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Work-Related Eye Injury

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161. Allergic and Environmental Asthma (Follow-up)

should clean and dust their home regularly. If a patient cannot avoid vacuuming, he or she should use a face mask or a double-bagged vacuum with a high-efficiency particulate air filter. Active smoking and exposure to passive smoke must be avoided. Room air ionizers have not been proven to be effective for people with chronic asthma, and the generation of ozone by these machines may be harmful to some. Specific factors related to the home are described below. Guidelines on work-related asthma from (...) or business associates with similar problems Symptoms after eating (dried, canned, or processed food) Medications, such as beta blockers (including eye drops), aspirin, or other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) Physical Examination Physical examination findings are often normal. Head and neck Nasal mucosal swelling, discharge, polyps, or sinus percussion tenderness may suggest associated allergic rhinitis or sinusitis. Wheezing heard only or mostly over the neck may suggest ( ) or other

2014 eMedicine.com

162. Corneal Foreign Body (Follow-up)

. Escherichia coli keratitis treated with ultraviolet A/riboflavin corneal cross-linking: a case report. Eur J Ophthalmol . 2009 Mar-Apr. 19(2):295-7. . Xu Z, Yu X, Li Z, Wang L. The role of in vivo confocal microscopy in the diagnosis of hidden corneal foreign bodies. J Int Med Res . 2014 Feb. 42(1):145-52. . Peate WF. Work-related eye injuries and illnesses. Am Fam Physician . 2007 Apr 1. 75(7):1017-22. . Carley F, Carley S. Towards evidence based emergency medicine: best BETs from the Manchester Royal (...) are trained in and regularly perform this procedure should complete it. Foreign bodies that present any potential for intraocular penetration must by explored in the operating room. These injuries should be explored within 24 hours of initial examination. Previous Next: Consultations Immediately refer to an ophthalmologist in case of the following: Hyphema (blood in the anterior chamber) Diffuse corneal damage (focal or diffuse opacity) Scleral or corneal laceration Lid edema Diffuse subconjunctival

2014 eMedicine.com

163. Glaucoma, Angle Recession (Diagnosis)

. [ ] Work-related injuries have been reported as 13-18% of all cases of eye trauma. Injuries at home account for 27-31%, followed by assault (11-37%), sports and recreation (about 25%), travel (about 5%), and miscellaneous causes (eg, injuries at school, unknown causes; < 5%). [ , , , , , , ] Rates of bilateral injuries are as high as 27%. The incidence of angle recession in the United States is not reported, but it has been described in 20-94% of eyes affected by blunt trauma. A 1987 study involving (...) secondary open-angle glaucoma. [ ] This condition may be underdiagnosed because onset is often delayed and because a history of eye injury may be distant or forgotten. Angle recession, with or without glaucoma, is a common sequela of blunt ocular trauma and one characterized by a variable degree of cleavage between the circular and the longitudinal fibers of the ciliary muscle. Traumatic microhyphema and gross hyphema are both equally associated with a high risk of angle recession. [ ] Irregular

2014 eMedicine.com

164. Evaluation of the Injured Worker (Diagnosis)

supervisor, should the injuries sustained be considered work related? What if the employee had taken a small detour to pick up personal dry cleaning on the way back from the office supply store? What if an employee comes in on his/her day off to catch up on paperwork at the office and trips and falls? What if, while on the clock, a mechanic at work decides to change the oil in his own car and has chemicals splash into his eyes? Because the physician will be asked to comment on causation, the medical (...) . [ ] Treatment considerations When treating an injured worker, the clinician must be aware of factors that can affect the duration and outcome of an injury. Addressing these factors results in more effective treatment and a more favorable outcome. Work-related musculoskeletal disorders occur when there is a mismatch between the physical requirements of the job and the physical capacity of the human body. More than 100 different injuries can result from repetitive motions that produce wear and tear

2014 eMedicine.com

165. Evaluation of the Injured Worker (Follow-up)

supervisor, should the injuries sustained be considered work related? What if the employee had taken a small detour to pick up personal dry cleaning on the way back from the office supply store? What if an employee comes in on his/her day off to catch up on paperwork at the office and trips and falls? What if, while on the clock, a mechanic at work decides to change the oil in his own car and has chemicals splash into his eyes? Because the physician will be asked to comment on causation, the medical (...) . [ ] Treatment considerations When treating an injured worker, the clinician must be aware of factors that can affect the duration and outcome of an injury. Addressing these factors results in more effective treatment and a more favorable outcome. Work-related musculoskeletal disorders occur when there is a mismatch between the physical requirements of the job and the physical capacity of the human body. More than 100 different injuries can result from repetitive motions that produce wear and tear

