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Work-Related Eye Injury

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161. Hypothermia

cold-related emergency department visits occurred per year and in the years 1999 to 2004, an average of 647 people died per year due to hypothermia. Of deaths reported between 1999 and 2002 in the US, 49% of those affected were 65 years or older and two-thirds were male. Most deaths were not work related (63%) and 23% of affected people were at home. Hypothermia was most common during the autumn and winter months of October through March. In the United Kingdom, an estimated 300 deaths per year (...) ) Stage 3 , not shivering Severe 20–28 °C (68.0–82.4 °F) Stage 4 No Profound <20 °C (68.0 °F) Hypothermia is often defined as any body temperature below 35.0 °C (95.0 °F). With this method it is divided into degrees of severity based on the . Another classification system, the Swiss staging system, divides hypothermia based on the presenting symptoms which is preferred when it is not possible to determine an accurate core temperature. Other cold-related injuries that can be present either alone

2012 Wikipedia

162. Specialty (medicine)

specialties in 1994 and 2002 found higher job satisfaction in those specialties with more patient contact. Rates of burnout also varied by specialty. See also [ ] , including – branch of clinical medicine that provides health advice to organizations and individuals concerning work-related health and safety issues and standards. See . – branch of that provides healthcare services to disaster survivors; guides medically related , , and throughout the disaster life cycle and serves as a liaison between (...) (not to be confused with ). and other malignant diseases, often grouped with hematology. OPH Surgery Retina, Cornea Diseases of the visual pathways, including the eyes, brain, etc. Maxfacs, OMS Surgery Oral and Craniofacial surgery (Head and neck) Facial cosmetic surgery Craniomaxillofacial trauma Disease of the head, neck, face, jaws and the hard and soft tissues of the oral and maxillofacial region. ORS Surgery , , adult reconstruction, spine surgery, foot and ankle, musculoskeletal oncology, orthopedic trauma

2012 Wikipedia

163. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder Full Text available with Trip Pro

to twelve and occur in more than one environment (e.g. at home and at school or work). The symptoms must be for a child of that age and there must be clear evidence that they are causing social, school or work related problems. International Classification of Diseases [ ] In the tenth revision of the ( ) by the , the symptoms of " " are analogous to ADHD in the DSM-5. When a (as defined by ICD-10) is present, the condition is referred to as hyperkinetic conduct disorder . Otherwise, the disorder (...) and withdrawal can overlap with some ADHD. These disorders can also sometimes occur along with ADHD. Medical conditions which can cause ADHD type symptoms include: , , , , , , , untreated , and . Primary sleep disorders may affect attention and behavior and the symptoms of ADHD may affect sleep. It is thus recommended that children with ADHD be regularly assessed for sleep problems. Sleepiness in children may result in symptoms ranging from the classic ones of yawning and rubbing the eyes, to hyperactivity

2012 Wikipedia

164. Bipolar disorder

, an individual or feels energetic, happy, or irritable. Individuals often make poorly thought out decisions with little regard to the consequences. The need for sleep is usually reduced during manic phases. During periods of depression, there may be crying, a negative outlook on life, and poor eye contact with others. The risk of among those with the illness is high at greater than 6 percent over 20 years, while occurs in 30–40 percent. Other mental health issues such as and are commonly associated (...) but refuses treatment. Severe behavioral problems, such as agitation or combativeness, may be managed with short term antipsychotics or . In periods of mania, it is recommended that be stopped. If antidepressants are used for periods of depression, they should be used with a mood stabilizer. (ECT), while not very well studied, may be tried for those who do not respond to other treatments. If treatments are stopped, it is recommended that this be done slowly. Many individuals have financial, social or work

2012 Wikipedia

165. Leptospirosis

contact with infected blood or body fluids. Rowers, kayakers and canoeists also sometimes contract the disease. It was once mostly work-related but is now often also related to and recreational activities. Pathogenesis [ ] Through (test tube) experimental data, it is shown that Leptospira enters through breaches in the skin, then into the bloodstream. This is followed by the invasion of the host cells such as human epidermal melanocytes. The bacteria later attached to the cells of the blood vessels (...) the eyes and . Muscle pain usually involves the and the lower back. The most characteristic feature of Leptospirosis is the conjunctival suffusion ( without ) which is not commonly found in other illnesses. Other characteristic findings on the eye includes and . Rash is rarely found in leptospirosis. When rash is found, other alternative diagnoses such as and should be considered. However, rashes can be found in front of the in the case of “Fort Bragg Fever” which was recorded among the soldiers

