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adhd Methylphenidate

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2301. Clinical efficacy of methylphenidate in conduct disorder with and without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. (Abstract)

Clinical efficacy of methylphenidate in conduct disorder with and without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Stimulants are not considered appropriate for the treatment of children with conduct disorders (CDs). The postulated differences in stimulant effect between children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and CD led to the hypothesis that methylphenidate hydrochloride, which is effective in ADHD, would not significantly improve symptoms of CD.We randomly assigned 84 (...) children with CD, between the ages of 6 and 15 years, to receive methylphenidate hydrochloride (up to 60 mg/d) or placebo for 5 weeks. Behavior was evaluated by parent, teacher, and clinician reports and by direct classroom observations. Two thirds of the children also met criteria for ADHD.Contrary to prediction, ratings of antisocial behaviors specific to CD were significantly reduced by methylphenidate treatment. The magnitude of methylphenidate effect indicated meaningful clinical benefit

1997 Archives of general psychiatry Controlled trial quality: uncertain

2302. School observations of children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and comorbid tic disorder: effects of methylphenidate treatment. (Abstract)

School observations of children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and comorbid tic disorder: effects of methylphenidate treatment. Although the findings from recent controlled studies suggest that methylphenidate is a safe and effective treatment for many children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and comorbid tic disorder, relatively little is known about drug effects on school behavior. Thirty-four prepubertal children with ADHD and tic disorder received placebo (...) and 3 doses of methylphenidate (0.1, 0.3, and 0.5 mg/kg) twice daily for 2 weeks each under double-blind conditions. Treatment effects were assessed using direct observations of child behavior in classroom, lunchroom, and playground settings. Treatment with methylphenidate resulted in marked reductions of hyperactive, disruptive, and aggressive behavior, which was evident even for the 0.1 mg/kg dose. There were no "nonresponders." The only observed changes in tics were a small but statistically

1995 Journal of developmental and behavioral pediatrics : JDBP Controlled trial quality: uncertain

2303. Efficacy of methylphenidate for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in children with tic disorder. (Abstract)

Efficacy of methylphenidate for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in children with tic disorder. The findings from case reports and patient questionnaire surveys have been interpreted as indicating that administration of stimulants is ill-advised for the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in children with tic disorder.Thirty-four prepubertal children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and tic disorder received placebo and three dosages of methylphenidate (...) hydrochloride (0.1, 0.3, and 0.5 mg/kg) twice daily for 2 weeks each, under double-blind conditions. Treatment effects were assessed using direct observations of child behavior in a simulated (clinic-based) classroom and using rating scales completed by the parents, teachers, and physician.Methylphenidate effectively suppressed hyperactive, disruptive, and aggressive behavior. There was no evidence that methylphenidate altered the severity of tic disorder, but it may have a weak effect on the frequency

1995 Archives of general psychiatry Controlled trial quality: uncertain

2304. Anxiety and depression symptoms and response to methylphenidate in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and tic disorder. (Abstract)

Anxiety and depression symptoms and response to methylphenidate in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and tic disorder. This study examined response to methylphenidate in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and chronic multiple tic disorder. The primary goal was to determine if children with anxiety or depression symptoms showed a less favorable response to treatment. Subjects were 38 prepubertal children who participated in an 8-week, double-blind (...) of the core features of ADHD. Seeming differences between children with and without comorbid anxiety or depression symptoms and drug response are likely explained by differences in pretreatment levels of negativistic behaviors (i.e., symptoms of oppositional defiant disorder or conduct disorder). Methylphenidate appears to be effective for the management of ADHD behaviors in children with mild to moderate anxiety or depression symptoms; nevertheless, much research remains to be performed in this area.

2002 Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

2305. Nicotine and attention in adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). (Abstract)

Nicotine and attention in adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Nicotine, like the psychostimulants methylphenidate and dextroamphetamine, acts as an indirect dopamine agonist and improves attention and arousal. Adults and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) smoke much more frequently than normal individuals or those with other psychiatric conditions, perhaps as a form of self-medication for ADHD symptoms. Nicotine might therefore have some value (...) as a treatment for ADHD. The present study is an acute double-blind crossover administration of nicotine and placebo with smokers (n = 6) and nonsmokers (n = 11) diagnosed with adult ADHD. The drug was delivered via a transdermal patch at a dosage of 7 mg/day for nonsmokers and 21 mg/day for smokers. Results indicate significant clinician-rated global improvement, self-rated vigor and concentration, and improved performance on chronometric measures of attention and timing accuracy. Side effects were minimal

