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241. Agomelatine as a Treatment for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Children and Adolescents: A Double-Blind, Randomized Clinical Trial. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Agomelatine as a Treatment for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Children and Adolescents: A Double-Blind, Randomized Clinical Trial. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a chronic neurodevelopmental disorder. Due to lack of response to the medication and significant side effects of the treatment with stimulants, alternative medications should be considered. The aim of this study is to evaluate efficacy of agomelatine in treatment of ADHD.Fifty-four outpatients, children (...) 6-15 years old, with diagnosis of ADHD according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) diagnostic criteria participated in a 6-week, parallel, double-blind, randomized clinical trial. Fifty patients completed 6 weeks of treatment with either ritalin (methylphenidate hydrochloride [MPH]) (20 mg/day in participants below 30 kg and 30 mg/day in patients with weight ≥30 kg) or agomelatine (15 mg/day in patients with weight ≥30 kg and 25

2016 Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

242. Behavioral Effects of Neurofeedback Compared to Stimulants and Physical Activity in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Behavioral Effects of Neurofeedback Compared to Stimulants and Physical Activity in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Randomized Controlled Trial. The efficacy of neurofeedback as a treatment for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and whether neurofeedback is a viable alternative for stimulant medication, is still an intensely debated subject. The current randomized controlled trial compared neurofeedback to (1) optimally titrated methylphenidate and (2) a semi-active (...) and March 2014.Intention-to-treat analyses revealed an improvement in parent-reported behavior on the SDQ and the SWAN Hyperactivity/Impulsivity scale, irrespective of received intervention (ηp² = 0.21-0.22, P ≤ .001), whereas the SWAN Inattention scale revealed more improvement in children who received methylphenidate than neurofeedback and physical activity (ηp² = 0.13, P ≤ .001). Teachers reported a decrease of ADHD symptoms on all measures for methylphenidate, but not for neurofeedback or physical

2016 Journal of Clinical Psychiatry Controlled trial quality: predicted high

243. Treatment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Preschool-Age Children: Child and Adolescent Psychiatrists' Adherence to Clinical Practice Guidelines. (Abstract)

Treatment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Preschool-Age Children: Child and Adolescent Psychiatrists' Adherence to Clinical Practice Guidelines. To compare child and adolescent psychiatrists' (CAPs) practices in the treatment of preschool children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (P-ADHD) with published guidelines, and to determine which clinical factors most influence physicians' decisions to initiate pharmacotherapy for P-ADHD.We developed and mailed the Preschool (...) ADHD Treatment Questionnaire (PATQ) to a randomly selected national sample of ∼2200 CAPs trained in the management of ADHD. The PATQ asked CAPs about their approach to clinical management of children ages 4-5 years with ADHD-specifically, how often they recommend parent training in behavior management, medication as a first- or second-line treatment, and which medication they typically choose first. CAPs also rated the perceived importance of 19 different clinical factors in their decision

2016 Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology

244. Comparative efficacy of methylphenidate and atomoxetine in oppositional defiant disorder comorbid with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Comparative efficacy of methylphenidate and atomoxetine in oppositional defiant disorder comorbid with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is frequently comorbid with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and is associated with substantial functional impairments. Methylphenidate and atomoxetine are well-established drugs for the management of ADHD. Some studies from Western countries have reported these drugs to be effective in the management (...) of ODD comorbid with ADHD. This study aimed to assess if methylphenidate and atomoxetine are efficacious in treating Indian children with ODD comorbid with ADHD.In this prospective, open-label study, 37 patients of age 6-14 years with a diagnosis of ODD comorbid with ADHD randomly received either methylphenidate (dose 0.2-1 mg/kg/day) or atomoxetine (dose 0.5-1.2 mg/kg/day) for 8 weeks. Improvements in ADHD and ODD symptoms were assessed using Vanderbilt ADHD diagnostic parent rating scale (VADPRS

2015 International journal of applied & basic medical research Controlled trial quality: uncertain

245. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, methylphenidate use and the risk of developing schizophrenia spectrum disorders: A nationwide population-based study in Taiwan. (Abstract)

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, methylphenidate use and the risk of developing schizophrenia spectrum disorders: A nationwide population-based study in Taiwan. This study estimated the risk of developing psychotic disorders by comparing children with ADHD to non-ADHD controls, and to examine whether methylphenidate (MPH) treatment influences the risks of psychotic disorders. A nationwide cohort of patients who were newly diagnosed with ADHD (n=73,049) and age- and gender-matched (...) controls (n=73,049) were selected from Taiwan's National Health Insurance database from January 2000 to December 2011. All participants were observed until December 31, 2011. Cox regression models were used to estimate the effects of ADHD diagnosis and MPH use on subsequent outcomes. Having a diagnosis of any psychotic disorder and of schizophrenia were set as two different outcomes and were analyzed separately. Compared to the control group, the ADHD group showed significantly increased risk

