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Wired Connection Interface

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81. Microdermabrasion

rejuvenation and was modified to its modern form in the 1950s. Dermabrasion involves ablating the skin to the level of the dermis to promote skin regrowth. Based on the power dental equipment design, the dermabrasion machine uses a wire brush with a diamond fraise to mechanically ablate the skin. Local anesthesia is required to perform the dermabrasion procedure. The technique is operator dependent, and, thus, highly skilled surgical technique is required to obtain optimal results. Reported complications (...) is found mainly in the palms of the hands and soles of the feet and contains a dense layer of keratin filaments that provides additional structural support. The stratum granulosum contains granules containing a lipid rich content that creates a waterproof barrier for the skin. The stratum spinosum is the thickest layer of the epidermis and contains multiple polygonal spiny cells rich in cytokeratin and with desmosomal intercellular connections. Langerhans cells, dendritic cells, and other

2014 eMedicine Surgery

82. Therapeutic Injections for Pain Management (Diagnosis)

inhibition of nociceptive C-fiber transmission, and modulation of nociceptive input within the dorsal horn substantia gelatinosa neurons. Continuous large doses of a corticosteroid adversely affect collagen synthesis, and, therefore, connective tissue strength. [ , ] Frequency of injections and dosages must be monitored by the practitioner to prevent generalized or focal immune suppression such as infection or impaired soft tissue healing. [ ] Therefore, the amount of corticosteroids that can be applied (...) a factor when determining the appropriate injectate. [ ] Highly soluble steroids such as betamethasone sodium phosphate-acetate are rapidly absorbed and pose a lower risk for connective tissue injury, such as tendon rupture, fat atrophy, and muscle wasting. Relatively insoluble steroid esters have a longer duration of action. [ ] Corticosteroids are among the most commonly used active substances for spinal intervention. Particulate steroids should not be placed into the cervical foramina, because

2014 eMedicine.com

83. Rehabilitation Management of Neuromuscular Disease (Diagnosis)

. An effective rehabilitation program can also minimize secondary medical comorbidity, prevent or limit physical deformity, and allow the patient to integrate into society. Modalities such as range-of-motion and strengthening exercise, along with bracing and appropriate surgical intervention, may prolong ambulation. Today, adaptive devices such as wheelchairs and lifts are now often interfaced with computer technology, providing better strategies for improving the patient’s mobility. Endurance (aerobic (...) (typically, age 5-15 years) and is associated with much less morbidity. [ , ] Kugelberg-Welander disease (type of spinal muscular atrophy). Marked variation in muscle fiber size, along with increased perimysial connective tissue. Mutations in exons 7 and 8 of the telomeric survival motor neuron gene are present in more than 98% of patients with SMA types I-III. Deletions in the neuronal apoptosis inhibitory protein gene are found in about 67% of patients with SMA I, 42% of patients with SMA II or III

2014 eMedicine.com

84. Spinal Instability and Spinal Fusion Surgery (Treatment)

of posterior cervical elements. Spinous process wiring is the simplest technique but provides no limitation of extension and little rotational stability. In this technique, a wire is passed through the center of one spinous process around the base of a lower spinous process. Multiple wire loops can be used to connect multiple spinous processes in an interlocking chain array. More complicated spinous process wiring patterns (eg, the Bohlman triple-wire technique) allow firm attachment of bone graft strips (...) for Atlantoaxial (C1-2) Instability Atlantoaxial instability may be caused by a variety of conditions, including the following: Rupture of the transverse ligament Ligamentous incompetence due to Congenital instability associated with C1-2 fusion with cable fixation Before the advent of screw fixation techniques, wiring of C1-2 posterior elements with an interposed bone graft was the only method of fusion of the atlantoaxial segment. The monofilament wires once commonly used are being abandoned in favor

2014 eMedicine Surgery

85. General Principles of Internal Fixation (Treatment)

General Principles of Internal Fixation (Treatment) General Principles of Internal Fixation: History of Fracture Treatment, Fracture Repair Biology, Pins, Wires, and Screws Edition: No Results No Results Please confirm that you would like to log out of Medscape. If you log out, you will be required to enter your username and password the next time you visit. https://profreg.medscape.com/px/getpracticeprofile.do?method=getProfessionalProfile&urlCache (...) , screws, and wires was first documented in the 1880s and 1890s. Early surgical fixation initially was complicated by many obstacles, such as infection, poorly conceived implants and techniques, metal allergy, and a limited understanding of the biology and mechanics of fracture healing. During the 1950s, Danis and Muller began to define the principles and techniques of internal fixation. Since then, advances in biologic and mechanical science have led to contemporary fixation theories and techniques