2014 eMedicine.com

166. Corneal Abrasion (Treatment)

humor. The cornea is innervated primarily by the ophthalmic division of the trigeminal nerve and the oculomotor nerve. Although the exact frequency of emergency department visits for corneal abrasions is unknown, a 1985 survey showed that around 3% of all cases to US general practitioners were corneal abrasions. [ ] In addition, in 2008, approximately 27,450 work-related eye injuries and illnesses occurred that caused missed time from work. [ ] See the following image. Corneal foreign body (...) movements and the pupillary reflex. Occasionally, the patient may have a reactive miosis. If there is any history or signs of globe injury with violation of ocular contents, a plastic or metal shield should be placed, and an ophthalmologist should be called urgently. Assess visual acuity. If the abrasion affects the visual axis, then there may be a deficit in acuity that should be apparent when compared to the uninjured eye. Perform a visual inspection for foreign objects (see the image below). Both

2014 eMedicine Emergency Medicine

167. Toxicity, Organic Phosphorous Compounds and Carbamates (Overview)

of exposure, and the time to initial treatment. The most common cause of mortality in OPC and carbamate poisoning is respiratory failure; however, death is rare, occurring in 0.04-1% of typical pesticide poisonings. [ ] Race-, Sex-, and Age-related Variance No racial predilection exists. Men have an increased incidence because of increased work-related exposure and increased suicidal attempts with OP and carbamate compounds. Children have an increased incidence of unintentional exposure at home. One (...) acetylcholine (ACh) to choline and acetic acid. Therefore, the inhibition of AChE causes an excess of ACh in synapses and neuromuscular junctions, resulting in muscarinic and nicotinic symptoms and signs. Excess ACh in the synapse can lead to 3 sets of symptoms and signs. First, accumulation of ACh at postganglionic parasympathetic muscarinic acetylcholine receptors leads to parasympathetic activity of smooth muscle in the lungs, GI tract, heart, eyes, bladder, and secretory glands and increased activity

2014 eMedicine Emergency Medicine

168. Corneal Laceration (Overview)

. Approximately 2% of all emergency department visits are due to eye injuries. [ ] Penetrating eye injury can occur in individuals of any age, but data from USEIR demonstrate that the mean age of the patient with an ocular injury is 29 years (median age, 26 y), with nearly 60% being younger than 30 years. [ ] The also has statistics available. These data suggest similar trends to the USEIR data. The features information pertaining to work-related eye injuries. More than 90% of eye injuries are preventable (...) lacerations is rare, but morbidity can be significant. Corneal lacerations or subsequent secondary infection (endophthalmitis) can result in complete or partial loss of vision, loss of the eye, or systemic infection. Other complications include corneal scarring, cataract formation, and secondary glaucoma. [ ] Sex Males are about 1.7 times more likely than females to have penetrating ocular injury. [ ] Age Although ocular trauma can occur in persons of all ages, the majority of injuries occur in those aged

2014 eMedicine Emergency Medicine

169. Corneal Abrasion (Overview)

. The cornea is innervated primarily by the ophthalmic division of the trigeminal nerve and the oculomotor nerve. Although the exact frequency of emergency department visits for corneal abrasions is unknown, a 1985 survey showed that around 3% of all cases to US general practitioners were corneal abrasions. [ ] In addition, in 2008, approximately 27,450 work-related eye injuries and illnesses occurred that caused missed time from work. [ ] See the following image. Corneal foreign body with cobalt blue (...) and the pupillary reflex. Occasionally, the patient may have a reactive miosis. If there is any history or signs of globe injury with violation of ocular contents, a plastic or metal shield should be placed, and an ophthalmologist should be called urgently. Assess visual acuity. If the abrasion affects the visual axis, then there may be a deficit in acuity that should be apparent when compared to the uninjured eye. Perform a visual inspection for foreign objects (see the image below). Both upper and lower

2014 eMedicine Emergency Medicine

170. Corneal Laceration (Diagnosis)

. Approximately 2% of all emergency department visits are due to eye injuries. [ ] Penetrating eye injury can occur in individuals of any age, but data from USEIR demonstrate that the mean age of the patient with an ocular injury is 29 years (median age, 26 y), with nearly 60% being younger than 30 years. [ ] The also has statistics available. These data suggest similar trends to the USEIR data. The features information pertaining to work-related eye injuries. More than 90% of eye injuries are preventable (...) lacerations is rare, but morbidity can be significant. Corneal lacerations or subsequent secondary infection (endophthalmitis) can result in complete or partial loss of vision, loss of the eye, or systemic infection. Other complications include corneal scarring, cataract formation, and secondary glaucoma. [ ] Sex Males are about 1.7 times more likely than females to have penetrating ocular injury. [ ] Age Although ocular trauma can occur in persons of all ages, the majority of injuries occur in those aged