2015 Schizophrenia Research

246. Comparison of therapeutic effects of omega-3 and methylphenidate (ritalin(®)) in treating children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. (Abstract)

Comparison of therapeutic effects of omega-3 and methylphenidate (ritalin(®)) in treating children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a fixed pattern of disregard and hyperactivity that is much more severe than what is normal in children of the same age. Multiple drugs are used for the treatment of children with ADHD; however, their side effects and efficacy are not clearly known. This study was designed to evaluate and compare (...) the therapeutic effects of two drugs, that is, omega-3 and methylphenidate hydrochloride (Ritalin(®)), used to treat patients with ADHD.In a randomized, placebo control clinical trial in Yazd, Iran, 85 ADHD children were divided into two experimental and one control groups. Thus, 29 subjects were treated with Ritalin(®), 28 subjects received omega-3, and the remaining 28 received placebo. The data collection tools used in this study consisted of the Conners' Parent Rating Scale and Teacher Rating Scale

2015 Iranian journal of psychiatry and behavioral sciences Controlled trial quality: uncertain

247. Cost-Effectiveness of Extended-Release Methylphenidate in Children and Adolescents with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Sub-Optimally Treated with Immediate Release Methylphenidate Full Text available with Trip Pro

Cost-Effectiveness of Extended-Release Methylphenidate in Children and Adolescents with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Sub-Optimally Treated with Immediate Release Methylphenidate Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a common psychiatric disorder in children and adolescents. Immediate-release methylphenidate (IR-MPH) is the medical treatment of first choice. The necessity to use several IR-MPH tablets per day and associated potential social stigma at school often leads (...) ) discontinued treatment, and (4) natural remission. ER-MPH options included methylphenidate osmotic release oral system (MPH-OROS) and Equasym XL/Medikinet CR. Both direct costs and indirect costs were included in the analysis, and effects were expressed as quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). Univariate, multivariate as well as probabilistic sensitivity analysis were conducted and the main outcomes were incremental cost-effectiveness ratios.Switching sub-optimally treated patients from IR-MPH to MPH-OROS

2015 PloS one

248. Altered white matter tract property related to impaired focused attention, sustained attention, cognitive impulsivity and vigilance in attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Altered white matter tract property related to impaired focused attention, sustained attention, cognitive impulsivity and vigilance in attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder. The neural substrate for clinical symptoms and neuropsychological performance in individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has rarely been studied and has yielded inconsistent results. We sought to compare the microstructural property of fibre tracts associated with the prefrontal cortex and its (...) with the clinical symptom of inattention in youths with ADHD. Finally, youths with ADHD had differential association patterns of the 10 fibre tract GFA values with attention performance compared with controls.Ten of the youths with ADHD were treated with methylphenidate, which may have long-term effects on microstructural property.Our study highlights the importance of the SLF, cingulum bundle and frontostriatal tracts for clinical symptoms and attention performance in youths with ADHD and demonstrates

2015 Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience

249. Effects of extended release methylphenidate treatment on ratings of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and associated behavior in children with autism spectrum disorders and ADHD symptoms. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Effects of extended release methylphenidate treatment on ratings of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and associated behavior in children with autism spectrum disorders and ADHD symptoms. The purpose of this study was to examine the behavioral effects of four doses of psychostimulant medication, combining extended-release methylphenidate (MPH) in the morning with immediate-release MPH in the afternoon.The sample comprised 24 children (19 boys; 5 girls) who met American Psychiatric (...) Association, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed. (DSM-IV-TR) criteria for an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) on the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) and the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS), and had significant symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This sample consisted of elementary school-age, community-based children (mean chronological age=8.8 years, SD=1.7; mean intelligence quotient [IQ]=85; SD=16.8). Effects of four dose

2013 Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

250. Differential impact of methylphenidate and atomoxetine on sustained attention in youth with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Differential impact of methylphenidate and atomoxetine on sustained attention in youth with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. This study examined the effects of atomoxetine (ATX) and OROS methylphenidate (MPH) on laboratory measures of inhibitory control and attention in youth with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). It was hypothesized that performance would be improved by both treatments, but response profiles would differ because the medications work via different (...) indicated that MPH improved RT, RTSD, and omission errors more than ATX (p < .05). Changes in performance with treatment did not correlate with changes in ADHD symptoms.MPH has greater effects than ATX on CPT measures of sustained attention in youth with ADHD. However, the dissociation of cognitive and behavioral change with treatment indicates that CPT measures cannot be considered proxies for symptomatic improvement. Further research on the dissociation of cognitive and behavioral endpoints for ADHD

2014 Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry Controlled trial quality: uncertain

