnosine as Adjunctive Therapy in Children and Adolescents with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial. This study aimed to investigate the efficacy and tolerability of l-carnosine as an add-on to methylphenidate in management of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).This was an 8-week, randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled study. Fifty-six drug-free children and adolescents aged 6-17 years old (...) with a diagnosis of ADHD entered the study. The patients were randomly assigned to l-carnosine (800 mg/d in two divided doses) or placebo plus methylphenidate (0.5-1.5 mg/kg/d) for 8 weeks. Children were assessed using the Teacher and Parent ADHD Rating Scale-IV (ADHD-RS-IV) at baseline and at weeks 4 and 8 postbaseline.Fifty patients completed the study, and all had two postbaseline measurements. Using the general linear model repeated measures, significant effect was observed for time × treatment interaction

2018 Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

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