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241. Increase or Decrease of fMRI Activity in Adult Attention Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder: Does It Depend on Task Difficulty? Full Text available with Trip Pro

, the patient group showed enhanced BOLD responses in dorsal and ventral areas before treatment. This increase was correlated with performance across all participants and with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms in the patient group. Furthermore, we found an effect of treatment in the right superior frontal gyrus, with methylphenidate-treated patients exhibiting increased activation, which was absent in the placebo-treated patients.Our results indicate distinct activation differences between (...) untreated adult attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder patients and matched healthy controls during a working memory task. These differences might reflect compensatory efforts by the patients, who are performing at the same level as the healthy controls. We furthermore found a positive effect of methylphenidate on the activation of a frontal region of interest. These observations contribute to a more thorough understanding of adult attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and provide impulses

2016 The International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

242. Adolescent d-Amphetamine Treatment in a Rodent Model of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Impact on Cocaine Abuse Vulnerability in Adulthood Full Text available with Trip Pro

Adolescent d-Amphetamine Treatment in a Rodent Model of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Impact on Cocaine Abuse Vulnerability in Adulthood Stimulant medications for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adolescents remain controversial with respect to later development of cocaine abuse. Past research demonstrated that adolescent methylphenidate treatment increased several aspects of cocaine self-administration during adulthood using the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR (...) ) model of ADHD. Presently, we determined effects of the alternate stimulant medication, d-amphetamine, on cocaine self-administration.We tested the hypothesis that adolescent d-amphetamine would not increase cocaine self-administration in adult SHR, given that d-amphetamine has a different mechanism of action than methylphenidate.A pharmacologically relevant dose of d-amphetamine (0.5 mg/kg) or vehicle was administered throughout adolescence to SHR and two control strains, Wistar-Kyoto (WKY

2016 Psychopharmacology

243. Dopaminergic modulation of default mode network brain functional connectivity in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder Full Text available with Trip Pro

Dopaminergic modulation of default mode network brain functional connectivity in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder Recent evidence suggests that attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with a range of brain functional connectivity abnormalities, with one of the most prominent being reduced inhibition of the default mode network (DMN) while performing a cognitive task. In this study, we examine the effects of a methylphenidate dose on brain functional connectivity (...) in boys diagnosed with ADHD while they performed a cognitive task.Brain functional connectivity was estimated using steady-state visual evoked potential partial coherence before and 90 min after the administration of a methylphenidate dose to 42 stimulant drug-naïve boys newly diagnosed with ADHD while they performed the A-X version of the continuous performance task (CPT A-X).Methylphenidate robustly reversed the transient functional connectivity increase in the A-X interval seen premedication

2016 Brain and behavior

244. Children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Reading Disability: A Review of the Efficacy of Medication Treatments Full Text available with Trip Pro

Children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Reading Disability: A Review of the Efficacy of Medication Treatments Reading is a multifaceted skillset that has the potential to profoundly impact a child's academic performance and achievement. Mastery of reading skills is often an area of difficulty for children during their academic journey, particularly for children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), Specific Learning Disorder with Impairment in Reading (SLD-R (...) ), or children with a comorbid diagnosis of both ADHD and SLD-R. ADHD is characterized by executive functioning and impulse control deficits, as well as inattention and impulsivity. Among the academic struggles experienced by children with ADHD are challenges with word reading, decoding, or reading comprehension. Similarly, children with SLD-R frequently encounter difficulties in the development of appropriate reading skills. SLD-R incorporates dysfunctions in basic visual and auditory processes that result

2016 Frontiers in psychology

245. Stimulant medication effects on growth and bone age in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a prospective cohort study Full Text available with Trip Pro

Stimulant medication effects on growth and bone age in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a prospective cohort study Stimulant medication is known to cause transient weight loss and slowing down of growth, but whether it delays physical maturation is unclear. We studied growth and bone age over the first 3 years of treatment in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (patients) compared with healthy siblings (controls). Bone age was estimated blindly by two (...) independent radiologists using Tanner and Whitehouse version 3. Dexamphetamine or methylphenidate was titrated and continued when clinically indicated. Forty out of 73 patients, together with 22 controls, completed the study. There were no significant growth differences between the two groups at baseline. Despite slower growth on treatment [5.1 cm/year, 95% confidence interval (CI): 4.7-5.5, vs. 6.3 cm/year, 95% CI: 5.7-6.8, P=0.002; and 2.7 kg/year, 95% CI: 2.1-3.3, vs. 4.4 kg/year, 95% CI: 3.5-5.3, P

2016 International clinical psychopharmacology

246. Differences in Utilization Patterns among Medications in Children and Adolescents with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: a 36-Month Retrospective Study Using the Korean Health Insurance Review and Assessment Claims Database Full Text available with Trip Pro

