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Zidovudine

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2. Clinical, Immunological and Virological Responses of Zidovudine-Lamivudine-Nevirapine versus Zidovudine-Lamivudine-Efavirenz Antiretroviral Treatment (ART) Among HIV-1 Infected Children: Asella Teaching and Referral Hospital, South-East Ethiopia (Full text)

Clinical, Immunological and Virological Responses of Zidovudine-Lamivudine-Nevirapine versus Zidovudine-Lamivudine-Efavirenz Antiretroviral Treatment (ART) Among HIV-1 Infected Children: Asella Teaching and Referral Hospital, South-East Ethiopia Antiretroviral Therapy(ART) remarkably reduced HIV-1 infection-related mortality in children. The efficacy and safety of different ART regimen in pediatric age groups remained issues of debates and available evidence were scarce especially among (...) children taking the of one the two prototypes (NVP or EFV) Non-Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor(NNRTI) as backbone of ART regimen.Therefore, the objective of this study was to compare clinical, immunological and virological responses of zidovudine-lamivudine-nevirapine (AZT+3TC+ NVP) versus zidovudine-lamivudine-efavirenz (AZT+3TC+EFV) ART regimen among HIV-1 infected children.A retrospective cross-sectional study was done by reviewing medical records of the patients to evaluate clinical

2018 The open medical informatics journal PubMed abstract

3. Tenofovir-Based Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy Is Associated with Superior CD4 T Cells Repopulation Compared to Zidovudine-Based HAART in HIV 1 Infected Adults (Full text)

Tenofovir-Based Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy Is Associated with Superior CD4 T Cells Repopulation Compared to Zidovudine-Based HAART in HIV 1 Infected Adults Tenofovir-based highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is one of the preferred first-line therapies in the management of HIV 1 infection. Ghana has since 2014 adopted this recommendation; however there is paucity of scientific data that reflects the safety and efficacy of the tenofovir-based therapy compared to zidovudine (...) in the Ghanaian health system. This study sought to assess the comparative immune reconstitution potential between tenofovir and zidovudine-based HAART regimens, which includes lamivudine and efavirenz in combination therapy. It also aimed to investigate the adverse drug reactions/events (ADREs) associated with pharmacotherapy with these agents in a total of 106 HAART naïve HIV patients. The study included 80 patients in the tenofovir cohort while 26 patients were on the zidovudine regimen. The occurrence

2018 International journal of chronic diseases PubMed abstract

4. Assessment of lamivudine, zidovudine, lopinavir, and ritonavir plasma levels in HIV-positive pregnant women: Drug monitoring application to improve patient safety. (Full text)

Assessment of lamivudine, zidovudine, lopinavir, and ritonavir plasma levels in HIV-positive pregnant women: Drug monitoring application to improve patient safety. Simultaneous therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) is critical during pregnancy in order to improve clinical follow-up, monitor viral load, and patient adherence to treatment.A modified simple and fast ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (...) and electrospray ionization (UPLC-ESI-MS/MS) method was developed and validated according to national and international guidelines for the simultaneous determination of lamivudine (LMV), zidovudine (ZDV), lopinavir (LPV), and ritonavir (RTV) concentrations in 100-μL plasma sample of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-positive pregnant women. Protein precipitation using 0.1% formic acid in cold acetonitrile was used for sample preparation. The chromatographic separation was achieved with a run-time of 3.0

2020 Medicine PubMed abstract

5. Quantification of HTLV-1 reverse transcriptase activity in ATL patients treated with zidovudine and interferon-α (Full text)

Quantification of HTLV-1 reverse transcriptase activity in ATL patients treated with zidovudine and interferon-α The therapeutic efficacy of the AZT and IFN combination in ATL presumably reflects the inhibition of RT-related functions.HTLV-1-RT activity from short-term cultured PBMCs may represent a predictive correlate of clinical response to AZT/IFN in ATL patients.