251. Risperidone Versus Methylphenidate in Treatment of Preschool Children With Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Risperidone Versus Methylphenidate in Treatment of Preschool Children With Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a common psychiatric diagnosis among preschool children.The aim of this study was to examine the Risperidone treatment compared to Methylphenidate (MPH) in preschool children with ADHD.Thirty three outpatient preschool children, aged 3-6 years, diagnosed with ADHD (The diagnosis of ADHD was established by two child and adolescent (...) psychiatrists according to the DSM-IV-TR criteria), participated in a 6-week, double-blind clinical trial with risperidone (0.5-1.5 mg/d) and methylphenidate (5-20 mg/d), in two divided doses. Treatment outcomes were assessed using the Parent ADHD Rating Scale and Conners Rating Scale. Patients were assessed by a child psychiatrist at baseline, 2, 4 and 6 weeks after the medication started. Side effects were also rated by side effects questionnaire.There were no significant differences between the two

2015 Iranian journal of pediatrics Controlled trial quality: uncertain

252. An Open-Label, Randomized Trial of Methylphenidate and Atomoxetine Treatment in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. (Abstract)

An Open-Label, Randomized Trial of Methylphenidate and Atomoxetine Treatment in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. The efficacy of both methylphenidate and atomoxetine has been established in placebo-controlled trials. The present study aimed to directly compare the efficacy of methylphenidate and atomoxetine in improving symptoms among children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).The study sample included 160 drug-naïve children and adolescents 7-16 years (...) ), based on the ratings of investigators, parents, teachers, and subjects.At week 24, mean changes in ADHD-RS-IV Inattention scores were 13.58 points (Cohen's d, -3.08) for OROS-methylphenidate and 12.65 points (Cohen's d, -3.05) for atomoxetine; and mean changes in ADHD-RS-IV Hyperactivity-Impulsivity scores were 10.16 points (Cohen's d, -1.75) for OROS-methylphenidate and 10.68 points (Cohen's d, -1.87) for atomoxetine. In terms of parent-, teacher-, and self-ratings on behavioral symptoms, both

2015 Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

253. Effects of Atomoxetine and Osmotic Release Oral System-Methylphenidate on Executive Functions in Patients with Combined Type Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. (Abstract)

Effects of Atomoxetine and Osmotic Release Oral System-Methylphenidate on Executive Functions in Patients with Combined Type Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the effects of atomoxetine (ATX) and osmotic release oral system-methylphenidate (OROS-MPH) therapies on executive functions, activities, treatment response time, and adverse effects based on discernible clinical effects in children with combined type attention-deficit (...) /hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).The study sample consisted of 43 children 7-12 years of age, who presented to the outpatient clinic with inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity for the first time, and were diagnosed as having combined type ADHD according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed. (DSM-IV) criteria but had not previously used any medication for ADHD. The Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), Stroop Test TBAG Form (STP), and Visual Auditory Digit Span B (VADS B) were

2015 Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

254. Evaluation of acute cardiovascular effects of immediate-release methylphenidate in children and adolescents with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder Full Text available with Trip Pro

Evaluation of acute cardiovascular effects of immediate-release methylphenidate in children and adolescents with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder is a frequent condition in children and often extends into adulthood. Use of immediate-release methylphenidate (MPH) has raised concerns about potential cardiovascular adverse effects within a few hours after administration. This study was carried out to investigate acute effects of MPH (...) on electrocardiogram (ECG) in a pediatric population. A total of 54 consecutive patients with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (51 males and 3 females; mean age =12.14±2.6 years, range 6-19 years), receiving a new prescription of MPH, underwent a standard ECG 2 hours before and after the administration of MPH 10 mg per os. Basal and posttreatment ECG parameters, including mean QT (QT interval when corrected for heart rate [QTc]), QTc dispersion (QTd) interval duration, T-peak to T-end (TpTe) intervals

2015 Neuropsychiatric disease and treatment

255. The Unique and Combined Effects of Reinforcement and Methylphenidate on Temporal Information Processing in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. (Abstract)

The Unique and Combined Effects of Reinforcement and Methylphenidate on Temporal Information Processing in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. Temporal information processing and reward sensitivity are neurocognitive impairments key to attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The aim of this study was to examine the unique and combined impact of reinforcement and methylphenidate (MPH) on temporal information processing in children with ADHD. We predicted that both monetary (...) reinforcement and MPH would ameliorate temporal information processing deficits in ADHD, and we expected that the combined effect of reinforcement and MPH would be most beneficial. Forty children (23 with ADHD and 27 typical controls, aged 8-12 y) performed a time production task under 3 conditions: reward, response cost, and feedback only. Children with ADHD also performed the task (in random order) with placebo, a low, a medium, and a high dose of MPH. Dependent variables were time production accuracy

