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Wireless Network

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1. Convolutional neural network-based classification system design with compressed wireless sensor network images. (PubMed)

Convolutional neural network-based classification system design with compressed wireless sensor network images. With the introduction of various advanced deep learning algorithms, initiatives for image classification systems have transitioned over from traditional machine learning algorithms (e.g., SVM) to Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) using deep learning software tools. A prerequisite in applying CNN to real world applications is a system that collects meaningful and useful data (...) . For such purposes, Wireless Image Sensor Networks (WISNs), that are capable of monitoring natural environment phenomena using tiny and low-power cameras on resource-limited embedded devices, can be considered as an effective means of data collection. However, with limited battery resources, sending high-resolution raw images to the backend server is a burdensome task that has direct impact on network lifetime. To address this problem, we propose an energy-efficient pre- and post- processing mechanism using

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2018 PLoS ONE

2. Video loss prediction model in wireless networks. (PubMed)

Video loss prediction model in wireless networks. This work discusses video communications over wireless networks (IEEE 802.11ac standard). The videos are in three different resolutions: 720p, 1080p, and 2160p. It is essential to study the performance of these media in access technologies to enhance the current coding and communications techniques. This study sets out a video quality prediction model that includes the different resolutions that are based on wireless network terms and conditions (...) , an approach that has not previously been adopted in the literature. The model involves obtaining Service and Experience Quality Metrics, such as PSNR (Peak Signal-to-Noise Ratio) and packet loss. This article outlines a methodology and mathematical model for video quality loss in the wireless network from simulated data and its accuracy is ensured through the use of performance metrics (RMSE and Standard Deviation). The methodology is based on two mathematical functions, (logarithmic and exponential

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2019 PLoS ONE

3. A priority based energy harvesting scheme for charging embedded sensor nodes in wireless body area networks. (PubMed)

A priority based energy harvesting scheme for charging embedded sensor nodes in wireless body area networks. This research work proposes a novel priority aware schedule based charging algorithm that uses wireless power transfer (WPT) technique in order to charge embedded sensor nodes (SNs) in a wireless body area network (WBAN). Implanted sensor nodes in WBANs require energy for both information extraction and data transmission to the remote controller unit. Thus, energy shortage of these SNs (...) for inductive powering from the primary unit to the secondary unit in a collision-free centralized scheduling scheme. Therefore, the proposed wireless charging algorithm for implanted SNs in WBAN is designed as per carrier sense multiple access with collision avoidance (CSMA/CA) technique. Because of this, the overall power consumption of SNs for certain operation periods, successful charging probabilities for multiple SNs, and instantaneous power requirements are considered as key performance measures

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2019 PLoS ONE

4. Joint Mobile Data Collection and Wireless Energy Transfer in Wireless Rechargeable Sensor Networks (PubMed)

Joint Mobile Data Collection and Wireless Energy Transfer in Wireless Rechargeable Sensor Networks In wireless rechargeable sensor networks (WRSNs), there is a way to use mobile vehicles to charge node and collect data. It is a rational pattern to use two types of vehicles, one is for energy charging, and the other is for data collecting. These two types of vehicles, data collection vehicles (DCVs) and wireless charging vehicles (WCVs), are employed to achieve high efficiency in both data (...) gathering and energy consumption. To handle the complex scheduling problem of multiple vehicles in large-scale networks, a twice-partition algorithm based on center points is proposed to divide the network into several parts. In addition, an anchor selection algorithm based on the tradeoff between neighbor amount and residual energy, named AS-NAE, is proposed to collect the zonal data. It can reduce the data transmission delay and the energy consumption for DCVs' movement in the zonal. Besides, we

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2017 Sensors (Basel, Switzerland)

5. A Study on Wireless Charging for Prolonging the Lifetime of Wireless Sensor Networks (PubMed)

A Study on Wireless Charging for Prolonging the Lifetime of Wireless Sensor Networks Wireless charging is an important issue in wireless sensor networks, since it can provide an emerging and effective solution in the absence of other power supplies. The state-of-the-art methods employ a mobile car and a predefined moving path to charge the sensor nodes in the network. Previous studies only consider a factor of the network (i.e., residual energy of sensor node) as a constraint to design (...) the wireless charging strategy. However, other factors, such as the travelled distance of the mobile car, can also affect the effectiveness of wireless charging strategy. In this work, we study wireless charging strategy based on the analysis of a combination of two factors, including the residual energy of sensor nodes and the travelled distance of the charging car. Firstly, we theoretically analyze the limited size of the sensor network to match the capability of a charging car. Then, the networked

