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121. New stimulant formulations for pediatric attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a case-based approach for the primary care provider. (Abstract)

New stimulant formulations for pediatric attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a case-based approach for the primary care provider. To provide an up-to-date clinical review of U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved stimulant medications for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), including a framework for individualized treatment by primary care pediatric providers.Stimulant medications are first-line agents for pediatric ADHD. Since 2012, 11 novel stimulant medications (...) have been approved by the FDA for the treatment of ADHD. Because of an expanded formulary of available methylphenidate-based and amphetamine-based stimulants, primary care providers may be unfamiliar with some novel medications outside a select formulary.The current broad formulary of methylphenidate-based and amphetamine-based stimulants provides primary care clinicians with a greater opportunity for personalized medicine within the patient-centered medical home. Through a systematic review

2018 Current Opinion in Pediatrics

122. Comparison of the effect of pharmacotherapy and neuro-feedback therapy on oral health of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder Full Text available with Trip Pro

Comparison of the effect of pharmacotherapy and neuro-feedback therapy on oral health of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a chronic and progressive mental disorder related to the childhood period. This study aims to compare the oral health of two groups of ADHD children: those under pharmacotherapy and those under neuro-feedback therapy.72 ADHD children (aged 6-12) were divided into two 36 member groups (...) ± 3.1 vs. 3.94 ± 1.9; p=0.018) and DMFT scores (39% ± 9% vs. 31% ± 9%; p=0.018) were significantly higher for the pharmacotherapy group.Neuro-feedback therapy is preferable to Ritalin treatment for ADHD children in terms of their oral health status. Key words:Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, drug therapy, neurofeedback, oral health.

2018 Journal of clinical and experimental dentistry

123. Treatment patterns, health care resource utilization, and costs in Japanese adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder treated with atomoxetine Full Text available with Trip Pro

Treatment patterns, health care resource utilization, and costs in Japanese adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder treated with atomoxetine To describe the characteristics and medication treatment patterns of adult patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) prescribed atomoxetine in Japan.A retrospective analysis of insurance claims data was conducted using the Japan Medical Data Center database. Adults (≥18 years) with ADHD who had ≥1 atomoxetine claim from (...) psychotropics concomitantly with atomoxetine. Overall, 40.0% of adults discontinued atomoxetine during the entire follow-up period and 65.9% were persistent with atomoxetine therapy at 3 months post-index date. Mean (SD) atomoxetine medication possession ratio was 0.57 (0.25), and 25.4% switched to an alternative ADHD therapy; methylphenidate (22.4%) and non-ADHD-specific psychotropics (77.6%) were the most common medication alternatives. Nearly 8% augmented atomoxetine with methylphenidates, non-stimulants

2018 Neuropsychiatric disease and treatment

124. Exploring longitudinal course and treatment-baseline severity interactions in secondary outcomes of smoking cessation treatment in individuals with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder Full Text available with Trip Pro

Exploring longitudinal course and treatment-baseline severity interactions in secondary outcomes of smoking cessation treatment in individuals with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder A double blind, placebo-controlled randomized trial (NCT00253747) evaluating osmotic-release oral system methylphenidate (OROS-MPH) for smoking-cessation revealed a significant interaction effect in which participants with higher baseline ADHD severity had better abstinence outcomes with OROS-MPH while (...) participants with lower baseline ADHD severity had worse outcomes.This current report examines secondary outcomes that might bear on the mechanism for this differential treatment effect.Longitudinal analyses were conducted to evaluate the effect of OROS-MPH on three secondary outcomes (ADHD symptom severity, nicotine craving, and withdrawal) in the total sample (N = 255, 56% Male), and in the high (N = 134) and low (N = 121) baseline ADHD severity groups.OROS-MPH significantly improved ADHD symptoms

2018 The American journal of drug and alcohol abuse Controlled trial quality: uncertain

125. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Medication Prescription Claims Among Privately Insured Women Aged 15–44 Years — United States, 2003–2015 Full Text available with Trip Pro

Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Medication Prescription Claims Among Privately Insured Women Aged 15–44 Years — United States, 2003–2015 Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that affects individuals across the lifespan. ADHD medication use among pregnant women is increasing (1), but consensus about the safety of ADHD medication use during pregnancy is lacking. Given that nearly half of U.S. pregnancies are unintended (2), and early (...) ADHD medication prescription increased 344% from 2003 (0.9% of women) to 2015 (4.0% of women). In 2015, the most frequently filled medications were mixed amphetamine salts, lisdexamfetamine, and methylphenidate. Prescribing ADHD medications to reproductive-aged women is increasingly common; additional research on ADHD medication safety during pregnancy is warranted to inform women and their health care providers about any potential risks associated with ADHD medication exposure before and during

2018 Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report

126. Delay Aversion and Executive Functioning in Adults With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Before and After Stimulant Treatment Full Text available with Trip Pro