2014 eMedicine Emergency Medicine

171. Corneal Abrasion (Diagnosis)

humor. The cornea is innervated primarily by the ophthalmic division of the trigeminal nerve and the oculomotor nerve. Although the exact frequency of emergency department visits for corneal abrasions is unknown, a 1985 survey showed that around 3% of all cases to US general practitioners were corneal abrasions. [ ] In addition, in 2008, approximately 27,450 work-related eye injuries and illnesses occurred that caused missed time from work. [ ] See the following image. Corneal foreign body (...) movements and the pupillary reflex. Occasionally, the patient may have a reactive miosis. If there is any history or signs of globe injury with violation of ocular contents, a plastic or metal shield should be placed, and an ophthalmologist should be called urgently. Assess visual acuity. If the abrasion affects the visual axis, then there may be a deficit in acuity that should be apparent when compared to the uninjured eye. Perform a visual inspection for foreign objects (see the image below). Both

2014 eMedicine Emergency Medicine

172. Corneal Abrasion (Follow-up)

humor. The cornea is innervated primarily by the ophthalmic division of the trigeminal nerve and the oculomotor nerve. Although the exact frequency of emergency department visits for corneal abrasions is unknown, a 1985 survey showed that around 3% of all cases to US general practitioners were corneal abrasions. [ ] In addition, in 2008, approximately 27,450 work-related eye injuries and illnesses occurred that caused missed time from work. [ ] See the following image. Corneal foreign body (...) movements and the pupillary reflex. Occasionally, the patient may have a reactive miosis. If there is any history or signs of globe injury with violation of ocular contents, a plastic or metal shield should be placed, and an ophthalmologist should be called urgently. Assess visual acuity. If the abrasion affects the visual axis, then there may be a deficit in acuity that should be apparent when compared to the uninjured eye. Perform a visual inspection for foreign objects (see the image below). Both

2014 eMedicine Emergency Medicine

173. Toxicity, Organic Phosphorous Compounds and Carbamates (Diagnosis)

of exposure, and the time to initial treatment. The most common cause of mortality in OPC and carbamate poisoning is respiratory failure; however, death is rare, occurring in 0.04-1% of typical pesticide poisonings. [ ] Race-, Sex-, and Age-related Variance No racial predilection exists. Men have an increased incidence because of increased work-related exposure and increased suicidal attempts with OP and carbamate compounds. Children have an increased incidence of unintentional exposure at home. One (...) acetylcholine (ACh) to choline and acetic acid. Therefore, the inhibition of AChE causes an excess of ACh in synapses and neuromuscular junctions, resulting in muscarinic and nicotinic symptoms and signs. Excess ACh in the synapse can lead to 3 sets of symptoms and signs. First, accumulation of ACh at postganglionic parasympathetic muscarinic acetylcholine receptors leads to parasympathetic activity of smooth muscle in the lungs, GI tract, heart, eyes, bladder, and secretory glands and increased activity

2014 eMedicine Emergency Medicine

174. Hemorrhagic Cystitis (Diagnosis)

, 3.35) with the bladder. In the acute setting, the bladder can be copiously irrigated with alkalinized normal saline to minimize bladder irritation. [ , ] Chemically induced hemorrhagic cystitis Cases of with no infectious etiology have been reported in patients who have been in contact with certain urotoxic chemicals, such as derivatives of aniline (found in dyes, marking pens, and shoe polish) and toluidine (found in pesticides and shoe polish). Exposure to these chemicals is usually work-related (...) in immunocompromised patients are often complicated by hemorrhage. Reported causative infectious agents for hemorrhagic cystitis include the following: Escherichia coli Adenoviruses 7, 11, 21, and 35 Papovavirus Influenza A Radiation-induced hemorrhagic cystitis Nearly 25% of patients who undergo pelvic radiation develop bladder-related complications. Mucosal ischemia secondary to radiation injury results from endarteritis inducing hypoxic surface damage, ulceration, and bleeding. The incidence in the pediatric

2014 eMedicine Pediatrics

175. Conjunctival Foreign Body

Conjunctival Foreign Body Aka: Conjunctival Foreign Body , Conjunctiva Foreign Body From Related Chapters II. Causes Work related particles (drilling, Sanding) Environmental (Sand, Dirt) III. Symptoms Foreign body sensation "Trash in my eye" Foreign body feels as if it is moving Object usually lodged under upper lid and not mobile As patient blinks, different parts irritated IV. Exam Techniques Inferior Cul-de-sac foreign body Patient looks up while lower lid pulled down Superior Cul-de-sac foreign body (...) on the image (or right click) to open the source website in a new browser window. Related Studies (from Trip Database) Related Topics in Traumatic Injury About FPnotebook.com is a rapid access, point-of-care medical reference for primary care and emergency clinicians. Started in 1995, this collection now contains 6656 interlinked topic pages divided into a tree of 31 specialty books and 728 chapters. Content is with systematic literature reviews and conferences. Although access to this website

