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Yohimbine

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1. Enhanced noradrenergic activity by yohimbine and differential fear conditioning in patients with major depression with and without adverse childhood experiences. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Enhanced noradrenergic activity by yohimbine and differential fear conditioning in patients with major depression with and without adverse childhood experiences. Major depressive disorder (MDD) has been associated with changes in the biological stress systems, including the locus coeruleus-noradrenergic system. Accumulated evidence suggests an upregulation of central alpha2-receptors, leading to decreased noradrenergic activity on a central level in MDD patients. Adverse childhood experiences (...) (ACE) such as physical or sexual abuse might contribute to those changes. Furthermore, noradrenaline can affect cognitive processes, e.g. learning and memory. Cognitive dysfunctions constitute an important symptom of MDD. We aimed to investigate the relationship of alpha2-receptor dysregulation with learning processes in MDD by conducting a differential fear conditioning paradigm after double-blind administration of the alpha2-receptor antagonist yohimbine versus placebo. To investigate the role

2020 Progress in neuro-psychopharmacology & biological psychiatry Controlled trial quality: uncertain

2. The impact of Yohimbine-induced arousal on facets of behavioural impulsivity. Full Text available with Trip Pro

The impact of Yohimbine-induced arousal on facets of behavioural impulsivity. State-dependent changes in physiological arousal may influence impulsive behaviours.To examine the relationship between arousal and impulsivity, we assessed the effects of yohimbine (an α2-adrenergic receptor antagonist, which increases physiological arousal via noradrenaline release) on performance on established laboratory-based impulsivity measures in healthy volunteers.Forty-three participants received a single (...) dose of either yohimbine hydrochloride or placebo before completing a battery of impulsivity measures. Blood pressure and heart rate were monitored throughout the study.Participants in the yohimbine group showed higher blood pressure and better response inhibition in the Stop Signal Task, relative to the placebo group. Additionally, individual changes in blood pressure were associated with performance on Delay Discounting and Information Sampling tasks: raised blood pressure following drug

2019 Psychopharmacology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

3. Augmenting treatment efficiency in exposure therapy for PTSD: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial of yohimbine HCl. (Abstract)

Augmenting treatment efficiency in exposure therapy for PTSD: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial of yohimbine HCl. The alpha-2 adrenergic receptor antagonist, yohimbine, can facilitate fear extinction in animals and humans. One potential mechanism is increased noradrenergic activity and associated arousal in the presence of conditioned stimuli. Accordingly, yohimbine might augment prolonged exposure (PE) therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), where heightened exposure (...) -oriented arousal is a theorized driver and empirical predictor of treatment success. A double-blind placebo-controlled randomized trial (NCT 01031979) piloted yohimbine augmentation in 26 males with combat-related PTSD. Participants were given one-time dose of yohimbine or placebo prior to the first imaginal exposure. Subsequently, both arms completed standard PE. The primary outcome was trauma-cued heart-rate reactivity a week after the drug/exposure visit, a highly specified, objective measure

2018 Cognitive behaviour therapy Controlled trial quality: predicted high

4. Enhancement of exposure therapy in participants with specific phobia: A randomized controlled trial comparing yohimbine, propranolol and placebo. (Abstract)

Enhancement of exposure therapy in participants with specific phobia: A randomized controlled trial comparing yohimbine, propranolol and placebo. Recent research indicates that pharmacological agents may enhance psychotherapeutic outcome. Yet, empirical results have not been conclusive with respect to two pharmacological agents, yohimbine hydrochloride (YOH) and propranolol. YOH is suggested to enhance emotional memory by elevating norepinephrine, whereas the β-adrenergic receptor antagonist

