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Wired Connection Interface

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101. Thalamus

(of the mammalian brain) to make complex decisions by wiring the many associations on which decisions depend into weakly connected cortical circuits." Researchers founds that "enhancing MD activity magnified the ability of mice to “think,” driving down by more than 25 percent their error rate in deciding which conflicting sensory stimuli to follow to find the reward." Development [ ] The thalamic complex is composed of the perithalamus (or prethalamus, previously also known as ventral thalamus), the mid (...) the , situated between the and the . It is the main product of the , as first assigned by in 1893. Contents Anatomy [ ] The thalamus in a 360° rotation The thalamus is a paired structure of gray matter located in the which is superior to the midbrain, near the center of the brain, with nerve fibers projecting out to the cerebral cortex in all directions. The medial surface of the thalamus constitutes the upper part of the lateral wall of the , and is connected to the corresponding surface of the opposite

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2012 Wikipedia

102. Artificial pancreas

of the company, Beta Bionics changed the preliminary name for their device from the Bionic Pancreas to the iLet. The device uses a closed-loop system to deliver both insulin and glucagon in response to sensed blood glucose levels. While not yet approved for public use, the 4th generation iLet prototype, presented in 2017, is around the size of an iPhone, with a touchscreen interface. It contain two chambers for both insulin and glucagon, and the device is configurable for use with only one hormone, or both (...) for safety, efficacy, and a number of other factors. The International Diabetes Closed-Loop trial, led by researchers from the , is testing a closed-loop system called inControl, which has a smartphone user interface. 240 people of ages 14 and up are participating for 6 months. A full-year trial led by researchers from the started in May 2017 and has enrolled an estimated 150 participants of ages 6 to 18 years. The artificial pancreas system being studied uses a smartphone and has a low glucose feature

2012 Wikipedia

103. Artificial limb

be lost through trauma, disease, or a condition present at birth ( ). Prostheses are intended to restore the normal functions of the missing body part. rehabilitation is primarily coordinated by a as part of a inter-disciplinary team consisting of physiatrists, prosthetists, nurses, physical therapists, and occupational therapists. Prostheses can be created by hand or with CAD (Computer-Aided Design), a software interface that helps creators visualize the creation in a 3D form. Contents Types (...) limb using Assembly of entire limb Body-powered arms [ ] Current technology allows body powered arms to weigh around one-half to one-third of what a myoelectric arm does. Sockets [ ] Current body-powered arms contain sockets that are built from hard epoxy or carbon fiber. These sockets or "interfaces" can be made more comfortable by lining them with a softer, compressible foam material that provides padding for the bone prominences. A self-suspending or supra-condylar socket design is useful

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2012 Wikipedia

104. Assistive technology

monitor use it to read a braille output version of the displayed text. Desktop video magnifier [ ] Main article: Desktop video magnifiers are electronic devices that use a camera and a display screen to perform digital magnification of printed materials. They enlarge printed pages for those with low vision. A camera connects to a monitor that displays real-time images, and the user can control settings such as magnification, focus, contrast, underlining, highlighting, and other screen preferences (...) . They come in a variety of sizes and styles; some are small and portable with handheld cameras, while others are much larger and mounted on a fixed stand. Screen magnification software [ ] Main article: A screen magnifier is software that interfaces with a computer's graphical output to present enlarged screen content. It allows users to enlarge the texts and graphics on their computer screens for easier viewing. Similar to desktop video magnifiers, this technology assists people with low vision. After

2012 Wikipedia

105. Nerve guidance conduit

carbon fiber and , and the nonconductive fibers were nylon-6 and tungsten wire. Neurites extend in all directions in thick bundles on the carbon fiber; however with the other three fibers, neurites extended in fine web-like conformations. The neurites showed no directional growth on the carbon and Kevlar fibers, but they grew along the nylon-6 fibers and to some extent along the tungsten wire. The tungsten wire and nylon-6 fiber scaffolds had neurites grow into the gel near the fiber-gel interface (...) channels are macroscopic structures that can be added to a conduit in order to give the regenerating axons a well-defined guide for growing straight along the scaffold. In a scaffold with channel architecture, regenerating axons are able to extend through open longitudinal channels as they would normally extend through endoneurial tubes of peripheral nerves. Additionally, the channels increase the surface area available for cell contact. The channels are usually created by inserting a needle, wire

2012 Wikipedia

106. Defibrillation

of chest compressions and rescue breathing. For these reasons, certain bodies, such as the European Resuscitation Council, recommend using manual external defibrillators over AEDs if manual external defibrillators are readily available. An automated external defibrillator ready for use. Pads are pre-connected. This model is a semi-automatic due to the presence of a shock button. As early defibrillation can significantly improve VF outcomes, AEDs have become publicly available in many easily accessible (...) be worn by at-risk patients. The unit monitors the patient 24 hours a day and can automatically deliver a biphasic shock if VF or VT is detected. This device is mainly indicated in patients who are not immediate candidates for ICDs. Internal defibrillator [ ] This is often used to defibrillate the heart during or after cardiac surgery such as a . The electrodes consist of round metal plates that come in direct contact with the myocardium. Interface with person [ ] This section does not any . Please

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2012 Wikipedia

107. Tissue Restoration After Implantation of Polyglycolide, Polydioxanone, Polylevolactide, and Metallic Pins in Cortical Bone: An Experimental Study in Rabbits (PubMed)

bone defect was created in the right femur of 80 rabbits. Bioabsorbable and metallic pins in 60 and two metallic pins alone were implanted in 20 intramedullary canals; 80 left femurs served as intact controls. Follow-up times were 3, 6, 12, 24, and 52 weeks. At all time points, collagenous connective tissue, including bone trabeculae, surrounded the implant at the tissue-implant interface, replacing hematopoiesis and fat of the intramedullary canal. The groups did not differ in the area (...) was not different between bioabsorbable pins and metallic wires. Thus, these polymers had no specific osteostimulatory or osteoinhibitory properties compared to stainless steel. Within the follow-up period, there were no significant differences in biocompatibility between the implants and no adverse inflammatory foreign-body reactions.