Delay Aversion and Executive Functioning in Adults With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Before and After Stimulant Treatment Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is a heterogeneous disorder, associated with deficits in motivation (e.g., delay aversion) and cognition. Methylphenidate is recommended as a first line treatment for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms, but little is known about its nonacute effects on motivational and cognitive deficits, particularly (...) in adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.We utilized a prospective, non-randomized, non-blinded, 6-week follow-up design with 42 initially stimulant medication-naïve adult patients with moderate to severe attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and 42 age- and parental education-matched healthy controls. Delay aversion and executive functioning were assessed with 2 questionnaires and 5 performance-based tests.At baseline, patients and controls differed significantly on performance-based

2018 International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology

127. Increased risk of diseases of the basal ganglia and cerebellum in patients with a history of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Increased risk of diseases of the basal ganglia and cerebellum in patients with a history of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is marked by an ongoing pattern of inattention and/or hyperactivity and involves dysregulated dopaminergic pathways. Dopaminergic agents (i.e., amphetamine and methylphenidate) are thus prescribed to treat ADHD. As little is known regarding long-term consequences of either ADHD or its treatment, the objective (...) % CI: 4.8-15.6; P < 0001). The association of ADHD patients prescribed psychostimulants with higher risk of diseases of the basal ganglia and cerebellum may reflect a more severe ADHD phenotype rather than a direct association between prescribed stimulant use and basal ganglia or cerebellum disorders. Future studies to assess and stratify patient risk so as to inform treatment are warranted.

2018 Neuropsychopharmacology

128. Incidence of Heart Failure and Cardiomyopathy Following Initiation of Medications for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Descriptive Study. (Abstract)

Incidence of Heart Failure and Cardiomyopathy Following Initiation of Medications for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Descriptive Study. Stimulant abuse is associated with cardiomyopathy, but cardiomyopathy rates with therapeutic use of stimulants for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are poorly characterized. Labels for methylphenidate, amphetamine, and atomoxetine caution against use in patients with cardiovascular disease. We sought to assess the incidence of new (...) -onset heart failure or cardiomyopathy among initiators of these medications.Using the Sentinel distributed database, we analyzed new-onset heart failure or cardiomyopathy among initiators of selected ADHD medications (amphetamine products including lisdexamfetamine, methylphenidate, and atomoxetine), by duration of use (0-90, 91-180, 181-270, 271-365, 366-730, and 731-1095 days) and age group (<22, 22-44, 45-64, and ≥65 years).In our sample of 2,012,948 initiators of ADHD medications, 44.6% were

2018 Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology

129. Long-Term Tolerability and Safety of Pharmacological Treatment of Adult Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A 6-Year Prospective Naturalistic Study. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Long-Term Tolerability and Safety of Pharmacological Treatment of Adult Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A 6-Year Prospective Naturalistic Study. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a behavioral disorder typically treated with stimulants and atomoxetine. Data on long-term tolerability and safety of such pharmacological treatment in subjects diagnosed in adulthood are limited.A cohort of adults diagnosed with ADHD according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental (...) Disorders, Fourth Edition, criteria was followed-up on an average of 6 years after first evaluation. Of 168 adults, 112 (67%) who initiated medication were available for follow-up. Data were obtained from patient record data, self-report forms, and a telephone interview.Of the 112 participants assessed, 57 (51%) were still on treatment with methylphenidate (MPH) at follow-up and 55 (49%) had discontinued. The 3 leading reasons for discontinuing treatment with MPH were lack of effect (29%), elevated mood

2018 Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology

130. Psychostimulants: Influence on Body Mass Index and Height in a Pediatric Population with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder? Full Text available with Trip Pro

Psychostimulants: Influence on Body Mass Index and Height in a Pediatric Population with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder? Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is often treated with psychostimulants. Psychostimulants' adverse effects on body mass index standard deviation score (BMI-sds) and height in children/adolescents with ADHD have been reported. However, literature is inconsistent, and it is unclear whether the observed effects are dosage- and/or BMI-dependent. Therefore (...) , the aim of this retrospective observational study is to evaluate the influence of psychostimulants on BMI-sds and height-sds in a pediatric cohort with ADHD from an outpatient clinic, and to study the correlation between psychostimulant dosage and BMI-sds and height-sds change.Participants ≤18 years of age diagnosed with ADHD who started with psychostimulants (methylphenidate) were studied. Changes in BMI-sds and height-sds over an 18-month treatment period were assessed in subgroups according