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2017 Sensors (Basel, Switzerland)

6. An Embedded Wireless Sensor Network with Wireless Power Transmission Capability for the Structural Health Monitoring of Reinforced Concrete Structures (PubMed)

An Embedded Wireless Sensor Network with Wireless Power Transmission Capability for the Structural Health Monitoring of Reinforced Concrete Structures Maintenance strategies based on structural health monitoring can provide effective support in the optimization of scheduled repair of existing structures, thus enabling their lifetime to be extended. With specific regard to reinforced concrete (RC) structures, the state of the art seems to still be lacking an efficient and cost-effective (...) technique capable of monitoring material properties continuously over the lifetime of a structure. Current solutions can typically only measure the required mechanical variables in an indirect, but economic, manner, or directly, but expensively. Moreover, most of the proposed solutions can only be implemented by means of manual activation, making the monitoring very inefficient and then poorly supported. This paper proposes a structural health monitoring system based on a wireless sensor network (WSN

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2017 Sensors (Basel, Switzerland)

7. Counter-Based Broadcast Scheme Considering Reachability, Network Density, and Energy Efficiency for Wireless Sensor Networks (PubMed)

Counter-Based Broadcast Scheme Considering Reachability, Network Density, and Energy Efficiency for Wireless Sensor Networks A wireless sensor network (WSN) is emerging as an innovative method for gathering information that will significantly improve the reliability and efficiency of infrastructure systems. Broadcast is a common method to disseminate information in WSNs. A variety of counter-based broadcast schemes have been proposed to mitigate the broadcast-storm problems, using the count

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2018 Sensors (Basel, Switzerland)

8. The Application of Social Characteristic and L1 Optimization in the Error Correction for Network Coding in Wireless Sensor Networks (PubMed)

The Application of Social Characteristic and L1 Optimization in the Error Correction for Network Coding in Wireless Sensor Networks One of the remarkable challenges about Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) is how to transfer the collected data efficiently due to energy limitation of sensor nodes. Network coding will increase network throughput of WSN dramatically due to the broadcast nature of WSN. However, the network coding usually propagates a single original error over the whole network. Due (...) to the special property of error propagation in network coding, most of error correction methods cannot correct more than C/2 corrupted errors where C is the max flow min cut of the network. To maximize the effectiveness of network coding applied in WSN, a new error-correcting mechanism to confront the propagated error is urgently needed. Based on the social network characteristic inherent in WSN and L1 optimization, we propose a novel scheme which successfully corrects more than C/2 corrupted errors. What

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2018 Sensors (Basel, Switzerland)

9. Distributed Systematic Network Coding for Reliable Content Uploading in Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks (PubMed)

Distributed Systematic Network Coding for Reliable Content Uploading in Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks Recently, the wireless sensor network paradigm is shifting toward research aimed at enabling the robust delivery of multimedia content. A challenge is to deliver multimedia content with predefined levels of Quality of Service (QoS) under resource constraints such as bandwidth, energy, and delay. In this paper, we propose a distributed systematic network coding (DSNC) scheme for reliable (...) multimedia content uploading over wireless multimedia sensor networks, in which a large number of multimedia sensor nodes upload their own content to a sink through a cluster head node. The design objective is to increase the reliability and bandwidth-efficient utilization in uploading with low decoding complexity. The proposed scheme consists of two phases: in the first phase, each sensor node distributedly encodes the content into systematic network coding packets and transmits them to the cluster head

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2018 Sensors (Basel, Switzerland)

10. Totally opportunistic routing algorithm (TORA) for underwater wireless sensor network. (PubMed)

Totally opportunistic routing algorithm (TORA) for underwater wireless sensor network. Underwater Wireless Sensor Network (UWSN) has emerged as promising networking techniques to monitor and explore oceans. Research on acoustic communication has been conducted for decades, but had focused mostly on issues related to physical layer such as high latency, low bandwidth, and high bit error. However, data gathering process is still severely limited in UWSN due to channel impairment. One way (...) to improve data collection in UWSN is the design of routing protocol. Opportunistic Routing (OR) is an emerging technique that has the ability to improve the performance of wireless network, notably acoustic network. In this paper, we propose an anycast, geographical and totally opportunistic routing algorithm for UWSN, called TORA. Our proposed scheme is designed to avoid horizontal transmission, reduce end to end delay, overcome the problem of void nodes and maximize throughput and energy efficiency

