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Zidovudine

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2. Clinical, Immunological and Virological Responses of Zidovudine-Lamivudine-Nevirapine versus Zidovudine-Lamivudine-Efavirenz Antiretroviral Treatment (ART) Among HIV-1 Infected Children: Asella Teaching and Referral Hospital, South-East Ethiopia (PubMed)

Clinical, Immunological and Virological Responses of Zidovudine-Lamivudine-Nevirapine versus Zidovudine-Lamivudine-Efavirenz Antiretroviral Treatment (ART) Among HIV-1 Infected Children: Asella Teaching and Referral Hospital, South-East Ethiopia Antiretroviral Therapy(ART) remarkably reduced HIV-1 infection-related mortality in children. The efficacy and safety of different ART regimen in pediatric age groups remained issues of debates and available evidence were scarce especially among (...) children taking the of one the two prototypes (NVP or EFV) Non-Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor(NNRTI) as backbone of ART regimen.Therefore, the objective of this study was to compare clinical, immunological and virological responses of zidovudine-lamivudine-nevirapine (AZT+3TC+ NVP) versus zidovudine-lamivudine-efavirenz (AZT+3TC+EFV) ART regimen among HIV-1 infected children.A retrospective cross-sectional study was done by reviewing medical records of the patients to evaluate clinical

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2018 The open medical informatics journal

3. Tenofovir-Based Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy Is Associated with Superior CD4 T Cells Repopulation Compared to Zidovudine-Based HAART in HIV 1 Infected Adults (PubMed)

Tenofovir-Based Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy Is Associated with Superior CD4 T Cells Repopulation Compared to Zidovudine-Based HAART in HIV 1 Infected Adults Tenofovir-based highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is one of the preferred first-line therapies in the management of HIV 1 infection. Ghana has since 2014 adopted this recommendation; however there is paucity of scientific data that reflects the safety and efficacy of the tenofovir-based therapy compared to zidovudine (...) in the Ghanaian health system. This study sought to assess the comparative immune reconstitution potential between tenofovir and zidovudine-based HAART regimens, which includes lamivudine and efavirenz in combination therapy. It also aimed to investigate the adverse drug reactions/events (ADREs) associated with pharmacotherapy with these agents in a total of 106 HAART naïve HIV patients. The study included 80 patients in the tenofovir cohort while 26 patients were on the zidovudine regimen. The occurrence

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2018 International journal of chronic diseases

4. Quantification of HTLV-1 reverse transcriptase activity in ATL patients treated with zidovudine and interferon-α (PubMed)

Quantification of HTLV-1 reverse transcriptase activity in ATL patients treated with zidovudine and interferon-α The therapeutic efficacy of the AZT and IFN combination in ATL presumably reflects the inhibition of RT-related functions.HTLV-1-RT activity from short-term cultured PBMCs may represent a predictive correlate of clinical response to AZT/IFN in ATL patients.

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2017 Blood advances

5. Novel Polymyxin Combination with Antiretroviral Zidovudine Exerts Synergistic Killing against NDM-producing MDR <i>Klebsiella pneumoniae</i>. (PubMed)

Novel Polymyxin Combination with Antiretroviral Zidovudine Exerts Synergistic Killing against NDM-producing MDR Klebsiella pneumoniae. Polymyxins are used as a last-line therapy against multidrug-resistant (MDR) New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (NDM) producing Klebsiella pneumoniae However, polymyxin resistance can emerge with monotherapy; therefore, novel strategies are urgently needed to minimize the resistance and maintain their clinical utility. This study aimed to investigate (...) the pharmacodynamics of polymyxin B in combination with the antiretroviral drug zidovudine against K. pneumoniae Three isolates were evaluated in static time-kill studies (0 - 64 mg/L) over 48 h. A one-compartment in vitro pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) model (IVM) was used to simulate humanized dosage regimens of polymyxin B (4 mg/L as continuous infusion) and zidovudine (as bolus dose thrice daily to achieve Cmax = 6 mg/L) against K. pneumoniae BM1 over 72 h. The antimicrobial synergy of the combination

2019 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

6. Reducing Hematologic Toxicity With Short Course Postexposure Prophylaxis With Zidovudine for HIV-1 Exposed Infants With Low Transmission Risk. (PubMed)