2018 Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology

131. A Trial to Evaluate the Efficacy, Safety, and Tolerability of Centanafadine Sustained-release Tablets in Adults With Attention-deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

by Otsuka Pharmaceutical Development & Commercialization, Inc.: Centanafadine ADD ADHD Additional relevant MeSH terms: Layout table for MeSH terms Disease Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity Hyperkinesis Pathologic Processes Attention Deficit and Disruptive Behavior Disorders Neurodevelopmental Disorders Mental Disorders Dyskinesias Neurologic Manifestations Nervous System Diseases Signs and Symptoms (...) the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of centanafadine sustained-release tablets in adults with ADHD. Patients will either receive a twice-daily dose of centanafadine sustained-release tablets, or twice-daily placebo. Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase Attention Deficit Disorder Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Drug: Centanafadine SR Other: Placebo Phase 3 Detailed Description: Screening & Washout Period: up to 28 days Investigational Treatment Period: 49 days Follow-up Period : 7

2018 Clinical Trials

132. A Trial Evaluating the Efficacy, Safety, & Tolerability of Centanafadine Sustained-release Tablets in Adults With Attention-deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

-regulated Device Product: No Keywords provided by Otsuka Pharmaceutical Development & Commercialization, Inc.: Centanafadine ADHD ADD Additional relevant MeSH terms: Layout table for MeSH terms Disease Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity Hyperkinesis Pathologic Processes Attention Deficit and Disruptive Behavior Disorders Neurodevelopmental Disorders Mental Disorders Dyskinesias Neurologic Manifestations Nervous System Diseases Signs and Symptoms (...) , safety, and tolerability of centanafadine sustained-release tablets in adults with ADHD. Patients will either receive a twice-daily dose of centanafadine sustained-release tablets, or twice-daily placebo. Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase Attention Deficit Disorder Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Drug: Centanafadine SR Other: Placebo Phase 3 Detailed Description: Screening & Washout Period: up to 28 days Investigational Treatment Period: 49 days Follow-up Period : 7 days

2018 Clinical Trials

133. l-Carnosine as Adjunctive Therapy in Children and Adolescents with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial. Full Text available with Trip Pro

l-Carnosine as Adjunctive Therapy in Children and Adolescents with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial. This study aimed to investigate the efficacy and tolerability of l-carnosine as an add-on to methylphenidate in management of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).This was an 8-week, randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled study. Fifty-six drug-free children and adolescents aged 6-17 years old (...) with a diagnosis of ADHD entered the study. The patients were randomly assigned to l-carnosine (800 mg/d in two divided doses) or placebo plus methylphenidate (0.5-1.5 mg/kg/d) for 8 weeks. Children were assessed using the Teacher and Parent ADHD Rating Scale-IV (ADHD-RS-IV) at baseline and at weeks 4 and 8 postbaseline.Fifty patients completed the study, and all had two postbaseline measurements. Using the general linear model repeated measures, significant effect was observed for time × treatment interaction

2018 Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

134. Adverse Gestational Outcomes Associated With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Medication Exposure During Pregnancy. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Adverse Gestational Outcomes Associated With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Medication Exposure During Pregnancy. The use of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) medications during pregnancy has increased in recent years. An earlier article in this column examined whether psychostimulant medications, used to treated ADHD and related disorders, increase the risk of major congenital malformations in pregnancies with first trimester exposure to these drugs. This article (...) examines whether amphetamines, methylphenidate, and atomoxetine exposure during early and late pregnancy are associated with other adverse gestational outcomes. One large and 4 small studies provided data relevant to the inquiry. In unadjusted analyses, amphetamines and methylphenidate were associated with an increased risk of most of the adverse outcomes under study. However, in analyses adjusted for potential confounds, amphetamine exposure during early pregnancy was associated only with an increased

2018 Journal of Clinical Psychiatry

135. ACUTE EFFECT OF PHYSICAL EXERCISE ON THE IMPULSIVITY AND STATE OF ANXIETY, IN 6-12 YEARS SCHOOLCHILDREN WITH ATTENTION DEFICIT AND HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER: SYSTEMATIC REVIEW Full Text available with Trip Pro

., Coghill, D., & Hechtman, L. (2012). Amfetamine and methylphenidate medications for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: complementary treatment options. European child & adolescent psychiatry, 21(9), 477–492. doi: 10.1007/s00787-012-0286-5 Hung, C. L., Huang, C. J., Tsai, Y. J., Chang, Y. K., & Hung, T. M. (2016). Neuroelectric and behavioral effects of acute exercise on task switching in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Frontiers in psychology, 7, 1589. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg (...) hyperactivity disorder. Archives Clinical Neuropsychol, 27(2), 225–237. doi: 10.1093/arclin/acr094 Chronis, A. M., Fabiano, G. A., Gnagy, E. M., Onyango, A. N., Pelham, W. E., Lopez-Williams, A., … Seymour, K. E. (2004). An evaluation of the summer treatment program for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder using a treatment withdrawal design. Behavior Therapy, 35(3), 561–585. doi: 10.1016/S0005-7894(04)80032-7 Cornelius, C., Fedewa, A. L., & Ahn, S. (2017). The Effect of Physical Activity