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2018 PLoS ONE

11. Automatic detection of erosions and ulcerations in wireless capsule endoscopy images based on a deep convolutional neural network. (PubMed)

Automatic detection of erosions and ulcerations in wireless capsule endoscopy images based on a deep convolutional neural network. Although erosions and ulcerations are the most common small-bowel abnormalities found on wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE), a computer-aided detection method has not been established. We aimed to develop an artificial intelligence system with deep learning to automatically detect erosions and ulcerations in WCE images.We trained a deep convolutional neural network

2019 Gastrointestinal endoscopy

12. Connectivity Restoration in Wireless Sensor Networks via Space Network Coding (PubMed)

Connectivity Restoration in Wireless Sensor Networks via Space Network Coding The problem of finding the number and optimal positions of relay nodes for restoring the network connectivity in partitioned Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) is Non-deterministic Polynomial-time hard (NP-hard) and thus heuristic methods are preferred to solve it. This paper proposes a novel polynomial time heuristic algorithm, namely, Relay Placement using Space Network Coding (RPSNC), to solve this problem, where (...) Space Network Coding, also called Space Information Flow (SIF), is a new research paradigm that studies network coding in Euclidean space, in which extra relay nodes can be introduced to reduce the cost of communication. Unlike contemporary schemes that are often based on Minimum Spanning Tree (MST), Euclidean Steiner Minimal Tree (ESMT) or a combination of MST with ESMT, RPSNC is a new min-cost multicast space network coding approach that combines Delaunay triangulation and non-uniform partitioning

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2017 Sensors (Basel, Switzerland)

13. Software Defined Networking for Improved Wireless Sensor Network Management: A Survey (PubMed)

Software Defined Networking for Improved Wireless Sensor Network Management: A Survey Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are becoming increasingly popular with the advent of the Internet of things (IoT). Various real-world applications of WSNs such as in smart grids, smart farming and smart health would require a potential deployment of thousands or maybe hundreds of thousands of sensor nodes/actuators. To ensure proper working order and network efficiency of such a network of sensor nodes (...) , an effective WSN management system has to be integrated. However, the inherent challenges of WSNs such as sensor/actuator heterogeneity, application dependency and resource constraints have led to challenges in implementing effective traditional WSN management. This difficulty in management increases as the WSN becomes larger. Software Defined Networking (SDN) provides a promising solution in flexible management WSNs by allowing the separation of the control logic from the sensor nodes/actuators

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2017 Sensors (Basel, Switzerland)

14. In-Network Computation of the Optimal Weighting Matrix for Distributed Consensus on Wireless Sensor Networks (PubMed)

In-Network Computation of the Optimal Weighting Matrix for Distributed Consensus on Wireless Sensor Networks In a network, a distributed consensus algorithm is fully characterized by its weighting matrix. Although there exist numerical methods for obtaining the optimal weighting matrix, we have not found an in-network implementation of any of these methods that works for all network topologies. In this paper, we propose an in-network algorithm for finding such an optimal weighting matrix.

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2017 Sensors (Basel, Switzerland)

15. Design and Analysis of a Low Latency Deterministic Network MAC for Wireless Sensor Networks (PubMed)

Design and Analysis of a Low Latency Deterministic Network MAC for Wireless Sensor Networks The IEEE 802.15.4e standard has four different superframe structures for different applications. Use of a low latency deterministic network (LLDN) superframe for the wireless sensor network is one of them, which can operate in a star topology. In this paper, a new channel access mechanism for IEEE 802.15.4e-based LLDN shared slots is proposed, and analytical models are designed based on this channel

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2017 Sensors (Basel, Switzerland)

16. Cross Deployment Networking and Systematic Performance Analysis of Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks (PubMed)