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2010 Calcified tissue international

108. Subretinal electronic chips allow blind patients to read letters and combine them to words (PubMed)

Subretinal electronic chips allow blind patients to read letters and combine them to words A light-sensitive, externally powered microchip was surgically implanted subretinally near the macular region of volunteers blind from hereditary retinal dystrophy. The implant contains an array of 1500 active microphotodiodes ('chip'), each with its own amplifier and local stimulation electrode. At the implant's tip, another array of 16 wire-connected electrodes allows light-independent direct (...) stimulation and testing of the neuron-electrode interface. Visual scenes are projected naturally through the eye's lens onto the chip under the transparent retina. The chip generates a corresponding pattern of 38 × 40 pixels, each releasing light-intensity-dependent electric stimulation pulses. Subsequently, three previously blind persons could locate bright objects on a dark table, two of whom could discern grating patterns. One of these patients was able to correctly describe and name objects like

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2010 Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences

109. An Allosteric Circuit in Caspase-1 (PubMed)

An Allosteric Circuit in Caspase-1 Structural studies of caspase-1 reveal that the dimeric thiol protease can exist in two states: in an on-state, when the active site is occupied, or in an off-state, when the active site is empty or when the enzyme is bound by a synthetic allosteric ligand at the dimer interface approximately 15 A from the active site. A network of 21 hydrogen bonds from nine side chains connecting the active and allosteric sites change partners when going between the on-state (...) reduction in k(cat)/K(m). X-ray crystal structures of these variants suggest the importance of both the salt bridge interaction and the coordination of solvent water molecules near the allosteric binding pocket. Thus, only a small subset of side chains from the larger hydrogen bonding network is critical for activity. These form a contiguous set of interactions that run from one active site through the allosteric site at the dimer interface and onto the second active site. This subset constitutes

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2008 Journal of Molecular Biology

111. The neuron classification problem (PubMed)

Knowledge Management System (BAMS) Neuron ontology is online and its user interface allows queries about terms and their definitions, classification criteria based on the original literature and "Petilla Convention" guidelines, hierarchies, and relations-with annotations documenting each ontology entry. Combined with three BAMS modules for neural regions, connections between regions and neuron types, and molecules, the Neuron ontology provides a general framework for physical descriptions (...) The neuron classification problem A systematic account of neuron cell types is a basic prerequisite for determining the vertebrate nervous system global wiring diagram. With comprehensive lineage and phylogenetic information unavailable, a general ontology based on structure-function taxonomy is proposed and implemented in a knowledge management system, and a prototype analysis of select regions (including retina, cerebellum, and hypothalamus) presented. The supporting Brain Architecture

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2007 Brain research reviews

112. Fixation technique influences the monotonic properties of equine mandibular fracture constructs. (PubMed)

, and ISW constructs (P <.05). Failure occurred through the screw-bone interface (DCP), acrylic splint (ISW), acrylic connecting bar and/or pin-bone interface (EF, EFW), and wire loosening (EFW). All 3 intact mandibles fractured through the vertical ramus at its attachment to the testing apparatus.Among osteotomized mandibles, DCP fixation had the greatest stiffness under monotonic bending to failure; however, the relatively low yield value may predispose it to earlier failure in fatigue testing without (...) ), (2) external fixator (EF), (3) external fixator with interdental wires (EFW), and (4) intraoral splint with interdental wires (ISW). Three intact (nonosteotomized) mandibles were tested as controls. Mandibles were subjected to monotonic cantilever bending until failure. Angular displacement data (radians) were derived from continuously recorded gap width measurements provided by extensometers placed across the osteotomy site. Osteotomy gap width data (mm) at 50 and 100 Nm were selected

2003 Veterinary surgery : VS

113. Characterization of a-SiCx:H thin films as an encapsulation material for integrated silicon based neural interface devices (PubMed)

Characterization of a-SiCx:H thin films as an encapsulation material for integrated silicon based neural interface devices A fully integrated, wireless neural interface device is being developed to free patients from the restriction and risk of infection associated with a transcutaneous wired connection. This device requires a hermetic, biocompatible encapsulation layer at the interface between the device and the neural tissue to maintain long-term recording/stimulating performance

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2007 Thin solid films

114. Moving a Paralyzed Hand Through Use of a Brain-Computer Interface

Moving a Paralyzed Hand Through Use of a Brain-Computer Interface Moving a Paralyzed Hand Through Use of a Brain-Computer Interface - Full Text View - Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more. Moving a Paralyzed Hand (...) Through Use of a Brain-Computer Interface The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our for details. Identifier: NCT00242242 Recruitment Status : Terminated First Posted : October 19, 2005 Last Update Posted : March 19, 2019 Sponsor: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) Collaborator: Center

2005 Clinical Trials

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