2017 MLS Educational Research

136. Pharmacological treatment for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in children with comorbid tic disorders. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Pharmacological treatment for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in children with comorbid tic disorders. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is the most prevalent of the comorbid psychiatric disorders that complicate tic disorders. Medications commonly used to treat ADHD symptoms include the stimulants methylphenidate and amphetamine; nonstimulants, such as atomoxetine; tricyclic antidepressants; and alpha agonists. Due to the impact of ADHD symptoms on the child (...) , clonidine, and the combination of methylphenidate and clonidine. Fear of worsening tics limited dose increases of methylphenidate in one study. High dose dextroamphetamine appeared to worsen tics in one study, although the length of this study was limited.Methylphenidate, clonidine, guanfacine, desipramine and atomoxetine appear to reduce ADHD symptoms in children with tics. Although stimulants have not been shown to worsen tics in most people with tic disorders, they may nonetheless exacerbate tics

2011 Cochrane

137. [Efficacy of atomoxetine and methylphenidate in attention deficits hyperactivity disorder in adults: a rapid review]

these two medications for adult ADHD is considered appropriate. Final publication URL Indexing Status Subject indexing assigned by CRD MeSH Adrenergic Uptake Inhibitors; Adult; Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivitys; Methylphenidate; Propylamines Language Published Korean Country of organisation South Korea English summary An English language summary is available. Address for correspondence National Evidence-based Healthcare Collaborating Agency (NECA), Changkyung B/D 9F, Wonnam-dong 28-7 (...) [Efficacy of atomoxetine and methylphenidate in attention deficits hyperactivity disorder in adults: a rapid review] [Efficacy of atomoxetine and methylphenidate in attention deficits hyperactivity disorder in adults: a rapid review] [Efficacy of atomoxetine and methylphenidate in attention deficits hyperactivity disorder in adults: a rapid review] Jang BH, Lee HY, Jung YJ, An JH Record Status This is a bibliographic record of a published health technology assessment from a member of INAHTA

2012 Health Technology Assessment (HTA) Database.

138. Early life stress induces attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-like behavioral and brain metabolic dysfunctions: functional imaging of methylphenidate treatment in a novel rodent model Full Text available with Trip Pro

Early life stress induces attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-like behavioral and brain metabolic dysfunctions: functional imaging of methylphenidate treatment in a novel rodent model In a novel animal model Octodon degus we tested the hypothesis that, in addition to genetic predisposition, early life stress (ELS) contributes to the etiology of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder-like behavioral symptoms and the associated brain functional deficits. Since previous neurochemical (...) , mesolimbic and subcortical brain areas. Finally, the pharmacological intervention provided further evidence that the behavioral and metabolic dysfunctions are due to impaired dopaminergic neurotransmission. Elevating dopamine in ELS animals by methylphenidate normalized locomotor hyperactivity and attention-deficit and ameliorated brain metabolic hypoactivity in a dose-dependent manner.

2016 Brain structure & function

139. Effect of Methylphenidate on Emotional Dysregulation in Children With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder + Oppositional Defiant Disorder/Conduct Disorder. (Abstract)

Effect of Methylphenidate on Emotional Dysregulation in Children With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder + Oppositional Defiant Disorder/Conduct Disorder. Emotional dysregulation (ED) is a frequent feature of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). It can be observed as a dysregulation profile or a deficient emotional self-regulation (DESR) profile. Oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder (ODD/CD) comorbidity is prevalent in ADHD and known to be related with ED. The first (...) of ADHD and ED were significantly improved with 1-year of MPH treatment (P < 0.05). The improvement in ED was independent of improvement in ADHD symptoms and parent training (P < 0.05).Emotional dysregulation is highly prevalent in disruptive behavioral disorders as ODD and CD, which are comorbid with ADHD. The MPH treatment is effective on ED independently from other clinical determinants.

2017 Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology

140. Treatment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Adolescents: A Systematic Review. (Abstract)

Treatment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Adolescents: A Systematic Review. Although attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is highly prevalent in adolescents and often persists into adulthood, most studies about treatment were performed in children. Less is known about ADHD treatment in adolescents.To review the evidence for pharmacological and psychosocial treatment of ADHD in adolescents.The databases of CINAHL Plus, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, ERIC, and the Cochrane Database (...) . Psychosocial treatments were associated with more robust (Cohen d range, 0.51-5.15) improvements in academic and organizational skills, such as homework completion and planner use.Evidence supports the use of extended-release methylphenidate and amphetamine formulations, atomoxetine, and extended-release guanfacine to improve symptoms of ADHD in adolescents. Psychosocial treatments incorporating behavior contingency management, motivational enhancement, and academic, organizational, and social skills

2016 JAMA

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