2012 Wikipedia

166. Mental health professional

some unmet need. Some of the reasons for the workforce shortage include high turnover rates, high levels of work-related stress, and inadequate compensation. Annual turnover rate is 33% for clinicians and 23% for clinical supervisors. This is compared to an annual PCP turnover rate of 7.1%. Compensation in behavioral health field is notably low. The average licensed clinical social worker, a position that requires a master's degree and 2000 hours of post graduate experience, earns $45,000/year (...) techniques, and may involve long-term community clients with brain injuries seeking jobs, education and community housing.] In the 1970s, psychiatrists were considered to be hospital-based, assessment, and clinical education personnel which were not involved in establishing community programs. They were often criticized for serving the "young, white, urban, professional" as their main clientele groups, though piloting services such as hospital social day care which are now in senior programs. Specialties

2012 Wikipedia

167. Tattoo

September 2008 , CFSAN/Office of Cosmetics and Colors (2000; updated 2004, 2006) , , retrieved 12 June 2006 Haley, R. W.; Fischer, R. P. (March 2000). "Commercial tattooing as a potential source of hepatitis C infection". Medicine . 80 (2): 134–151. : . Paola Piccinini, Laura Contor, Ivana Bianchi, Chiara Senaldi, Sazan Pakalin: Safety of tattoos and permanent make-up , , 2016, , . External links [ ] about Tattoo Quotations related to at Wikiquote Media related to at Wikimedia Commons Works related (...) -Japanese styles of tattooing. British anthropologist in 1900 described four methods of skin marking and suggested they be differentiated under the names "tatu", " ", " " and " ". Types [ ] The distinguishes five types of tattoos: traumatic tattoos, also called "natural tattoos", that result from injuries, especially asphalt from road injuries or pencil lead; amateur tattoos; professional tattoos, both via traditional methods and modern tattoo machines; cosmetic tattoos, also known

2012 Wikipedia

168. Occupational safety and health Full Text available with Trip Pro

many economic and other benefits, a wide array of workplace hazards also present risks to the health and safety of people at work. These include but are not limited to, "chemicals, biological agents, physical factors, adverse ergonomic conditions, allergens, a complex network of safety risks," and a broad range of psychosocial risk factors. can help protect against many of these hazards. affect many people in the workplace. Occupational hearing loss is the most common work-related injury (...) for the construction sector. Among nonsmoking workers, 24% of construction workers were exposed to secondhand smoke while only 10% of all U.S. workers were exposed. Other physical/chemical hazards with high prevalence rates in the construction industry were frequently working outdoors (73%) and frequent exposure to vapors, gas, dust, or fumes (51%). Agriculture [ ] Main article: on a tractor. Agriculture workers are often at risk of work-related injuries, lung disease, noise-induced hearing loss, skin disease

2012 Wikipedia

169. Occupational therapy Full Text available with Trip Pro

enter the industry between the ages of 21–30. Work and industry [ ] Occupational therapists work with clients who have had an injury and are returning to work. OTs perform assessments to simulate work tasks in order to determine best matches for work, accommodations needed at work, or the level of disability. Work conditioning and work hardening are interventions used to restore job skills that may have changed due to an illness or injury. Occupational therapists can also prevent work related (...) for older adults with low vision includes task analysis, environmental evaluation, and modification of tasks or the environment as needed. Many occupational therapy practitioners work closely with optometrists and ophthalmologists to address visual deficits in acuity, visual field, and eye movement in people with traumatic brain injury, including providing education on compensatory strategies to complete daily tasks safely and efficiently. Adults with a stable visual impairment may benefit from

2012 Wikipedia

170. Ocular nail gun injuries: epidemiology and visual outcomes. Full Text available with Trip Pro

injuries resulting from nail-gun injuries.This is an institutional review board-approved retrospective chart review of 24 patients presenting to the Medical University of South Carolina after sustaining eye injuries secondary to the use of nail-guns. The records of 178 patients with penetrating eye injuries treated between July 1996 and June 2006 were reviewed. Twenty-four patients (14%) had open globe injuries related to nail-guns. Demographic data, ocular examination findings, and visual outcomes (...) were recorded.Of the 24 cases identified, 17 were work-related; this represented approximately 71% of patients. All were men with an average age of 29.4 years. Fifty-eight percent of the patients were non-English speaking. There was no record of any patient wearing safety glasses at the time of injury. The visual acuity at presentation ranged from 20/20 to hand motion or worse. Half (50%) of these patients had a presenting visual acuity of hand motion or worse. At last examination, 38% (nine