Reducing Hematologic Toxicity With Short Course Postexposure Prophylaxis With Zidovudine for HIV-1 Exposed Infants With Low Transmission Risk. Using retrospectively collected data from 383 infants born to HIV-1-infected mothers receiving antiretroviral therapy, we compared transmission rates and hematologic toxicity between infants receiving 2-week (short course) versus longer duration zidovudine postexposure prophylaxis. Short course resulted in lower hematologic toxicity without evidence

2019 Pediatric Infectious Dsease Journal

7. Mitochondrial DNA content of peripheral blood mononuclear cells in ART untreated & stavudine/zidovudine treated HIV-1-infected patients (PubMed)

Mitochondrial DNA content of peripheral blood mononuclear cells in ART untreated & stavudine/zidovudine treated HIV-1-infected patients Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) are known to cause mitochondrial toxicity. This study was done to estimate mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected, NRTI treated and antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naïve patients and evaluate the utility of mtDNA content (...) as a biomarker of mitochondrial toxicity.mtDNA content in PBMCs of 57 HIV-infected ART untreated and 30 ART treated with stavudine (d4T) or zidovudine (AZT) containing regimen were compared against 24 low-risk healthy controls (LoRHC).There was a significant (P=0.01) reduction in mtDNA content among HIV-infected (104; 80-135) compared to LoRHC (127; 110-167), and it was the same in both the treated (104.8; 88-130) and untreated patients (104.7; 78-142). mtDNA significantly (P=0.014) declined in ART treated

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2018 The Indian journal of medical research

8. Complete and durable responses in Primary Central Nervous System Post-Transplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder with Zidovudine, Ganciclovir, Rituximab and Dexamethasone. (PubMed)

Complete and durable responses in Primary Central Nervous System Post-Transplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder with Zidovudine, Ganciclovir, Rituximab and Dexamethasone. Purpose: Primary central nervous system posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PCNS-PTLD) is a complication of solid organ transplantation with a poor prognosis and typically associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). We hypothesized EBV lytic-phase protein expression would allow successful treatment with antiviral (...) therapy.Patients and Methods: Thirteen patients were treated with zidovudine (AZT), ganciclovir (GCV), dexamethasone, and rituximab in EBV+ PCNS-PTLD. Twice-daily, intravenous AZT 1,500 mg, GCV 5 mg/kg, and dexamethasone 10 mg were given for 14 days. Weekly rituximab 375 mg/m2 was delivered for the first 4 weeks. Twice-daily valganciclovir 450 mg and AZT 300 mg started day 15. Lytic and latent protein expression was assessed using in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. Immunoblot assay assessed lytic

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2018 Clinical Cancer Research

9. Anemia among HIV Infected Individuals Taking ART with and without Zidovudine at Addis Ababa, Ethiopia (PubMed)

Anemia among HIV Infected Individuals Taking ART with and without Zidovudine at Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Hematological complications such as Zidovudine(ZDV) associated anemia are among the commonly reported adverse drug reactions of Antiretroviral Therapy(ART). Little is known about ZDV associated anemia in developing countries like Ethiopia.Comparative retrospective cohort study was conducted at the ART Clinic of St. Paul Hospital Millennium Medical College from February 2011 to December 2012 (...) months of ART follow-up, respectively.On the other hand in non-ZDV group, anemia was present among 44.2% (87/197), 18.3% (36/197) and 12.4% (25 /202) of participants at baseline, six and twelve months of ART follow-up, respectively. After six months of follow-up, ZDV associated anemia was present among 32.7% (51/156) of the participants, and 43.1% of them were severe while about 45.2% were macrocytic type. Zidovudine group participants were 3.34 times more likely to develop severe anemia than non-ZDV

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2018 Ethiopian journal of health sciences

10. Zidovudine ameliorates pathology in the mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy via P2RX7 purinoceptor antagonism (PubMed)

Zidovudine ameliorates pathology in the mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy via P2RX7 purinoceptor antagonism Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is the most common inherited muscle disorder that causes severe disability and death of young men. This disease is characterized by progressive muscle degeneration aggravated by sterile inflammation and is also associated with cognitive impairment and low bone density. Given that no current treatment can improve the long-term outcome, approaches (...) . In contrast, Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors (NRTIs) can act as P2RX7 antagonists and are drugs with an established safety record, including in children. We demonstrate here that AZT (Zidovudine) inhibits P2RX7 functions acting via the same allosteric site as other antagonists. Moreover, short-term AZT treatment at the peak of disease in DMDmdx mice attenuated the phenotype without any detectable side effects. Recovery was evident in the key parameters such as reduced sarcolemma permeability