Cross Deployment Networking and Systematic Performance Analysis of Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks Underwater wireless sensor networks (UWSNs) have become a new hot research area. However, due to the work dynamics and harsh ocean environment, how to obtain an UWSN with the best systematic performance while deploying as few sensor nodes as possible and setting up self-adaptive networking is an urgent problem that needs to be solved. Consequently, sensor deployment, networking (...) , and performance calculation of UWSNs are challenging issues, hence the study in this paper centers on this topic and three relevant methods and models are put forward. Firstly, the normal body-centered cubic lattice to cross body-centered cubic lattice (CBCL) has been improved, and a deployment process and topology generation method are built. Then most importantly, a cross deployment networking method (CDNM) for UWSNs suitable for the underwater environment is proposed. Furthermore, a systematic quar

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2017 Sensors (Basel, Switzerland)

17. Deployment-based lifetime optimization for linear wireless sensor networks considering both retransmission and discrete power control. (PubMed)

Deployment-based lifetime optimization for linear wireless sensor networks considering both retransmission and discrete power control. A sophisticated method for node deployment can efficiently reduce the energy consumption of a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) and prolong the corresponding network lifetime. Pioneers have proposed many node deployment based lifetime optimization methods for WSNs, however, the retransmission mechanism and the discrete power control strategy, which are widely used (...) in practice and have large effect on the network energy consumption, are often neglected and assumed as a continuous one, respectively, in the previous studies. In this paper, both retransmission and discrete power control are considered together, and a more realistic energy-consumption-based network lifetime model for linear WSNs is provided. Using this model, we then propose a generic deployment-based optimization model that maximizes network lifetime under coverage, connectivity and transmission rate

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2017 PLoS ONE

18. Travelling Wave Pulse Coupled Oscillator (TWPCO) Using a Self-Organizing Scheme for Energy-Efficient Wireless Sensor Networks. (PubMed)

Travelling Wave Pulse Coupled Oscillator (TWPCO) Using a Self-Organizing Scheme for Energy-Efficient Wireless Sensor Networks. Recently, Pulse Coupled Oscillator (PCO)-based travelling waves have attracted substantial attention by researchers in wireless sensor network (WSN) synchronization. Because WSNs are generally artificial occurrences that mimic natural phenomena, the PCO utilizes firefly synchronization of attracting mating partners for modelling the WSN. However, given that sensor nodes (...) are unable to receive messages while transmitting data packets (due to deafness), the PCO model may not be efficient for sensor network modelling. To overcome this limitation, this paper proposed a new scheme called the Travelling Wave Pulse Coupled Oscillator (TWPCO). For this, the study used a self-organizing scheme for energy-efficient WSNs that adopted travelling wave biologically inspired network systems based on phase locking of the PCO model to counteract deafness. From the simulation

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2017 PLoS ONE

19. A Secure Region-Based Geographic Routing Protocol (SRBGR) for Wireless Sensor Networks. (PubMed)

A Secure Region-Based Geographic Routing Protocol (SRBGR) for Wireless Sensor Networks. Due to the lack of dependency for routing initiation and an inadequate allocated sextant on responding messages, the secure geographic routing protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) have attracted considerable attention. However, the existing protocols are more likely to drop packets when legitimate nodes fail to respond to the routing initiation messages while attackers in the allocated sextant (...) contention priorities more legitimate nodes can be admitted in the routing process. Moreover, the paper also proposed the bound collection window for a sufficient collection time and verification cost for both attacker identification and isolation. Extensive simulation experiments have been performed to evaluate the performance of the proposed protocol in comparison with other existing protocols. The results demonstrate that SRBGR increases network performance in terms of the packet delivery ratio

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2017 PLoS ONE

20. Throughput assurance of wireless body area networks coexistence based on stochastic geometry. (PubMed)

Throughput assurance of wireless body area networks coexistence based on stochastic geometry. Wireless body area networks (WBANs) are expected to influence the traditional medical model by assisting caretakers with health telemonitoring. Within WBANs, the transmit power of the nodes should be as small as possible owing to their limited energy capacity but should be sufficiently large to guarantee the quality of the signal at the receiving nodes. When multiple WBANs coexist in a small area (...) , the communication reliability and overall throughput can be seriously affected due to resource competition and interference. We show that the total network throughput largely depends on the WBANs distribution density (λp), transmit power of their nodes (Pt), and their carrier-sensing threshold (γ). Using stochastic geometry, a joint carrier-sensing threshold and power control strategy is proposed to meet the demand of coexisting WBANs based on the IEEE 802.15.4 standard. Given different network distributions

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2017 PLoS ONE

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