2009 Journal of Trauma

171. A controlled comparison study to evaluate different management strategies for workplace trauma

A controlled comparison study to evaluate different management strategies for workplace trauma EARLY INTERVENTION FOLLOWING TRAUMA: A CONTROLLED LONGITUDINAL STUDY AT ROYAL MAIL GROUP Other titles from IES: Workplace trauma and its management: a review of the literature Rick J, Perryman S, Young K, Guppy A, Hillage J HSE Contract Research Report 170/98, 1998. ISBN 0 7176 1552 9 Cognitive Factors’ Influence on the Expression and Reporting of Work-Related Stress Daniels K, Jones D, Perryman S (...) , Rick J, Fergusson E HSE Research Report RR170, 2004. ISBN 0 7176 2770 5 Best Practice in Rehabilitating Employees Following Absence Due to Work-Related Stress Thomson L, Rick J, Neathey F HSE Research Report RR138, 2003. ISBN 0 7176 2715 2 Review of Existing Supporting Scientific Knowledge to Underpin Standards of Good Practice for Key Work-Related Stressors, Phase 1 Rick J, Thomson L, Briner R, O'Regan S, Daniels K HSE Research Report RR024, 2002. ISBN 0 7176 2568 0 A catalogue of these and all

2006 British Occupational Health Research Foundation

172. Provocative factors in asthma

be obtained. Information can be requested from the work site, including material safety data sheets. Walk-through visits of the workplace may be necessary. Industrial hygiene data and employee health records can also be obtained. Temporal associations are not sufficient to diagnose work-related asthma, and objective tests are necessary to confirm the diagnosis. Workers with asthma symptoms should not be told to leave their job until the diagnosis is proven because part of the diagnostic work-up of OA may (...) compounds detectable in indoor air are irritating to the eyes and the upper respiratory tract. Preventing respiratory effects of irritants consists of reducing exposure. During periods of increased outdoor pollution, patients can minimize exposure by remaining indoors or reducing exercise outdoors. Reduction of indoor pollutants can be achieved by avoiding exposure to cigarette smoke, by ensuring adequate venting of gas stoves and ensuring that wood stoves are air tight. Pregnant and breastfeeding

1999 CPG Infobase

173. Health interventions for the metal working industry: which is the most cost-effective? A study from a developing country

COMMENTARY - Selection of comparators The interventions considered at analysis were chosen because they seemed to be the currently used health interventions in the authors' setting to reduce incidence, disability and mortality associated with work-related injuries. You must decide which is the most widely used health technology for reducing incidence, disability and mortality related with work injuries in your own setting. Validity of estimate of measure of effectiveness The authors reported (...) of combining primary studies Not reported. Investigation of differences between primary studies Not reported. Results of the review The coverage rates were 80% for the use of safety goggles, 96% for safety shoes, 70% for lower back supports, 96% for gloves, 83% for helmets, 100% for aprons, 43% for education and 70% for training. The efficacy rates for reducing incidence of work injury, according to the type of injury, were: 99 to 100% for eye-related injuries by using goggles; 100% for foot wound

2002 NHS Economic Evaluation Database.

175. Study of REN-1654 in Patients With Sciatica Pain

, have requested for or been advised by their physicians to receive local, regional, or spinal (articular, epidural, intrathecal or nerve root block) injections of medications for pain treatment or surgical intervention for their sciatica symptoms. Although subjects who report work-related injuries will be allowed to enroll, subjects will be excluded if they are involved in litigation related to the current episode of sciatica. Subjects with a screening creatinine laboratory value of ≥ 2.0 mg/dL (...) vision, such as age-related macular degeneration, lazy eye (amblyopia), double vision, or any optic nerve inflammation; presbyopia and other non-pathological visual acuity deficits are not exclusionary); Glaucoma or history of ocular hypertension (intraocular pressures greater than 21 mmHg). Cognitive or psychiatric disorders that may diminish compliance with study procedures, including maintenance of a daily pain diary and accurate dosing of study medication. Subjects who, at time of enrollment

