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Work-Related Eye Injury

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141. Corneal Foreign Body (Diagnosis)

L. The role of in vivo confocal microscopy in the diagnosis of hidden corneal foreign bodies. J Int Med Res . 2014 Feb. 42(1):145-52. . Peate WF. Work-related eye injuries and illnesses. Am Fam Physician . 2007 Apr 1. 75(7):1017-22. . Carley F, Carley S. Towards evidence based emergency medicine: best BETs from the Manchester Royal Infirmary. Mydriatics in corneal abrasion. Emerg Med J . 2001 Jul. 18(4):273. . Arbour JD, Brunette I, Boisjoly HM, Shi ZH, Dumas J, Guertin MC. Should we patch (...) for ophthalmic emergencies. Sometimes, the foreign body may not be present at the time of examination, having left the residual corneal abrasion with resultant pain. Superficial corneal foreign bodies are much more common than deeply embedded corneal foreign bodies. The possibility of an intraocular foreign body must always be considered when a patient presents with a history of trauma. In major league baseball, 33% of all eye injuries are corneal abrasions; in the National Basketball Association, corneal

2014 eMedicine.com

142. Corneal Abrasion (Diagnosis)

States, 65,000 work-related eye injuries and illnesses that cause missed time from work occur each year. [ ] A study of eye injuries in a major US automotive corporation found an annual incidence of 15 eye injuries per 1000 employees. Between July 1989 and June 1992, a total of 1983 work-related eye injuries occurred at 33 plants, with 86.7% of cases being superficial foreign bodies and corneal abrasions. [ ] The eye injuries comprised 6% of total injuries. One third of eye injuries resulted (...) . [ ] In a retrospective review from Torino, Italy, ocular injuries, including corneal abrasions, were associated with significant morbidity. [ ] Previous References Mann I. Study of epithelial regeneration in living eye. Br J Ophthalmol . 1944. 28:26. Chen JJ, Tseng SC. Abnormal corneal epithelial wound healing in partial-thickness removal of limbal epithelium. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci . 1991 Jul. 32(8):2219-33. . Dua HS, Gomes JA, Singh A. Corneal epithelial wound healing. Br J Ophthalmol . 1994 May. 78(5):401-8

2014 eMedicine.com

143. Evaluation of the Injured Worker (Diagnosis)

supervisor, should the injuries sustained be considered work related? What if the employee had taken a small detour to pick up personal dry cleaning on the way back from the office supply store? What if an employee comes in on his/her day off to catch up on paperwork at the office and trips and falls? What if, while on the clock, a mechanic at work decides to change the oil in his own car and has chemicals splash into his eyes? Because the physician will be asked to comment on causation, the medical (...) . [ ] Treatment considerations When treating an injured worker, the clinician must be aware of factors that can affect the duration and outcome of an injury. Addressing these factors results in more effective treatment and a more favorable outcome. Work-related musculoskeletal disorders occur when there is a mismatch between the physical requirements of the job and the physical capacity of the human body. More than 100 different injuries can result from repetitive motions that produce wear and tear

2014 eMedicine.com

144. Glaucoma, Angle Recession (Diagnosis)

. [ ] Work-related injuries have been reported as 13-18% of all cases of eye trauma. Injuries at home account for 27-31%, followed by assault (11-37%), sports and recreation (about 25%), travel (about 5%), and miscellaneous causes (eg, injuries at school, unknown causes; < 5%). [ , , , , , , ] Rates of bilateral injuries are as high as 27%. The incidence of angle recession in the United States is not reported, but it has been described in 20-94% of eyes affected by blunt trauma. A 1987 study involving (...) secondary open-angle glaucoma. [ ] This condition may be underdiagnosed because onset is often delayed and because a history of eye injury may be distant or forgotten. Angle recession, with or without glaucoma, is a common sequela of blunt ocular trauma and one characterized by a variable degree of cleavage between the circular and the longitudinal fibers of the ciliary muscle. Traumatic microhyphema and gross hyphema are both equally associated with a high risk of angle recession. [ ] Irregular

2014 eMedicine.com

145. Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy

are wide surgical debridement and aggressive antibiotic therapy. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) is used adjunctively with these measures, as it offers several mechanisms of action to control the infection and reduce tissue loss. First, HBOT is toxic to anaerobic bacteria. [ ] Next, HBOT improves polymorphonuclear function and bacterial clearance. [ , ] Based on results of work related to CO poisoning, HBOT may decrease neutrophil adherence based on inhibition of beta-2 integrin function (...) to lower intraocular pressure and movement of a potential embolus downstream, ocular massage, anterior chamber paracentesis, and medications (both eye drops and oral). Most modalities have proven inefficacious. [ ] A small study by Hertzog et al evaluated HBOT with CRAO. Patients were divided into groups based on time of onset of CRAO to HBOT. The study noted that HBOT was most useful in preserving vision if instituted within eight hours. [ ] Another retrospective study published by Beiran compared