1996 Psychopharmacology bulletin Controlled trial quality: uncertain

2306. Effects of methylphenidate and behavioral contingencies on sustained attention in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: a test of the reward dysfunction hypothesis. (Abstract)

Effects of methylphenidate and behavioral contingencies on sustained attention in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: a test of the reward dysfunction hypothesis. Psychostimulants and behavior therapy have been postulated to be effective in treating attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) by compensating for a pathologically elevated reward threshold, but no studies have compared reinforcement to psychostimulants in maintaining task performance. The separate and combined effects (...) of methylphenidate (MPH, 0.6 mg/kg) and a behavioral intervention (reward plus response cost) were assessed on a continuous performance test (CPT, a measure of sustained attention) modified to deliver auditory feedback contingent upon the subject's responses. Each of 22 children (6-10 years old) with ADHD were tested under four treatment conditions: placebo + feedback, placebo + behavioral contingencies, MPH + feedback, and MPH + contingencies. CPT performance, indexed by d' (ability to discriminate between

1997 Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology

2307. Methylphenidate and attentional training. Comparative effects on behavior and neurocognitive performance in twin girls with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. (Abstract)

Methylphenidate and attentional training. Comparative effects on behavior and neurocognitive performance in twin girls with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. The effectiveness of four doses (5-mg, 10-mg, 15-mg, 20-mg) of methylphenidate (MPH) and attentional training (AT) were evaluated using neurocognitive instruments (Continuous Performance Test; Matching Unfamiliar Figures Test), narrow- and broad-band rating scales in the context of a double-blind, placebo-control, within-subject (...) reversal design for dizygotic twin girls with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Both interventions proved effective for improving neurocognitive test performance and behavior, although broad-band ratings revealed dose-response curves different from those obtained from the neurocognitive tests. Implications for clinical management of girls with ADHD are discussed.

1996 Behavior modification Controlled trial quality: uncertain

2308. Covert visual spatial attention in boys with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: lateral effects, methylphenidate response and results for parents. (Abstract)

Covert visual spatial attention in boys with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: lateral effects, methylphenidate response and results for parents. We report three related studies of covert visual spatial orienting in child attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In Study 1, we examined covert visual spatial orienting in ADHD and comparison boys, Study 2 comprised a dose-response study of methylphenidate for the ADHD group, and Study 3 was an investigation of biological (...) and adoptive parents. In contrast with comparison subjects (n = 17). ADHD boys aged 6-12 (n = 27) showed both slower reaction times overall and within-condition (lateral) asymmetries in reaction times. Specifically, boys with ADHD reacted more slowly to uncued targets in the left visual field than in the right visual field. Responses to stimuli in the two visual fields were differentially affected by methylphenidate for the ADHD group. Medication equalized visual field responses to the uncued targets

1997 Neuropsychologia Controlled trial quality: uncertain

2309. Effects of methylphenidate on event-related potentials and performance of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder children in auditory and visual selective attention tasks. (Abstract)

Effects of methylphenidate on event-related potentials and performance of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder children in auditory and visual selective attention tasks. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) children participated in a double-blind placebo-controlled study in which the effects of a dosage of 15 mg methylphenidate (MPH) on auditory and visual selective attention tasks was determined by presenting frequent (90%) and infrequent (10%) stimuli in both relevant (...) , and occipital P3b amplitudes to attended stimuli (both standards and deviants), and also enhanced the frontal processing negativity (PN). In the auditory task MPH did not influence performance, but it enhanced the frontal PN as well as the parietal and occipital P3b amplitudes to all stimulus types. In ADHD children, MPH ameliorates some, but not all, deficits and also improves processing where no differences with normal children are present.

1997 Biological psychiatry Controlled trial quality: uncertain

2310. The effects of methylphenidate on neural systems of attention in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. (Abstract)

The effects of methylphenidate on neural systems of attention in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Recent studies have suggested that attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with abnormalities in basal ganglia and prefrontal cortical functioning. However, these studies have primarily relied upon cognitive tasks that reflect impulse control rather than attentional mechanisms.The authors used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the neural correlates (...) of selective and divided attention in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pharmacological challenge with methylphenidate in 15 adolescents with ADHD (ages 14-17), eight adolescents with reading disorder (ages 12-17), and four adolescents with both reading disorder and ADHD (ages 14-18) who were scanned during both a methylphenidate and a placebo session. Fourteen healthy comparison subjects (ages 12-20) who were not given methylphenidate served as the primary comparison group.During the divided