2005 Clinical Trials

176. Stress and Post-traumatic Stress Disorder

-refractory combat post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD): study protocol for a pilot randomized controlled trial with blinded, staggered onset of stimulation. Trials. 2014 Sep 1015:356. doi: 10.1186/1745-6215-15-356. ; Interventions to improve work outcomes in work-related PTSD: a systematic review. BMC Public Health. 2011 Oct 3111:838. doi: 10.1186/1471-2458-11-838. ; Considering trauma exposure in the context of genetics studies of posttraumatic stress disorder: a systematic review. Biol Mood Anxiety (...) refugee healthcare assessment. This should be a part of any comprehensive physical and mental health screen. Differential diagnosis . Specific . . Adjustment disorders. . Enduring personality change after catastrophic experience. . Neurological injury or disease. . Complicated grief reaction. Malingering. Management Much more detail about the nature of various types of management, including psychological therapies, can be found in the NICE full guidelines. [ ] General principles Single-session

2008 Mentor

177. Night Terrors and Parasomnias

, or even outside it. Complex tasks such as eating, work-related activities or sexual behaviour may be performed and the patient may talk. Patients usually awake confused and amnestic for any of their activity. It usually occurs during NREM (non-dreaming) sleep and can be worsened or precipitated by sleep deprivation. The patient may wake or simply go back to sleep in their bed or somewhere else, without coming to until the morning. Somnambulistic sexual behaviour It is also known as sexsomnia, or sleep (...) more protracted waxing and waning phases of the phenomenon. Rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder [ ] This is enactment of the experience of dreams during REM sleep. Kicking, punching, flailing limbs, grabbing, shouting, talking and sitting-up are typical behaviours. It may occur acutely in those withdrawing from alcohol or other sedatives, or chronically when it tends to be the patient's family or bed partner bringing the problem to medical attention. It may present because of injury

2008 Mentor

178. Accidents in the workplace. (Abstract)

Accidents in the workplace. A prospective survey of patients attending the central Accident and Emergency Department and Eye Casualty Department in Aberdeen was made to determine the contribution of accidents at work to the workload of the departments and to estimate risks of injury in different industrial sectors. Work-related injuries accounted for 16.5 per cent of new patients attending the general accident department and 21.7 per cent of those attending eye casualty. Analysis by industrial (...) sector led to estimates that almost one in 10 workers employed in manufacturing industries and in agriculture/forestry/fishing will attend casualty in the course of a year for a work-related injury. The relatively low-risk service sector, because of the large numbers of people employed, contributed the greatest number of individuals with work-related injuries. Two industries had very high rates of specific and preventable injuries--food and fish processing with an estimated 17 knife lacerations per

1991 The Journal of the Society of Occupational Medicine

179. Chemical burns Full Text available with Trip Pro

Chemical burns To report a burn unit's experience with chemical burns and to discuss the fundamental principles in managing chemical burns.A chart review.A burn centre at a major university-affiliated hospital.Twenty-four patients with chemical burns, representing 2.6% of all burn admissions over an 8-year period at the Ross Tilley Regional Adult Burn Centre. Seventy-five percent of the burn injuries were work-related accidents. Chemicals involved included hydrofluoric acid, sulfuric acid (...) estimation of the extent of injury, identification of systemic toxicity, treatment of ocular contacts and management of chemical inhalation injury. Individualized treatment is emphasized.

1996 Canadian Journal of Surgery

180. Ocular Emergencies

diagnosis and therapy. 3rd edn. Pavan-Langston D, editor. Boston, MA USA: Little, Brown and Company , 1991. 2. Kanski J. Clinical ophthalmology: a systematic approach. 3rd edn. Oxford, England: Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd, 1994. 3. Eye emergency manual. An illustrated guide. NSW Department of Health February 2007. Available at www.health.nsw.gov.au/gmct/ophthalmology/pdf/eye_manual.pdf. 4. Shaw PT, Shah P , Elkington AR. Injury to the eye. BMJ 2004;123:36–8. 5. Peate WF. Work-related eye injuries (...) entrapped. Muscle restriction and diplopia should be noted. Examination may be difficult if swelling is present. Diagnosis may not be possible until this subsides. Penetrating ocular injuries Penetrating wounds, although rare, may be dramatic in presentation. The front of the eye (anterior chamber) may be flat in appearance; small bubbles may be present in the anterior chamber and the pupil may be irregular and nonreactive. The iris in severe cases may extrude from the wound (Figure 1). Although

2008 The Royal Australian College of General Practitioners

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