2018 Journal of anxiety disorders Controlled trial quality: uncertain

5. Impact of endogenous progesterone on reactivity to yohimbine and cocaine cues in cocaine-dependent women. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Impact of endogenous progesterone on reactivity to yohimbine and cocaine cues in cocaine-dependent women. Data from clinical and preclinical models of relapse suggest that progesterone attenuates cocaine-seeking behavior. In a recent study, we found that cocaine-dependent women reported greater subjective responses to cues that were preceded by a stressor than cocaine-dependent men. The objective of this study was to examine the impact of endogenous progesterone on the subjective and endocrine (...) responses to a drug-paired cue that was preceded by a stressor in cocaine-dependent women.Cocaine-dependent women with low (<4ng/ml; n=16) and high (≥4ng/ml; n=9) plasma progesterone levels received either the alpha-2 adrenergic receptor antagonist yohimbine (21.6mg) or placebo before each of two cocaine-cue exposure sessions. Participants were tested under both conditions in a counterbalanced, double-blind fashion. Data were collected after study drug administration, immediately and at 5, 30, and 60min

2018 Pharmacology, biochemistry, and behavior Controlled trial quality: uncertain

6. [11C]Yohimbine PET Study of alpha2-AR

[11C]Yohimbine PET Study of alpha2-AR [11C]Yohimbine PET Study of alpha2-AR - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more. [11C]Yohimbine PET Study of alpha2-AR ([11C]Yohimbine) The safety and scientific (...) Civils de Lyon Study Details Study Description Go to Brief Summary: The main purpose of this study is to model tissue specific kinetics of [11C]Yohimbine in healthy male participants by positron emission tomography (PET) and the appropriate arterial input function (part A) ; to determine the reproducibility of measures (classical test-retest study, part B1) and to measure the blocking of [11C]Yohimbine uptake in the brain following single oral dose administration of clonidine (part B2). Condition

2018 Clinical Trials

7. Author Correction: Radioligand binding analysis of α2 adrenoceptors with [11C]yohimbine in brain in vivo: Extended Inhibition Plot correction for plasma protein binding Full Text available with Trip Pro

Author Correction: Radioligand binding analysis of α2 adrenoceptors with [11C]yohimbine in brain in vivo: Extended Inhibition Plot correction for plasma protein binding A correction to this article has been published and is linked from the HTML and PDF versions of this paper. The error has been fixed in the paper.

2018 Scientific reports

8. Faster emergence behavior from ketamine/xylazine anesthesia with atipamezole versus yohimbine Full Text available with Trip Pro

Faster emergence behavior from ketamine/xylazine anesthesia with atipamezole versus yohimbine Recent interest in reversal of the hypnotic effects of anesthesia has mainly focused on overcoming a surge in GABA-mediated inhibitory signaling through activation of subcortical arousal circuits or antagonizing GABA receptors. Here we examine the reversal of anesthesia produced from non-GABA agents ketamine/xylazine and the effects of antagonists of adrenoreceptors. These antagonists vary (...) in selectivity and produce temporally unique waking behavior post-anesthesia. We compared two antagonists with differential selectivity for α1- vs. α2-receptors, yohimbine (YOH, 1:40 selectivity) and atipamezole (ATI, 1:8500). Adult mice received intraperitoneal injections of either YOH (4.3 mg/kg), ATI (0.4 mg/kg), or saline after achieving sustained loss of righting following injection of ketamine/xylazine (ketamine: 65.0 mg/kg; xylazine: 9.9 mg/kg). Behaviors indicative of the post-anesthesia, re

2018 PloS one

9. A Tryptoline Ring Distortion Strategy Leads to Complex and Diverse Biologically Active Molecules from the Indole Alkaloid Yohimbine Full Text available with Trip Pro