2014 eMedicine.com

146. Foreign Body Removal, Cornea

. Corneal injury from a metallic foreign body: an occupational hazard. Eye Contact Lens . 2007 Sep. 33(5):259-60. . Peate WF. Work-related eye injuries and illnesses. Am Fam Physician . 2007 Apr 1. 75(7):1017-22. . Macedo Filho ET, Lago A, Duarte K, Liang SJ, Lima AL, Freitas D. Superficial corneal foreign body: laboratory and epidemiologic aspects. Arq Bras Oftalmol . 2005 Nov-Dec. 68(6):821-3. . Roberts JR, Hedges RJ. Ophthalmologic procedures. Clinical Procedures in Emergency Medicine . 4th ed (...) in a timely manner, they can cause prolonged pain and lead to complications such as infection and ocular necrosis. An embedded foreign body. See , a Critical Images slideshow, to help identify various foreign objects and determine appropriate interventions and treatment options. An intraocular foreign body penetrates into the anterior chamber of the eye or into the globe itself. It is likely to cause significant morbidity and, thus, necessitates a through workup, including, in many instances, a detailed

2014 eMedicine.com

147. Hemorrhagic Cystitis (Overview)

, 3.35) with the bladder. In the acute setting, the bladder can be copiously irrigated with alkalinized normal saline to minimize bladder irritation. [ , ] Chemically induced hemorrhagic cystitis Cases of with no infectious etiology have been reported in patients who have been in contact with certain urotoxic chemicals, such as derivatives of aniline (found in dyes, marking pens, and shoe polish) and toluidine (found in pesticides and shoe polish). Exposure to these chemicals is usually work-related (...) in immunocompromised patients are often complicated by hemorrhage. Reported causative infectious agents for hemorrhagic cystitis include the following: Escherichia coli Adenoviruses 7, 11, 21, and 35 Papovavirus Influenza A Radiation-induced hemorrhagic cystitis Nearly 25% of patients who undergo pelvic radiation develop bladder-related complications. Mucosal ischemia secondary to radiation injury results from endarteritis inducing hypoxic surface damage, ulceration, and bleeding. The incidence in the pediatric

2014 eMedicine Pediatrics

148. Corneal Laceration (Diagnosis)

. Approximately 2% of all emergency department visits are due to eye injuries. [ ] Penetrating eye injury can occur in individuals of any age, but data from USEIR demonstrate that the mean age of the patient with an ocular injury is 29 years (median age, 26 y), with nearly 60% being younger than 30 years. [ ] The also has statistics available. These data suggest similar trends to the USEIR data. The features information pertaining to work-related eye injuries. More than 90% of eye injuries are preventable (...) lacerations is rare, but morbidity can be significant. Corneal lacerations or subsequent secondary infection (endophthalmitis) can result in complete or partial loss of vision, loss of the eye, or systemic infection. Other complications include corneal scarring, cataract formation, and secondary glaucoma. [ ] Sex Males are about 1.7 times more likely than females to have penetrating ocular injury. [ ] Age Although ocular trauma can occur in persons of all ages, the majority of injuries occur in those aged

2014 eMedicine Emergency Medicine

149. Corneal Abrasion (Diagnosis)

humor. The cornea is innervated primarily by the ophthalmic division of the trigeminal nerve and the oculomotor nerve. Although the exact frequency of emergency department visits for corneal abrasions is unknown, a 1985 survey showed that around 3% of all cases to US general practitioners were corneal abrasions. [ ] In addition, in 2008, approximately 27,450 work-related eye injuries and illnesses occurred that caused missed time from work. [ ] See the following image. Corneal foreign body (...) movements and the pupillary reflex. Occasionally, the patient may have a reactive miosis. If there is any history or signs of globe injury with violation of ocular contents, a plastic or metal shield should be placed, and an ophthalmologist should be called urgently. Assess visual acuity. If the abrasion affects the visual axis, then there may be a deficit in acuity that should be apparent when compared to the uninjured eye. Perform a visual inspection for foreign objects (see the image below). Both

2014 eMedicine Emergency Medicine

150. Hemorrhagic Cystitis (Diagnosis)

, 3.35) with the bladder. In the acute setting, the bladder can be copiously irrigated with alkalinized normal saline to minimize bladder irritation. [ , ] Chemically induced hemorrhagic cystitis Cases of with no infectious etiology have been reported in patients who have been in contact with certain urotoxic chemicals, such as derivatives of aniline (found in dyes, marking pens, and shoe polish) and toluidine (found in pesticides and shoe polish). Exposure to these chemicals is usually work-related (...) in immunocompromised patients are often complicated by hemorrhage. Reported causative infectious agents for hemorrhagic cystitis include the following: Escherichia coli Adenoviruses 7, 11, 21, and 35 Papovavirus Influenza A Radiation-induced hemorrhagic cystitis Nearly 25% of patients who undergo pelvic radiation develop bladder-related complications. Mucosal ischemia secondary to radiation injury results from endarteritis inducing hypoxic surface damage, ulceration, and bleeding. The incidence in the pediatric