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2018 Acta neuropathologica communications

11. In vitro effects of arsenic trioxide, interferon α and zidovudine in adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma cells (PubMed)

In vitro effects of arsenic trioxide, interferon α and zidovudine in adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma cells Despite the efficacy of combination chemotherapy with arsenic trioxide (ATO), interferon α (IFN) and zidovudine (AZT) for adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL), the precise mechanism underlying this combination treatment effect is unknown. In the present study, ATO/IFN/AZT was examined in an ATL leukemic cell line (S1T, non-Tax expressing), a human T-lymphotropic virus 1 (HTLV-1)-infected

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2018 Oncology letters

12. Treatment Outcome and Adverse Events of Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate Based Regimens as Compared to Zidovudine Based Regimens Among People Living with HIV/AIDS: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies (PubMed)

Treatment Outcome and Adverse Events of Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate Based Regimens as Compared to Zidovudine Based Regimens Among People Living with HIV/AIDS: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies Findings from different studies report inferior clinical and virologic efficacy with TDF/3TC/NVP. But, some studies show that, there was no statistically significant difference in mortality among ZDV and TDF based regimens. The objective of this review was to systematically

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2018 The open AIDS journal

13. Similar HIV protection from four weeks of zidovudine versus nevirapine prophylaxis among formula-fed infants in Botswana (PubMed)

Similar HIV protection from four weeks of zidovudine versus nevirapine prophylaxis among formula-fed infants in Botswana The World Health Organization HIV guidelines recommend either infant zidovudine (ZDV) or nevirapine (NVP) prophylaxis for the prevention of intrapartum mother-to-child HIV transmission (MTCT) among formula-fed infants. No study has evaluated the comparative efficacy of infant prophylaxis with twice daily ZDV versus once daily NVP in exclusively formula-fed HIV-exposed

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2018 Southern African journal of HIV medicine

14. Comparison of Zidovudine and Tenofovir Based Regimens With Regard to Health-Related Quality of Life and Prevalence of Symptoms in HIV Patients in a Kenyan Referral Hospital (PubMed)

Comparison of Zidovudine and Tenofovir Based Regimens With Regard to Health-Related Quality of Life and Prevalence of Symptoms in HIV Patients in a Kenyan Referral Hospital Aim: Zidovudine and tenofovir form the backbone of antiretroviral therapy in Kenya. However, their side-effects may affect the quality of life (QoL) of patients. The aim was to compare the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of adult patients on tenofovir versus zidovudine based regimens in a referral hospital in Kenya (...) to provide future guidance. Methods: A comparative cross sectional study among 501 adult out-patients on either tenofovir or zidovudine was undertaken in Kenyatta National Hospital between 2015 and 2016. The Medical Outcome Study HIV Health Survey (MOS-HIV) was administered along with other key aspects of treatment. Linear regression analysis was performed to identify determinants of HRQoL. Results: Patients on zidovudine had a higher Physical Health Summary Score (PHSS) and Mental Health Summary Score

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2018 Frontiers in pharmacology

15. Zidovudine-mediated autophagy inhibition enhances mitochondrial toxicity in muscle cells. (PubMed)

Zidovudine-mediated autophagy inhibition enhances mitochondrial toxicity in muscle cells. Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI), such as zidovudine (AZT), are constituents of HIV-1 therapy and are used for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission. Prolonged thymidine analogue exposure has been associated with mitochondrial toxicities to heart, liver, and skeletal muscle. We hypothesized that the thymidine analogue AZT might interfere with autophagy in myocytes, a lysosomal

2018 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

16. Zidovudine/Lamivudine vs. Abacavir/Lamivudine vs. Tenofovir/Emtricitabine in fixed-dose combinations as initial treatment for HIV patients: a systematic review and network meta-analysis. (PubMed)