2017 Blood advances PubMed abstract

6. Novel Polymyxin Combination with Antiretroviral Zidovudine Exerts Synergistic Killing against NDM-producing MDR <i>Klebsiella pneumoniae</i>. (Full text)

Novel Polymyxin Combination with Antiretroviral Zidovudine Exerts Synergistic Killing against NDM-producing MDR Klebsiella pneumoniae. Polymyxins are used as a last-line therapy against multidrug-resistant (MDR) New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (NDM) producing Klebsiella pneumoniae However, polymyxin resistance can emerge with monotherapy; therefore, novel strategies are urgently needed to minimize the resistance and maintain their clinical utility. This study aimed to investigate (...) the pharmacodynamics of polymyxin B in combination with the antiretroviral drug zidovudine against K. pneumoniae Three isolates were evaluated in static time-kill studies (0 - 64 mg/L) over 48 h. A one-compartment in vitro pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) model (IVM) was used to simulate humanized dosage regimens of polymyxin B (4 mg/L as continuous infusion) and zidovudine (as bolus dose thrice daily to achieve Cmax = 6 mg/L) against K. pneumoniae BM1 over 72 h. The antimicrobial synergy of the combination

2019 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy PubMed abstract

7. Reducing Hematologic Toxicity With Short Course Postexposure Prophylaxis With Zidovudine for HIV-1 Exposed Infants With Low Transmission Risk. (Abstract)

Reducing Hematologic Toxicity With Short Course Postexposure Prophylaxis With Zidovudine for HIV-1 Exposed Infants With Low Transmission Risk. Using retrospectively collected data from 383 infants born to HIV-1-infected mothers receiving antiretroviral therapy, we compared transmission rates and hematologic toxicity between infants receiving 2-week (short course) versus longer duration zidovudine postexposure prophylaxis. Short course resulted in lower hematologic toxicity without evidence

2019 Pediatric Infectious Dsease Journal

8. Zidovudine ameliorates pathology in the mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy via P2RX7 purinoceptor antagonism (Full text)

Zidovudine ameliorates pathology in the mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy via P2RX7 purinoceptor antagonism Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is the most common inherited muscle disorder that causes severe disability and death of young men. This disease is characterized by progressive muscle degeneration aggravated by sterile inflammation and is also associated with cognitive impairment and low bone density. Given that no current treatment can improve the long-term outcome, approaches (...) . In contrast, Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors (NRTIs) can act as P2RX7 antagonists and are drugs with an established safety record, including in children. We demonstrate here that AZT (Zidovudine) inhibits P2RX7 functions acting via the same allosteric site as other antagonists. Moreover, short-term AZT treatment at the peak of disease in DMDmdx mice attenuated the phenotype without any detectable side effects. Recovery was evident in the key parameters such as reduced sarcolemma permeability

2018 Acta neuropathologica communications PubMed abstract

9. Comparison of Zidovudine and Tenofovir Based Regimens With Regard to Health-Related Quality of Life and Prevalence of Symptoms in HIV Patients in a Kenyan Referral Hospital (Full text)

Comparison of Zidovudine and Tenofovir Based Regimens With Regard to Health-Related Quality of Life and Prevalence of Symptoms in HIV Patients in a Kenyan Referral Hospital Aim: Zidovudine and tenofovir form the backbone of antiretroviral therapy in Kenya. However, their side-effects may affect the quality of life (QoL) of patients. The aim was to compare the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of adult patients on tenofovir versus zidovudine based regimens in a referral hospital in Kenya (...) to provide future guidance. Methods: A comparative cross sectional study among 501 adult out-patients on either tenofovir or zidovudine was undertaken in Kenyatta National Hospital between 2015 and 2016. The Medical Outcome Study HIV Health Survey (MOS-HIV) was administered along with other key aspects of treatment. Linear regression analysis was performed to identify determinants of HRQoL. Results: Patients on zidovudine had a higher Physical Health Summary Score (PHSS) and Mental Health Summary Score

2018 Frontiers in pharmacology PubMed abstract

10. Mitochondrial DNA content of peripheral blood mononuclear cells in ART untreated & stavudine/zidovudine treated HIV-1-infected patients (Full text)