2014 eMedicine Pediatrics

151. Corneal Abrasion (Follow-up)

humor. The cornea is innervated primarily by the ophthalmic division of the trigeminal nerve and the oculomotor nerve. Although the exact frequency of emergency department visits for corneal abrasions is unknown, a 1985 survey showed that around 3% of all cases to US general practitioners were corneal abrasions. [ ] In addition, in 2008, approximately 27,450 work-related eye injuries and illnesses occurred that caused missed time from work. [ ] See the following image. Corneal foreign body (...) movements and the pupillary reflex. Occasionally, the patient may have a reactive miosis. If there is any history or signs of globe injury with violation of ocular contents, a plastic or metal shield should be placed, and an ophthalmologist should be called urgently. Assess visual acuity. If the abrasion affects the visual axis, then there may be a deficit in acuity that should be apparent when compared to the uninjured eye. Perform a visual inspection for foreign objects (see the image below). Both

2014 eMedicine Emergency Medicine

152. Corneal Abrasion (Treatment)

humor. The cornea is innervated primarily by the ophthalmic division of the trigeminal nerve and the oculomotor nerve. Although the exact frequency of emergency department visits for corneal abrasions is unknown, a 1985 survey showed that around 3% of all cases to US general practitioners were corneal abrasions. [ ] In addition, in 2008, approximately 27,450 work-related eye injuries and illnesses occurred that caused missed time from work. [ ] See the following image. Corneal foreign body (...) movements and the pupillary reflex. Occasionally, the patient may have a reactive miosis. If there is any history or signs of globe injury with violation of ocular contents, a plastic or metal shield should be placed, and an ophthalmologist should be called urgently. Assess visual acuity. If the abrasion affects the visual axis, then there may be a deficit in acuity that should be apparent when compared to the uninjured eye. Perform a visual inspection for foreign objects (see the image below). Both

2014 eMedicine Emergency Medicine

153. Corneal Laceration (Overview)

. Approximately 2% of all emergency department visits are due to eye injuries. [ ] Penetrating eye injury can occur in individuals of any age, but data from USEIR demonstrate that the mean age of the patient with an ocular injury is 29 years (median age, 26 y), with nearly 60% being younger than 30 years. [ ] The also has statistics available. These data suggest similar trends to the USEIR data. The features information pertaining to work-related eye injuries. More than 90% of eye injuries are preventable (...) lacerations is rare, but morbidity can be significant. Corneal lacerations or subsequent secondary infection (endophthalmitis) can result in complete or partial loss of vision, loss of the eye, or systemic infection. Other complications include corneal scarring, cataract formation, and secondary glaucoma. [ ] Sex Males are about 1.7 times more likely than females to have penetrating ocular injury. [ ] Age Although ocular trauma can occur in persons of all ages, the majority of injuries occur in those aged

2014 eMedicine Emergency Medicine

154. Corneal Abrasion (Overview)

. The cornea is innervated primarily by the ophthalmic division of the trigeminal nerve and the oculomotor nerve. Although the exact frequency of emergency department visits for corneal abrasions is unknown, a 1985 survey showed that around 3% of all cases to US general practitioners were corneal abrasions. [ ] In addition, in 2008, approximately 27,450 work-related eye injuries and illnesses occurred that caused missed time from work. [ ] See the following image. Corneal foreign body with cobalt blue (...) and the pupillary reflex. Occasionally, the patient may have a reactive miosis. If there is any history or signs of globe injury with violation of ocular contents, a plastic or metal shield should be placed, and an ophthalmologist should be called urgently. Assess visual acuity. If the abrasion affects the visual axis, then there may be a deficit in acuity that should be apparent when compared to the uninjured eye. Perform a visual inspection for foreign objects (see the image below). Both upper and lower

2014 eMedicine Emergency Medicine

155. Toxicity, Organic Phosphorous Compounds and Carbamates (Diagnosis)

of exposure, and the time to initial treatment. The most common cause of mortality in OPC and carbamate poisoning is respiratory failure; however, death is rare, occurring in 0.04-1% of typical pesticide poisonings. [ ] Race-, Sex-, and Age-related Variance No racial predilection exists. Men have an increased incidence because of increased work-related exposure and increased suicidal attempts with OP and carbamate compounds. Children have an increased incidence of unintentional exposure at home. One (...) acetylcholine (ACh) to choline and acetic acid. Therefore, the inhibition of AChE causes an excess of ACh in synapses and neuromuscular junctions, resulting in muscarinic and nicotinic symptoms and signs. Excess ACh in the synapse can lead to 3 sets of symptoms and signs. First, accumulation of ACh at postganglionic parasympathetic muscarinic acetylcholine receptors leads to parasympathetic activity of smooth muscle in the lungs, GI tract, heart, eyes, bladder, and secretory glands and increased activity