A Tryptoline Ring Distortion Strategy Leads to Complex and Diverse Biologically Active Molecules from the Indole Alkaloid Yohimbine High-throughput screening (HTS) is the primary driver to current drug-discovery efforts. New therapeutic agents that enter the market are a direct reflection of the structurally simple compounds that make up screening libraries. Unlike medically relevant natural products (e.g., morphine), small molecules currently being screened have a low fraction of sp3 character (...) and few, if any, stereogenic centers. Although simple compounds have been useful in drugging certain biological targets (e.g., protein kinases), more sophisticated targets (e.g., transcription factors) have largely evaded the discovery of new clinical agents from screening collections. Herein, a tryptoline ring-distortion strategy is described that enables the rapid synthesis of 70 complex and diverse compounds from yohimbine (1); an indole alkaloid. The compounds that were synthesized had

2017 Chemistry (Weinheim an der Bergstrasse, Germany)

10. Comparison of Atipamezole with Yohimbine for Antagonism of Xylazine in Mice Anesthetized with Ketamine and Xylazine Full Text available with Trip Pro

Comparison of Atipamezole with Yohimbine for Antagonism of Xylazine in Mice Anesthetized with Ketamine and Xylazine The α2 adrenergic agonist xylazine produces a sedative effect and is typically combined with ketamine and used for anesthesia or chemical restraint of laboratory mice. Xylazine's sedative effect-and its undesirable side effects of bradycardia, hypotension, and poor tissue perfusion-can be reversed by administration of α2 antagonists, such as atipamezole or yohimbine. Although (...) atipamezole and yohimbine dosing guidelines are available for mice, no controlled comparison has been performed to guide the lab animal community in the selection of one over the other. This study is a single-dose crossover comparison of these 2 antagonist drugs, given intraperitoneally at clinically recommended doses, to determine which results in more rapid recovery of mice from xylazine-ketamine anesthesia. Time to return of righting reflex was used as the primary outcome measure. Mice were

2017 Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science : JAALAS

11. Dissociable effects of cocaine and yohimbine on impulsive action and relapse to cocaine seeking Full Text available with Trip Pro

Dissociable effects of cocaine and yohimbine on impulsive action and relapse to cocaine seeking A strong association has been demonstrated between various forms of impulsivity and addiction-like behavior in both humans and rats.In this study, we investigated how impulsive action, as measured in the 5-choice serial reaction time task (5-CSRTT), is affected during various stages of cocaine taking and seeking and by relapse-provoking stimuli in animals that were trained both in an intravenous (...) cocaine self-administration paradigm and in the 5-CSRTT.Rats were concurrently trained in the 5-CSRTT and cocaine self-administration protocol, and subsequently, the effects of cocaine (7.5 mg/kg) and the pharmacological stressor yohimbine (1.25 mg/kg) were tested in both paradigms.Cocaine self-administration (5 h/day) transiently altered impulsive action and increased errors of omission in the 5-CSRTT. Pharmacological challenges with cocaine and yohimbine induced increments in impulsive action

2017 Psychopharmacology

12. Radioligand binding analysis of α2 adrenoceptors with [11C]yohimbine in brain in vivo: Extended Inhibition Plot correction for plasma protein binding Full Text available with Trip Pro

Radioligand binding analysis of α2 adrenoceptors with [11C]yohimbine in brain in vivo: Extended Inhibition Plot correction for plasma protein binding We describe a novel method of kinetic analysis of radioligand binding to neuroreceptors in brain in vivo, here applied to noradrenaline receptors in rat brain. The method uses positron emission tomography (PET) of [11C]yohimbine binding in brain to quantify the density and affinity of α 2 adrenoceptors under condition of changing radioligand (...) binding to plasma proteins. We obtained dynamic PET recordings from brain of Spraque Dawley rats at baseline, followed by pharmacological challenge with unlabeled yohimbine (0.3 mg/kg). The challenge with unlabeled ligand failed to diminish radioligand accumulation in brain tissue, due to the blocking of radioligand binding to plasma proteins that elevated the free fractions of the radioligand in plasma. We devised a method that graphically resolved the masking of unlabeled ligand binding