2004 American Journal of Psychiatry Controlled trial quality: uncertain

2311. Controlled-release methylphenidate improves attention during on-road driving by adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. (Abstract)

Controlled-release methylphenidate improves attention during on-road driving by adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with a 3- to 4-fold increase in both driving-related accidents and associated injuries. Methylphenidate (MPH) is the most commonly prescribed psychostimulant medication for ADHD. It has been demonstrated to improve performance on a driving simulator. This study investigated whether a once-daily (...) , long-acting, osmotic, controlled-release MPH formulation improves the driving performance of ADHD adolescents while driving their own car on an actual road segment.Twelve ADHD-diagnosed male adolescent drivers (mean age, 17.8 years) prescribed a standard dose of 1.0 mg/kg (if they were not already taking methylphenidate) of controlled-release MPH participated in this repeated-measures crossover study. On 2 separate occasions (off/on medication randomized), participants drove a standard 16-mile road

2004 The Journal of the American Board of Family Practice / American Board of Family Practice Controlled trial quality: uncertain

2312. Differential effects of methylphenidate on attentional functions in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. (Abstract)

Differential effects of methylphenidate on attentional functions in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. To examine the effects of methylphenidate on different attentional functions and behavior in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).A total of 60 ADHD children aged between 8 and 12 years completed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, within-subject crossover trial with two doses of methylphenidate (0.25 and 0.5 mg/kg body weight (...) by behavior ratings did not differ from nonresponders.Results indicate that attentional functions are influenced differentially by methylphenidate: intensity-dimension functions are best influenced by higher doses, executive functions by moderate doses, and selectivity-dimension functions by variable doses. In addition, divergent results from behavior rating scales and from attentional paradigms emphasize that clinicians have to decide what constitutes an appropriate clinical response. A more

2004 Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Controlled trial quality: uncertain

2313. Effects of methylphenidate, desipramine, and L-dopa on attention and inhibition in children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. (Abstract)

Effects of methylphenidate, desipramine, and L-dopa on attention and inhibition in children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of methylphenidate (MPH) on attention and inhibition in children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and to establish what the relative contributions of the noradrenergic and dopaminergic systems to this effect were. In addition to MPH, two other drugs were administered in order (...) to affect both transmitter systems more selectively, L-dopa (dopamine (DA) agonist) and desipramine (DMI) (noradrenaline (NA) re-uptake inhibitor). Sixteen children with ADHD performed a stop-task, a laboratory task that measures the ability to inhibit an ongoing action, in a double-blind randomized within-subjects design. Each child received an acute clinical dose of MPH, DMI, L-dopa, and placebo; measures of performance and plasma were determined. The results indicated that inhibition performance

2003 Behavioural brain research Controlled trial quality: uncertain

2314. Discriminative and participant-rated effects of methylphenidate in children diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). (Abstract)

Discriminative and participant-rated effects of methylphenidate in children diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Despite the demonstrated beneficial effects of methylphenidate and d-amphetamine for the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), the discriminative and subjective effects of these compounds in children are not well understood. This study was designed to characterize such effects in children diagnosed with ADHD. In a series of 3 (...) experiments, 17 children were examined to determine whether methylphenidate (n = 12) and d-amphetamine (n = 5) could be reliably discriminated at doses typically used in clinical practice. Under some conditions (e.g., when they were instructed to attend to the drug effects or when a wide range of doses was used), children discriminated methylphenidate (5.0-30.0 mg) from placebo. Children tested under a range of doses of d-amphetamine (2.5-20.0 mg) were unable to discriminate this drug from placebo

1998 Experimental and clinical psychopharmacology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

2315. An experimental comparison of Pycnogenol and methylphenidate in adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). (Abstract)

An experimental comparison of Pycnogenol and methylphenidate in adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Twenty-four adults (24 to 53 years old) with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), Combined Type, were studied in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study of Pycnogenol and methylphenidate. Pycnogenol is an antioxidant derived from the bark of the French maritime pine tree. Methylphenidate is a standard pharmaceutical intervention for ADHD (...) . Anecdotal reports suggest that Pycnogenol improves concentration in adults with ADHD without adverse side effects. Participants received Pycnogenol, methylphenidate, and placebo, each for three weeks, in a randomized and counterbalanced order. Although ADHD symptoms improved during treatment, neither methylphenidate nor Pycnogenol outperformed the placebo control, as measured by self-report rating scales, rating scales completed by the individual's significant other, and a computerized continuous

2002 Journal of attention disorders Controlled trial quality: uncertain

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