Zidovudine/Lamivudine vs. Abacavir/Lamivudine vs. Tenofovir/Emtricitabine in fixed-dose combinations as initial treatment for HIV patients: a systematic review and network meta-analysis. Initial treatment of the HIV is based on the use of three drugs, two of which are nucleoside analog reverse-transcriptase inhibitors. There are three combinations of these drugs which have been approved by different guidelines, each with divergent results in terms of efficacy and safety.To compare the efficacy (...) and safety of these three combinations.Systematic review and network meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials comparing fixed doses of Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate / Emtricitabine (TDF/FTC), Abacavir / Lamivudine (ABC/3TC) and Zidovudine / Lamivudine (ZDV/3TC).Seven clinical trials met the eligibility criteria. The results suggested higher efficacy with TDF/FTC vs. ABC/3TC at 96 weeks and vs. ZDV/3TC at 48 weeks. However, there is clinical and statistical heterogeneity. Subgroup analysis were

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2017 Colombia medica (Cali, Colombia)

17. Role of nucleoside transporters in transplacental pharmacokinetics of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors zidovudine and emtricitabine. (PubMed)

Role of nucleoside transporters in transplacental pharmacokinetics of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors zidovudine and emtricitabine. Zidovudine (AZT) and emtricitabine (FTC) are effective and well tolerated antiretroviral drugs, routinely used in the prevention of perinatal HIV transmission. However, precise mechanism(s) involved in their transfer from mother to fetus are not fully elucidated. Since both drugs are nucleoside analogues, we hypothesized that the mechanisms

2017 Placenta

18. Higher Transplacental Pathogen-Specific Antibody Transfer Among Pregnant Women Randomized to Triple Antiretroviral Treatment Versus Short Course Zidovudine. (PubMed)

Higher Transplacental Pathogen-Specific Antibody Transfer Among Pregnant Women Randomized to Triple Antiretroviral Treatment Versus Short Course Zidovudine. HIV-1 infection may impair transplacental antibody transfer to infants. The impact of highly active antiretroviral treatment (ART) given during pregnancy on transplacental antibody transport is unknown.HIV-1 infected pregnant women with CD4 counts between 200 - 500 were randomized to short-course zidovudine (ZDV) or triple ART at 32 weeks

2017 Pediatric Infectious Dsease Journal

19. Efficacy and Tolerability of Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate Based Regimen as Compared to Zidovudine Based Regimens: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. (PubMed)

Efficacy and Tolerability of Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate Based Regimen as Compared to Zidovudine Based Regimens: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Although tenofovir (TDF)/emtricitabine (FTC)/efavirenz (EFV) and zidovudine (ZDV)/lamivudine (3TC)/efavirenz (EFV) are used as preferred first line regimen, their head-to-head comparison in terms of their efficacy and tolerability was limited. This review aimed to synthesize the best available evidence on the comparative efficacy (...) instrument (JBI-MAStARI) and critical appraisal and data extraction tool were applied for critical assessment and data extraction, respectively. We performed a random effect meta-analysis to pool the relative risk (RR) for viral load suppression (<50 HIV RNA copies/ml and <400 HIV RNA copies/ml), tolerability, and death.Data was extracted from four articles, which included a total of 2381 participants. We found superior viral load suppression among tenofovir (TDF) arm compared to zidovudine (ZDV) arm

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2017 AIDS research and treatment

20. Rapid accumulation of HIV-1 thymidine analogue mutations and phenotypic impact following prolonged viral failure on zidovudine-based first-line ART in sub-Saharan Africa. (PubMed)

Rapid accumulation of HIV-1 thymidine analogue mutations and phenotypic impact following prolonged viral failure on zidovudine-based first-line ART in sub-Saharan Africa. Lack of viral load monitoring of ART is known to be associated with slower switch from a failing regimen and thereby higher prevalence of MDR HIV-1. Many countries have continued to use thymidine analogue drugs despite recommendations to use tenofovir in combination with a cytosine analogue and NNRTI as first-line ART (...) . The effect of accumulated thymidine analogue mutations (TAMs) on phenotypic resistance over time has been poorly characterized in the African setting.A retrospective analysis of individuals with ongoing viral failure between weeks 48 and 96 in the NORA (Nevirapine OR Abacavir) study was conducted. We analysed 36 genotype pairs from weeks 48 and 96 of first-line ART (14 treated with zidovudine/lamivudine/nevirapine and 22 treated with zidovudine/lamivudine/abacavir). Phenotypic drug resistance

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2017 Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy

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