2017 Scientific reports

13. Yohimbine

Yohimbine Yohimbine Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Yohimbine Yohimbine Aka: Yohimbine II. Indications III. Mechanism (...) Antagonist See and physiology IV. Efficacy Subjective improvement in 40% of men with Slightly better than V. Dose Yohimbine 5.4 mg PO tid VI. Adverse Effects Irritability VII. Cost Month supply: $25 VIII. References Images: Related links to external sites (from Bing) These images are a random sampling from a Bing search on the term "Yohimbine." Click on the image (or right click) to open the source website in a new browser window. Related Studies (from Trip Database) Ontology: yohimbine (C0724441

2018 FP Notebook

14. Differential effects of the pharmacological stressor yohimbine on impulsive decision making and response inhibition Full Text available with Trip Pro

Differential effects of the pharmacological stressor yohimbine on impulsive decision making and response inhibition High levels of impulsivity have been associated with psychiatric disorders such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and substance abuse. In addition, acute stress is known to exacerbate many psychiatric symptoms in impulse control disorders.The purpose of the current study was to investigate the acute effects of the pharmacological stressor yohimbine on response (...) inhibition and impulsive choice.A group of male rats (n = 12) was trained in the delayed reward task (DRT) to assess impulsive choice. A separate group (n = 10) was trained in the stop-signal task (SST) to measure response inhibition. Upon stable responding, the effects of yohimbine (0, 1.25, 2.5, and 5 mg/kg i.p.) were tested in a Latin square design.Acute yohimbine significantly increased the preference for the large and delayed reinforcer in the DRT, indicating a decrease in impulsive choice

2016 Psychopharmacology

15. Acute pesticide ingestion managed with yohimbine as a rescue therapy Full Text available with Trip Pro

Acute pesticide ingestion managed with yohimbine as a rescue therapy Amitraz is used as a pesticide in agricultural and veterinary medicine. It is primarily a central α2 adrenergic agonist and known to cause central nervous system depression, convulsions, respiratory depression, and bradycardia on severe intoxication. We report a case of a 3-year-old child who presented with accidental ingestion of amitraz solution with signs of severe poisoning. There is no specific antidote of amitraz (...) poisoning in humans, however, animal experiments with α2 adrenergic antagonists such as yohimbine and atimepazole have been successful. The child was managed besides intensive management with enteral yohimbine, and he regained consciousness in 18 h and was successfully weaned off mechanical ventilation.

2016 Indian journal of critical care medicine : peer-reviewed, official publication of Indian Society of Critical Care Medicine

16. Sex differences in reinstatement of alcohol seeking in response to cues and yohimbine in rats with and without a history of adolescent corticosterone exposure Full Text available with Trip Pro

Sex differences in reinstatement of alcohol seeking in response to cues and yohimbine in rats with and without a history of adolescent corticosterone exposure Women represent a vulnerable and growing population with respect to alcohol abuse. Elevated glucocorticoid exposure in adolescence increases addiction risk and stress sensitivity in adulthood. However, little is known about sex differences in ethanol craving-like behavior.This study characterized sex differences in ethanol-motivated (...) behavior following ethanol-paired cues and/or acute stimulation of the HPA axis in male and female rats with or without exposure to chronically elevated glucocorticoids in adolescence.Adolescent corticosterone-treated (Experiment 1) or naïve (Experiment 2) male and female rats were trained as adults to self-administer ethanol paired with a cue, and tested for the effects of this cue, alone or in combination with yohimbine, on the reinstatement of ethanol seeking.Females showed elevated ethanol self