Differences in Utilization Patterns among Medications in Children and Adolescents with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: a 36-Month Retrospective Study Using the Korean Health Insurance Review and Assessment Claims Database We evaluated the differences in utilization patterns including persistence and adherence among medications in children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The current study was performed using data from the Korean Health Insurance (...) Review and Assessment claims database from January 1, 2009 to December 31, 2013. Our study sample consisted of 10,343 children and adolescents with ADHD who were not given their newly prescribed medication in 360 days before the initial claim in 2010. Data were followed up from the initiation of treatment with ADHD medications in 2010 to December 31, 2013. Discontinuation rates for 4 ADHD medications in our sample ranged from 97.7% for immediate-release methylphenidate to 99.4% for atomoxetine using

2016 Journal of Korean medical science

247. Prescribing patterns for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder medications among children and adolescents in Korea, 2007-2011 Full Text available with Trip Pro

Prescribing patterns for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder medications among children and adolescents in Korea, 2007-2011 This study analyzed the prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) medication use among children and adolescents in Korea between January 1, 2007 and December 31, 2011.Using the Korea National Health Insurance claims database, we identified patients between one and 17 years of age who had at least one medical claim for the diagnosis of ADHD (...) (International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision: F90.0). The annual prevalence of ADHD diagnoses was calculated, using national census data from Statistics Korea on the population aged between one and 17 years as the denominator. The prevalence was age-standardized using the 2010 population as the standard population. The number of patients who were treated with methylphenidate and/or atomoxetine and the prevalence of total patients with ADHD that were treated with either drug were also calculated

2016 Epidemiology and health

248. Genetic Variations in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Subtypes and Treatment Resistant Cases Full Text available with Trip Pro

Genetic Variations in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Subtypes and Treatment Resistant Cases ObjectiveaaWe evaluated the distribution of alpha-2A adrenergic receptor (ADRA2A) and catechol-o-methyltransferase (COMT) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) among ADHD subtypes and other homogeneous patient populations including treatment-resistant cases and patients with high symptom severity.Methodsaa121 ADHD patients aged 6-18 years were included in the study. Diagnosis and subtypes (...) designation were confirmed using the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (K-SADS) and symptoms were evaluated using the Conners' Parent (CPRS) and Teacher Rating Scales (CTRS). The response to methylphenidate was assessed objectively using the Clinical Global Impression-Severity Scale (CGI-S) and Global Assessment of Functioning Scale (GAS) as well as the Continuous Performance (CPT) and Trail Making tests (TMT-A, B). Patients were genotyped for ADRA2A (rs1800544) and COMT (rs4680

2016 Psychiatry investigation

249. Initiation and Persistence of Pharmacotherapy for Youths with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Taiwan Full Text available with Trip Pro

Initiation and Persistence of Pharmacotherapy for Youths with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Taiwan Pharmacotherapy is an effective therapeutic option for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Understanding the patterns of medication treatment is crucial for clinical practice. This study employed nationwide population-based data to elucidate the initiation and persistence of pharmacotherapy (immediate-release methylphenidate [IR-MPH], osmotic controlled-release (...) formulations of methylphenidate [OROS-MPH] and atomoxetine [ATX]) for youths with ADHD in Taiwan.Patients first receiving an ADHD diagnosis at age 18 or younger between January 2000 and December 2009 (n = 112,140; mean age at ADHD diagnosis: 7.7 years) were selected from Taiwan's National Health Insurance database. All patients were monitored through December 31, 2011, with an average follow-up time of 5.8 years. The initiation of ADHD drug therapy was defined as the first patient prescription

2016 PloS one

250. Omega-3 and Zinc supplementation as complementary therapies in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Omega-3 and Zinc supplementation as complementary therapies in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of zinc and omega-3 supplements as adjunctive drugs in the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) of children.This study is a randomized, double-blind clinical trial conducted on 150 children aged 6-15 years old that diagnosed as new cases of ADHD. Study subjects were evaluated for 8 weeks. Besides of drug (...) in children that affected to attention-deficit disorder subtype of ADHD (P = 0.02). Moreover, in omega-3 group, better clinical response was seen than other groups (P < 0.05). However, there was no significant difference between omega-3 group compared to placebo group in the mean scores of Conners' scale (P = 0.89).Zinc supplementation accompanied by the main treatment significantly improves symptom of attention-deficit disorder subtype of ADHD. However, omega-3 supplementation was superior to zinc