2015 Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

256. Functional outcomes from a head-to-head, randomized, double-blind trial of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate and atomoxetine in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and an inadequate response to methylphenidate. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Functional outcomes from a head-to-head, randomized, double-blind trial of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate and atomoxetine in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and an inadequate response to methylphenidate. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with functional impairments in multiple domains of patients' lives. A secondary objective of this randomized, active-controlled, head-to-head, double-blind, dose-optimized clinical trial (...) was to compare the effects of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX) and atomoxetine (ATX) on functional impairment in children and adolescents with ADHD. Patients aged 6-17 years with an ADHD Rating Scale IV total score ≥ 28 and an inadequate response to methylphenidate treatment (judged by investigators) were randomized (1:1) to once-daily LDX or ATX for 9 weeks. Parents/guardians completed the Weiss Functional Impairment Rating Scale-Parent Report (WFIRS-P) at baseline and at week 9 or early termination. p

2015 European child & adolescent psychiatry Controlled trial quality: predicted high

257. Efficacy of Methylphenidate Hydrochloride Extended-Release Capsules (Aptensio XRâ„¢) in Children and Adolescents with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Phase III, Randomized, Double-Blind Study. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Efficacy of Methylphenidate Hydrochloride Extended-Release Capsules (Aptensio XRâ„¢) in Children and Adolescents with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Phase III, Randomized, Double-Blind Study. Psychostimulants remain first-line treatment options for the management of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). A multilayer extended-release bead methylphenidate capsule (provisional name Aptensio XR™, MPH-MLR) with unique release properties is being investigated for the treatment (...) , open-label, dose-optimization period; and (4) 30-day follow-up call. During the open-label dose-optimization period all patients started with MPH-MLR 10 mg, unless the investigator deemed it necessary to begin at a higher dose, and were titrated to an optimized dose (10, 15, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60 mg; all given once daily) based on response and adverse events (AEs). The primary endpoint was the change from baseline to end of DBP in ADHD Rating Scale, 4th Edition (ADHD-RS-IV) total score. Secondary

2015 CNS drugs Controlled trial quality: uncertain

258. Neuroimaging-Aided Prediction of the Effect of Methylphenidate in Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder-A Randomized Controlled Trial. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Neuroimaging-Aided Prediction of the Effect of Methylphenidate in Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder-A Randomized Controlled Trial. Although methylphenidate hydrochloride (MPH) is a first-line treatment for children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), the non-response rate is 30%. Our aim was to develop a supplementary neuroimaging biomarker for predicting the clinical effect of continuous MPH administration by using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). After (...) baseline assessment, we performed a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial with a single dose of MPH, followed by a prospective 4-to-8-week open trial with continuous MPH administration, and an ancillary 1-year follow-up. Twenty-two drug-naïve and eight previously treated children with ADHD (NAÏVE and NON-NAÏVE) were compared with 20 healthy controls (HCs) who underwent multiple NIRS measurements without intervention. We tested whether NIRS signals at the baseline assessment or ΔNIRS (single

2015 Neuropsychopharmacology : official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology Controlled trial quality: predicted high

259. Association Between 5-HTTLPR Polymorphism and Tics after Treatment with Methylphenidate in Korean Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Association Between 5-HTTLPR Polymorphism and Tics after Treatment with Methylphenidate in Korean Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between 5-HTTLPR polymorphism (44-bp insertion/deletion polymorphism of serotonin transporter gene) and methylphenidate (MPH) treatment response, as well as the association between the adverse events of MPH treatment and 5-HTTLPR polymorphism in children with attention-deficit (...) /hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).A total of 114 children with ADHD (mean age 9.08 ± 1.94 years) were recruited from the child psychiatric clinic in a hospital in South Korea. We have extracted the genomic DNA of the subjects from their blood lymphocytes and analyzed 5-HTTLPR polymorphism of the SLC6A4 gene. All children were treated with MPH for 8 weeks, with clinicians monitoring both the improvement of ADHD symptoms and the side effects. We compared the response to MPH treatment and adverse events among

2015 Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology

260. Long-Term Treatment Outcome in Adult Male Prisoners With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Three-Year Naturalistic Follow-Up of a 52-Week Methylphenidate Trial. (Abstract)

Long-Term Treatment Outcome in Adult Male Prisoners With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Three-Year Naturalistic Follow-Up of a 52-Week Methylphenidate Trial. Despite high rates of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) among adult lawbreakers, particularly the long-term effects of ADHD pharmacotherapy remain unclear, not the least because of ethical challenges with preventing control subjects in randomized controlled trials from receiving medication over prolonged time. We (...) followed up adult male prisoners with ADHD who completed a 5-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial followed by a 47-week open-label extension of osmotic-release oral system methylphenidate in a Swedish high-security prison from 2007 to 2010 (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00482313). Twenty-five trial completers were prospectively followed up clinically 1 year (24/25, 96% participated fully or in part) and 3 years (20/25, 80% participation) after trial regarding ADHD symptoms (observer

2015 Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology

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