2014 eMedicine Emergency Medicine

156. Occupational therapy for people with Parkinson's disease

bring relief. Sleep and night- time problems: • for example, insomnia, sleep fragmentation, vivid or disturbing dreams, REM (rapid eye movement) sleep disorder, also known as REM sleep behaviour disorder (RBD), which causes dreams to be acted out physically, not uncommonly resulting in injuries to the person with Parkinson’s or their bed- partner. RBD occurs as a result of brain stem changes that disrupt the normal sleep paralysis which occurs during dreaming episodes. Restless legs and nocturia

2010 Publication 1554

157. Conjunctival Foreign Body

Conjunctival Foreign Body Aka: Conjunctival Foreign Body , Conjunctiva Foreign Body From Related Chapters II. Causes Work related particles (drilling, Sanding) Environmental (Sand, Dirt) III. Symptoms Foreign body sensation "Trash in my eye" Foreign body feels as if it is moving Object usually lodged under upper lid and not mobile As patient blinks, different parts irritated IV. Exam Techniques Inferior Cul-de-sac foreign body Patient looks up while lower lid pulled down Superior Cul-de-sac foreign body (...) on the image (or right click) to open the source website in a new browser window. Related Studies (from Trip Database) Related Topics in Traumatic Injury About FPnotebook.com is a rapid access, point-of-care medical reference for primary care and emergency clinicians. Started in 1995, this collection now contains 6656 interlinked topic pages divided into a tree of 31 specialty books and 728 chapters. Content is with systematic literature reviews and conferences. Although access to this website

2015 FP Notebook

158. Predictive factors and outcomes of posterior segment intraocular foreign bodies Full Text available with Trip Pro

pupillary defect.In noncombat IOFBs, most cases were work-related. Delayed IOFBs removal was acceptable when primary wounds were repaired appropriately and extensive antibiotics administered. Even though advancement in vitreoretinal surgery can reduce the frequency of blindness, further promotion and education on eye protection during work are needed. (...) was 33.4 years. The nature of IOFBs was mainly metal, with injuries most commonly caused by an electric grass trimmer. The mean time interval between injury and IOFBs removal was 30.7 days. The mean preoperative visual acuity (VA) was 1.82 logarithm of the minimal angle of resolution (logMAR), and mean final was VA 1.10 logMAR. From multivariate analysis, good visual outcome was correlated with the corneoscleral entry site, and poor visual outcome was correlated with the presence of relative afferent

2011 Eye

159. Facial trauma Full Text available with Trip Pro

. Cause [ ] Injury mechanisms such as falls, assaults, , and vehicle crashes are common causes of facial trauma in children as well as adults. Blunt assaults, blows from fists or objects, are a common cause of facial injury. Facial trauma can also result from wartime injuries such as and . Animal attacks and work-related injuries such as industrial accidents are other causes. Vehicular trauma is one of the leading causes of facial injuries. Trauma commonly occurs when the face strikes a part (...) , they have the potential to cause and , with long-term physical and emotional results. Facial injuries can cause problems with eye, nose, or jaw function and can threaten eyesight. As early as 400 BC, is thought to have recorded a relationship between blunt facial trauma and blindness. Injuries involving the eye or eyelid, such as , can threaten eyesight; however, blindness following facial trauma is not common. Incising wounds of the face may involve the . This is more likely if the wound crosses a line

2012 Wikipedia

160. Health aspects of Down syndrome Full Text available with Trip Pro

. Management Efforts such as , screening for common problems, medical treatment where indicated, a good family environment, and work-related training can improve the development of children with Down syndrome. Education and proper care can improve . Raising a child with Down syndrome is more work for parents than raising an unaffected child. Typical childhood are recommended. Health screening Recommended screening Testing Children Adults Hearing 6 months, 12 months, then yearly 3–5 years and 6 months (...) % 60% 90% Shortened hands 60% Increased skin on back of neck 80% Short neck 60% 80% 60% Narrow 76% 57% 75% in the 56% Flexible ligaments 75% 53% Proportionally large tongue 75% Protruding tongue 47% Abnormal 70% 40% Flattened nose 68% ~35% Separation of first and second toes 68% 20% Physical Feet of a boy with Down syndrome People with Down syndrome may have some or all of these physical characteristics: a , slanted eyes, , a flat , a , and a protruding tongue due to a small mouth and relatively

2012 Wikipedia

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