2016 Journal of research in pharmacy practice Controlled trial quality: uncertain

251. Early Interventions in Children With Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

: No Keywords provided by Guilherme Vanoni Polanczyk, University of Sao Paulo: Parental training Preschool age Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Additional relevant MeSH terms: Layout table for MeSH terms Disease Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity Hyperkinesis Pathologic Processes Attention Deficit and Disruptive Behavior Disorders Neurodevelopmental Disorders Mental Disorders Dyskinesias Neurologic Manifestations Nervous System Diseases Signs and Symptoms Methylphenidate Central (...) to neurobiological measures. Implications: This study proposes an innovative and relevant analysis, which will enable the field to advance the knowledge of biological mechanisms related to ADHD and to treatment response. Also, the study will expand the evidence to guide early prevention strategies and early intervention. Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase Attention Deficit Disorder With Hyperactivity Preschool Child Drug: Methylphenidate Behavioral: Parental training Other: Psychoeducational

2016 Clinical Trials

252. Behavioral Effects of Neurofeedback Compared to Stimulants and Physical Activity in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Behavioral Effects of Neurofeedback Compared to Stimulants and Physical Activity in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Randomized Controlled Trial. The efficacy of neurofeedback as a treatment for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and whether neurofeedback is a viable alternative for stimulant medication, is still an intensely debated subject. The current randomized controlled trial compared neurofeedback to (1) optimally titrated methylphenidate and (2) a semi-active (...) and March 2014.Intention-to-treat analyses revealed an improvement in parent-reported behavior on the SDQ and the SWAN Hyperactivity/Impulsivity scale, irrespective of received intervention (ηp² = 0.21-0.22, P ≤ .001), whereas the SWAN Inattention scale revealed more improvement in children who received methylphenidate than neurofeedback and physical activity (ηp² = 0.13, P ≤ .001). Teachers reported a decrease of ADHD symptoms on all measures for methylphenidate, but not for neurofeedback or physical

2016 Journal of Clinical Psychiatry Controlled trial quality: predicted high

253. Reinforcement and Stimulant Medication Ameliorate Deficient Response Inhibition in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Reinforcement and Stimulant Medication Ameliorate Deficient Response Inhibition in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. This study examined the degree to which reinforcement, stimulant medication, and their combination impact response inhibition in children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Across three studies, participants with ADHD (n = 111, 25 girls) and typically-developing (TD) controls (n = 33, 6 girls) completed a standard version of the stop (...) signal task (SST) and/or a reinforcement-manipulation SST with performance-contingent points. In two of these studies, these tasks were performed under placebo or 0.3 and 0.6 mg/kg methylphenidate (MPH) conditions. Cross-study comparisons were conducted to test hypotheses regarding the separate and combined effects of reinforcement and methylphenidate on response inhibition among children with ADHD relative to TD controls. Baseline response inhibition was worse among children with ADHD compared

2016 Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology

254. Lisdexamfetamine dimesylate - Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

with other long acting agents. Background: Lisdexamfetamine is approved by Health Canada for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children aged six to 12 years. It is a prodrug of dextroamphetamine. Following oral administration, lisdexamfetamine is rapidly absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract and converted to the active form, dextroamphetamine. The recommended starting dose of lisdexamfetamine is 30 mg daily with titration to a maximum of 50 mg daily. It is available (...) Lisdexamfetamine dimesylate - Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder Common Drug Review CEDAC Meeting – November 18, 2009 Page 1 of 5 Notice of CEDAC Final Recommendation – December 18, 2009 © 2009 CADTH CEDAC FINAL RECOMMENDATION LISDEXAMFETAMINE DIMESYLATE (Vyvanse – Shire Canada Inc.) Indication: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Recommendation: The Canadian Expert Drug Advisory Committee (CEDAC) recommends that lisdexamfetamine not be listed. Reason for the Recommendation

2010 Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health - Common Drug Review

255. Treatment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Preschool-Age Children: Child and Adolescent Psychiatrists' Adherence to Clinical Practice Guidelines. (Abstract)

Treatment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Preschool-Age Children: Child and Adolescent Psychiatrists' Adherence to Clinical Practice Guidelines. To compare child and adolescent psychiatrists' (CAPs) practices in the treatment of preschool children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (P-ADHD) with published guidelines, and to determine which clinical factors most influence physicians' decisions to initiate pharmacotherapy for P-ADHD.We developed and mailed the Preschool (...) ADHD Treatment Questionnaire (PATQ) to a randomly selected national sample of ∼2200 CAPs trained in the management of ADHD. The PATQ asked CAPs about their approach to clinical management of children ages 4-5 years with ADHD-specifically, how often they recommend parent training in behavior management, medication as a first- or second-line treatment, and which medication they typically choose first. CAPs also rated the perceived importance of 19 different clinical factors in their decision