Mitochondrial DNA content of peripheral blood mononuclear cells in ART untreated & stavudine/zidovudine treated HIV-1-infected patients Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) are known to cause mitochondrial toxicity. This study was done to estimate mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected, NRTI treated and antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naïve patients and evaluate the utility of mtDNA content (...) as a biomarker of mitochondrial toxicity.mtDNA content in PBMCs of 57 HIV-infected ART untreated and 30 ART treated with stavudine (d4T) or zidovudine (AZT) containing regimen were compared against 24 low-risk healthy controls (LoRHC).There was a significant (P=0.01) reduction in mtDNA content among HIV-infected (104; 80-135) compared to LoRHC (127; 110-167), and it was the same in both the treated (104.8; 88-130) and untreated patients (104.7; 78-142). mtDNA significantly (P=0.014) declined in ART treated

2018 The Indian journal of medical research PubMed abstract

11. Anemia among HIV Infected Individuals Taking ART with and without Zidovudine at Addis Ababa, Ethiopia (Full text)

Anemia among HIV Infected Individuals Taking ART with and without Zidovudine at Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Hematological complications such as Zidovudine(ZDV) associated anemia are among the commonly reported adverse drug reactions of Antiretroviral Therapy(ART). Little is known about ZDV associated anemia in developing countries like Ethiopia.Comparative retrospective cohort study was conducted at the ART Clinic of St. Paul Hospital Millennium Medical College from February 2011 to December 2012 (...) months of ART follow-up, respectively.On the other hand in non-ZDV group, anemia was present among 44.2% (87/197), 18.3% (36/197) and 12.4% (25 /202) of participants at baseline, six and twelve months of ART follow-up, respectively. After six months of follow-up, ZDV associated anemia was present among 32.7% (51/156) of the participants, and 43.1% of them were severe while about 45.2% were macrocytic type. Zidovudine group participants were 3.34 times more likely to develop severe anemia than non-ZDV

2018 Ethiopian journal of health sciences PubMed abstract

12. In vitro effects of arsenic trioxide, interferon α and zidovudine in adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma cells (Full text)

In vitro effects of arsenic trioxide, interferon α and zidovudine in adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma cells Despite the efficacy of combination chemotherapy with arsenic trioxide (ATO), interferon α (IFN) and zidovudine (AZT) for adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL), the precise mechanism underlying this combination treatment effect is unknown. In the present study, ATO/IFN/AZT was examined in an ATL leukemic cell line (S1T, non-Tax expressing), a human T-lymphotropic virus 1 (HTLV-1)-infected

2018 Oncology letters PubMed abstract

13. Similar HIV protection from four weeks of zidovudine versus nevirapine prophylaxis among formula-fed infants in Botswana (Full text)

Similar HIV protection from four weeks of zidovudine versus nevirapine prophylaxis among formula-fed infants in Botswana The World Health Organization HIV guidelines recommend either infant zidovudine (ZDV) or nevirapine (NVP) prophylaxis for the prevention of intrapartum mother-to-child HIV transmission (MTCT) among formula-fed infants. No study has evaluated the comparative efficacy of infant prophylaxis with twice daily ZDV versus once daily NVP in exclusively formula-fed HIV-exposed

2018 Southern African journal of HIV medicine PubMed abstract

14. Zidovudine-mediated autophagy inhibition enhances mitochondrial toxicity in muscle cells. (Full text)

Zidovudine-mediated autophagy inhibition enhances mitochondrial toxicity in muscle cells. Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI), such as zidovudine (AZT), are constituents of HIV-1 therapy and are used for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission. Prolonged thymidine analogue exposure has been associated with mitochondrial toxicities to heart, liver, and skeletal muscle. We hypothesized that the thymidine analogue AZT might interfere with autophagy in myocytes, a lysosomal

2018 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy PubMed abstract

15. Complete and durable responses in Primary Central Nervous System Post-Transplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder with Zidovudine, Ganciclovir, Rituximab and Dexamethasone. (Full text)