2015 FP Notebook

176. Traumatic brain injury Full Text available with Trip Pro

% of cases of pediatric brain trauma, and the death rate is higher among these cases. Although men are twice as likely to have a TBI. is another cause of TBI, as are work-related and industrial accidents. Firearms and blast injuries from explosions are other causes of TBI, which is the leading cause of death and disability in war zones. According to Representative Bill Pascrell (Democrat, NJ), TBI is "the signature injury of the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan." There is a promising technology called (...) , damaged. One type of focal injury, , occurs when the tissue is cut or torn. Such tearing is common in in particular, because of bony protrusions on the interior skull ridge above the eyes. In a similar injury, (bruising of brain tissue), blood is mixed among tissue. In contrast, involves bleeding that is not mixed with tissue. Hematomas, also focal lesions, are collections of blood in or around the brain that can result from hemorrhage. , with bleeding in the brain tissue itself, is an intra-axial

2012 Wikipedia

177. Predictive factors and outcomes of posterior segment intraocular foreign bodies Full Text available with Trip Pro

pupillary defect.In noncombat IOFBs, most cases were work-related. Delayed IOFBs removal was acceptable when primary wounds were repaired appropriately and extensive antibiotics administered. Even though advancement in vitreoretinal surgery can reduce the frequency of blindness, further promotion and education on eye protection during work are needed. (...) was 33.4 years. The nature of IOFBs was mainly metal, with injuries most commonly caused by an electric grass trimmer. The mean time interval between injury and IOFBs removal was 30.7 days. The mean preoperative visual acuity (VA) was 1.82 logarithm of the minimal angle of resolution (logMAR), and mean final was VA 1.10 logMAR. From multivariate analysis, good visual outcome was correlated with the corneoscleral entry site, and poor visual outcome was correlated with the presence of relative afferent

2011 Eye

178. Tattoo

September 2008 , CFSAN/Office of Cosmetics and Colors (2000; updated 2004, 2006) , , retrieved 12 June 2006 Haley, R. W.; Fischer, R. P. (March 2000). "Commercial tattooing as a potential source of hepatitis C infection". Medicine . 80 (2): 134–151. : . Paola Piccinini, Laura Contor, Ivana Bianchi, Chiara Senaldi, Sazan Pakalin: Safety of tattoos and permanent make-up , , 2016, , . External links [ ] about Tattoo Quotations related to at Wikiquote Media related to at Wikimedia Commons Works related (...) -Japanese styles of tattooing. British anthropologist in 1900 described four methods of skin marking and suggested they be differentiated under the names "tatu", " ", " " and " ". Types [ ] The distinguishes five types of tattoos: traumatic tattoos, also called "natural tattoos", that result from injuries, especially asphalt from road injuries or pencil lead; amateur tattoos; professional tattoos, both via traditional methods and modern tattoo machines; cosmetic tattoos, also known

2012 Wikipedia

179. Occupational therapy Full Text available with Trip Pro

enter the industry between the ages of 21–30. Work and industry [ ] Occupational therapists work with clients who have had an injury and are returning to work. OTs perform assessments to simulate work tasks in order to determine best matches for work, accommodations needed at work, or the level of disability. Work conditioning and work hardening are interventions used to restore job skills that may have changed due to an illness or injury. Occupational therapists can also prevent work related (...) for older adults with low vision includes task analysis, environmental evaluation, and modification of tasks or the environment as needed. Many occupational therapy practitioners work closely with optometrists and ophthalmologists to address visual deficits in acuity, visual field, and eye movement in people with traumatic brain injury, including providing education on compensatory strategies to complete daily tasks safely and efficiently. Adults with a stable visual impairment may benefit from

2012 Wikipedia

180. Occupational safety and health Full Text available with Trip Pro

many economic and other benefits, a wide array of workplace hazards also present risks to the health and safety of people at work. These include but are not limited to, "chemicals, biological agents, physical factors, adverse ergonomic conditions, allergens, a complex network of safety risks," and a broad range of psychosocial risk factors. can help protect against many of these hazards. affect many people in the workplace. Occupational hearing loss is the most common work-related injury (...) for the construction sector. Among nonsmoking workers, 24% of construction workers were exposed to secondhand smoke while only 10% of all U.S. workers were exposed. Other physical/chemical hazards with high prevalence rates in the construction industry were frequently working outdoors (73%) and frequent exposure to vapors, gas, dust, or fumes (51%). Agriculture [ ] Main article: on a tractor. Agriculture workers are often at risk of work-related injuries, lung disease, noise-induced hearing loss, skin disease

2012 Wikipedia

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