2016 Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology

256. Treating nicotine dependence by targeting attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with OROS methylphenidate: the role of baseline ADHD severity and treatment response. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Treating nicotine dependence by targeting attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with OROS methylphenidate: the role of baseline ADHD severity and treatment response. To determine whether treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with osmotic-release oral system (OROS) methylphenidate promotes abstinence from smoking among smokers with ADHD who have greater severity of ADHD symptoms at baseline or greater improvement in ADHD during treatment.This is a secondary (...) analysis of data from a randomized, double-blind, 11-week trial conducted between December 2005 and January 2008 at 6 clinical sites; the original trial was sponsored by the National Drug Abuse Clinical Trials Network. Adult cigarette smokers (aged 18-55 years) who met DSM-IV criteria for ADHD were randomly assigned to OROS methylphenidate (72 mg/d) (n = 127) or matching placebo (n = 128). All participants received nicotine patches (21 mg/d) and weekly individual smoking cessation counseling. Logistic

2013 Journal of Clinical Psychiatry Controlled trial quality: uncertain

257. Using the test of variables of attention to determine the effectiveness of modafinil in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): a prospective methylphenidate-controlled trial. (Abstract)

Using the test of variables of attention to determine the effectiveness of modafinil in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): a prospective methylphenidate-controlled trial. The efficacy of modafinil in comparison with methylphenidate in treatment of pediatric attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has not been thoroughly investigated. This study compared the effect of modafinil versus methylphenidate on continuous attention task in children with ADHD, using (...) the Test of Variables of Attention. Twenty-eight participants completed a baseline test followed by administration of a single dose of either methylphenidate or modafinil, after which the test was repeated. The test was performed a third time, after each subject received a dose of the medication not previously administered. Comparison of scores showed mean baseline, postmethylphenidate, and postmodafinil scores of -2.04, 0.017, and 0.09, respectively. No difference was found between improvements

2012 Journal of child neurology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

258. Use of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Token Economy to Alleviate Dysfunctional Behavior in Children with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Full Text available with Trip Pro

Use of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Token Economy to Alleviate Dysfunctional Behavior in Children with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Medication has proved highly efficacious as a means of alleviating general symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, many patients remain functionally impaired by inappropriate behavior. The present study analyzed the use of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) with the Token-Economy (TE) technique to alleviate problem (...) behavior for 25 participants with ADHD, all children (19 boys, mean age 10.11) on long-term methylphenidate medication, who were given 20 CBT sessions with 10 weeks of TE introduced as of session 5. Their ten most acute problem behaviors were selected and written records kept. On weekdays, parents recorded each inappropriate behavior and provided a suitable model for their actions. At weekly sessions, problem behaviors were counted and incident-free participants rewarded with a token. To analyze

2015 Frontiers in Psychiatry

259. Attention-deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Translational Center for Identifying Biomarkers

Update Posted: December 7, 2015 Last Verified: December 2015 Additional relevant MeSH terms: Layout table for MeSH terms Disease Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity Hyperkinesis Pathologic Processes Attention Deficit and Disruptive Behavior Disorders Neurodevelopmental Disorders Mental Disorders Dyskinesias Neurologic Manifestations Nervous System Diseases Signs and Symptoms Methylphenidate Atomoxetine Hydrochloride Central Nervous System Stimulants Physiological Effects of Drugs Dopamine (...) Intervention/treatment Phase Attention-deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Drug: methylphenidate Drug: atomoxetine Phase 4 Detailed Description: The investigators planned to recruit ADHD and healthy controls from the age of 6 to 17. Genetic data including dopamine, norepinephrine, serotonin, neurotropic factors, glutamate-related genes will be genotyped. Environmental disruptors including phthalate and cotinine will be analyzed. Brain MRI data including T1, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), resting state

2015 Clinical Trials

260. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Adolescents With Attention-Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder

adolescents with ADHD, it can be made widely available to these adolescents in the community. This would help them improve their academic, social, and emotional functioning and ultimately their long term outcomes. Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Behavioral: Cognitive Behavioural & Skills Training Behavioral: Supportive Group Therapy Other: Treatment as Usual - community resources Drug: Methylphenidate or amphetamine product Phase 4 Detailed (...) are not indicated. Once the optimal dose is reached, the participants remain on this dose for the remainder of the study. Other Names: Ritalin Concerta Biphentin Dexedrine Adderall XR Vyvanse Outcome Measures Go to Primary Outcome Measures : Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Symptomatology (measured via Conners' 3 Adolescent Self-Report Scale short form; Conners' 3 parent version; Conners' 3 teacher version) - Change from baseline [ Time Frame: At baseline - once medication is optimally titrated

2015 Clinical Trials

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