Complete and durable responses in Primary Central Nervous System Post-Transplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder with Zidovudine, Ganciclovir, Rituximab and Dexamethasone. Purpose: Primary central nervous system posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PCNS-PTLD) is a complication of solid organ transplantation with a poor prognosis and typically associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). We hypothesized EBV lytic-phase protein expression would allow successful treatment with antiviral (...) therapy.Patients and Methods: Thirteen patients were treated with zidovudine (AZT), ganciclovir (GCV), dexamethasone, and rituximab in EBV+ PCNS-PTLD. Twice-daily, intravenous AZT 1,500 mg, GCV 5 mg/kg, and dexamethasone 10 mg were given for 14 days. Weekly rituximab 375 mg/m2 was delivered for the first 4 weeks. Twice-daily valganciclovir 450 mg and AZT 300 mg started day 15. Lytic and latent protein expression was assessed using in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. Immunoblot assay assessed lytic

2018 Clinical Cancer Research PubMed abstract

16. Treatment Outcome and Adverse Events of Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate Based Regimens as Compared to Zidovudine Based Regimens Among People Living with HIV/AIDS: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies (Full text)

Treatment Outcome and Adverse Events of Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate Based Regimens as Compared to Zidovudine Based Regimens Among People Living with HIV/AIDS: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies Findings from different studies report inferior clinical and virologic efficacy with TDF/3TC/NVP. But, some studies show that, there was no statistically significant difference in mortality among ZDV and TDF based regimens. The objective of this review was to systematically

2018 The open AIDS journal PubMed abstract

17. Efficacy and tolerability of different lengths of Zidovudine prophylaxis in preventing HIV vertical transmission of neonates with low risk of transmission: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Efficacy and tolerability of different lengths of Zidovudine prophylaxis in preventing HIV vertical transmission of neonates with low risk of transmission: a systematic review and meta-analysis Print | PDF PROSPERO This information has been provided by the named contact for this review. CRD has accepted this information in good faith and registered the review in PROSPERO. The registrant confirms that the information supplied for this submission is accurate and complete. CRD bears

2020 PROSPERO

18. Sensitive detection of HIV-1 resistance to Zidovudine and impact on treatment outcomes in low- to middle-income countries (Full text)

Sensitive detection of HIV-1 resistance to Zidovudine and impact on treatment outcomes in low- to middle-income countries Thymidine analogs, namely AZT (Zidovudine or Retrovir™) and d4T (Stavudine or Zerit™) are antiretroviral drugs still employed in over 75% of first line combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in Kampala, Uganda despite aversion to prescribing these drugs for cART in high income countries due in part to adverse events. For this study, we explored how the continued use

2017 Infectious diseases of poverty PubMed abstract

19. Role of nucleoside transporters in transplacental pharmacokinetics of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors zidovudine and emtricitabine. (Abstract)

Role of nucleoside transporters in transplacental pharmacokinetics of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors zidovudine and emtricitabine. Zidovudine (AZT) and emtricitabine (FTC) are effective and well tolerated antiretroviral drugs, routinely used in the prevention of perinatal HIV transmission. However, precise mechanism(s) involved in their transfer from mother to fetus are not fully elucidated. Since both drugs are nucleoside analogues, we hypothesized that the mechanisms

2017 Placenta

20. Higher Transplacental Pathogen-Specific Antibody Transfer Among Pregnant Women Randomized to Triple Antiretroviral Treatment Versus Short Course Zidovudine. (Full text)

Higher Transplacental Pathogen-Specific Antibody Transfer Among Pregnant Women Randomized to Triple Antiretroviral Treatment Versus Short Course Zidovudine. HIV-1 infection may impair transplacental antibody transfer to infants. The impact of highly active antiretroviral treatment (ART) given during pregnancy on transplacental antibody transport is unknown.HIV-1 infected pregnant women with CD4 counts between 200 - 500 were randomized to short-course zidovudine (ZDV) or triple ART at 32 weeks

2017 Pediatric Infectious Dsease Journal PubMed abstract

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