2016 Psychopharmacology

17. Quantification of [<sup>11</sup>C]yohimbine binding to α<sub>2</sub> adrenoceptors in rat brain in vivo. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Quantification of [11C]yohimbine binding to α2 adrenoceptors in rat brain in vivo. We quantified the binding potentials (BPND) of [(11)C]yohimbine binding in rat brain to alpha-2 adrenoceptors to evaluate [(11)C]yohimbine as an in vivo marker of noradrenergic neurotransmission and to examine its sensitivity to the level of noradrenaline. Dual [(11)C]yohimbine dynamic positron emission tomography (PET) recordings were applied to five Sprague Dawley rats at baseline (...) , followed by acute amphetamine administration (2 mg/kg) to induce elevation of the endogenous level of noradrenaline. The volume of distribution (VT) of [(11)C]yohimbine was obtained using Logan plot with arterial plasma input. Because alpha-2 adrenoceptors are distributed throughout the brain, the estimation of the BPND is complicated by the absence of an anatomic region of no displaceable binding. We used the Inhibition plot to acquire the reference volume, VND, from which we calculated the BPND

2015 Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism

18. Antagonistic effects of atipamezole, yohimbine, and prazosin on xylazine-induced diuresis in clinically normal cats Full Text available with Trip Pro

Antagonistic effects of atipamezole, yohimbine, and prazosin on xylazine-induced diuresis in clinically normal cats This study aimed to investigate and compare the antagonistic effects of atipamezole, yohimbine, and prazosin on xylazine-induced diuresis in clinically normal cats. Five cats were repeatedly used in each of the 9 groups. One group was not medicated. Cats in the other groups received 2 mg/kg BW xylazine intramuscularly, and saline (as the control); 160 μg/kg BW prazosin; or 40, 160 (...) , or 480 μg/kg BW atipamezole or yohimbine intravenously 0.5 h later. Urine and blood samples were collected 10 times over 8 h. Urine volume, pH, and specific gravity; plasma arginine vasopressin (AVP) concentration; and creatinine, osmolality, and electrolyte values in both urine and plasma were measured. Both atipamezole and yohimbine antagonized xylazine-induced diuresis, but prazosin did not. The antidiuretic effect of atipamezole was more potent than that of yohimbine but not dose-dependent

2014 Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research

19. Yohimbine administration and cue-reactivity in cocaine-dependent individuals. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Yohimbine administration and cue-reactivity in cocaine-dependent individuals. Preclinical studies suggest that stress potentiates cue-induced cocaine seeking and that this effect is more pronounced in females. These findings have not been characterized in clinical populations.The objectives of this study were to examine the impact a pharmacological stressor, alpha-2 adrenergic receptor antagonist yohimbine, on the subjective, endocrine, and physiologic responses to drug-paired cues cocaine (...) -dependent men and women.In a double-blind placebo-controlled cross-over study, cocaine-dependent men (n = 32), cocaine-dependent women (n = 30), control men (n = 32), and control women (n = 25) received either yohimbine or placebo prior to two cocaine cue exposure sessions.Yohimbine increased ratings of anxiety both before (p < 0.001) and after (p = 0.035) cues, and the post-cue increase in anxiety was more pronounced in women (p = 0.001). Yohimbine also significantly increased craving, compared

2014 Psychopharmacology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

20. Yohimbine Enhancement of Exposure Therapy for Social Anxiety Disorder: A Randomized Controlled Trial. (Abstract)

Yohimbine Enhancement of Exposure Therapy for Social Anxiety Disorder: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Preclinical and clinical trials suggest that yohimbine may augment extinction learning without significant side effects. However, previous clinical trials have only examined adults with specific phobias. Yohimbine has not yet been investigated in the augmentation of exposure therapy for other anxiety disorders.Adults (n = 40) with a DSM-IV diagnosis of social anxiety disorder were randomized (...) to placebo or yohimbine HCl (10.8 mg) 1 hour before each of four exposure sessions. Outcome measures were collected at baseline, each treatment session, posttreatment, and 1-month follow-up.Yohimbine was well tolerated. Yohimbine augmentation, relative to placebo augmentation, resulted in faster improvement and better outcomes on self-report measures of social anxiety disorder severity (Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale, d = .53) and depressed mood severity (Beck Depression Inventory, d = .37

2014 Biological psychiatry Controlled trial quality: uncertain

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