2014 eMedicine Surgery

86. General Principles of Internal Fixation (Overview)

General Principles of Internal Fixation (Overview) General Principles of Internal Fixation: History of Fracture Treatment, Fracture Repair Biology, Pins, Wires, and Screws Edition: No Results No Results Please confirm that you would like to log out of Medscape. If you log out, you will be required to enter your username and password the next time you visit. https://profreg.medscape.com/px/getpracticeprofile.do?method=getProfessionalProfile&urlCache (...) , screws, and wires was first documented in the 1880s and 1890s. Early surgical fixation initially was complicated by many obstacles, such as infection, poorly conceived implants and techniques, metal allergy, and a limited understanding of the biology and mechanics of fracture healing. During the 1950s, Danis and Muller began to define the principles and techniques of internal fixation. Since then, advances in biologic and mechanical science have led to contemporary fixation theories and techniques

2014 eMedicine Surgery

87. Spinal Instability and Spinal Fusion Surgery (Follow-up)

of posterior cervical elements. Spinous process wiring is the simplest technique but provides no limitation of extension and little rotational stability. In this technique, a wire is passed through the center of one spinous process around the base of a lower spinous process. Multiple wire loops can be used to connect multiple spinous processes in an interlocking chain array. More complicated spinous process wiring patterns (eg, the Bohlman triple-wire technique) allow firm attachment of bone graft strips (...) for Atlantoaxial (C1-2) Instability Atlantoaxial instability may be caused by a variety of conditions, including the following: Rupture of the transverse ligament Ligamentous incompetence due to Congenital instability associated with C1-2 fusion with cable fixation Before the advent of screw fixation techniques, wiring of C1-2 posterior elements with an interposed bone graft was the only method of fusion of the atlantoaxial segment. The monofilament wires once commonly used are being abandoned in favor

2014 eMedicine Surgery

88. A review of the evidence for the use of telemedicine within stroke systems of care

showed excellent weighted κ agreement. This finding was consistent with prior clinical reports comparing 2 bedside examiners (see ). NIHSS-bedside and NIHSS-telestroke scores were strongly correlated ( r =0.97, P <0.001). Mean telestroke examination time was slightly longer than bedside (9.70 versus 6.55 minutes; P <0.001). Meyer et al performed a study of interrater NIHSS-bedside and NIHSS-telestroke agreement using a videoconferencing system capable of either wired or wireless connectivity over (...) whenever studies did not use this high-quality videoconferencing (HQ-VTC) methodology. Interactive videoconferencing allows the patient and/or family and both the bedside and distant healthcare providers to see and hear each other in full color using cameras with various degrees of remote control (eg, pan, tilt, or zoom) connected to a display screen (video graphics array [VGA] or television monitor) (see and full-motion video clips viewable in the online Data Supplement). Unless otherwise noted

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2009 American Academy of Neurology

89. Potential for unreliable interpretation of EEG recorded with microelectrodes. (PubMed)

Potential for unreliable interpretation of EEG recorded with microelectrodes. Recent studies in epilepsy, cognition, and brain machine interfaces have shown the utility of recording intracranial electroencephalography (iEEG) with greater spatial resolution. Many of these studies utilize microelectrodes connected to specialized amplifiers that are optimized for such recordings. We recently measured the impedances of several commercial microelectrodes and demonstrated that they will distort iEEG (...) signals if connected to clinical EEG amplifiers commonly used in most centers. In this study we demonstrate the clinical implications of this effect and identify some of the potential difficulties in using microelectrodes.Human iEEG data were digitally filtered to simulate the signal recorded by a hybrid grid (two macroelectrodes and eight microelectrodes) connected to a standard EEG amplifier. The filtered iEEG data were read by three trained epileptologists, and high frequency oscillations (HFOs

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2013 Epilepsia

90. Providing Brain Control of Extracorporeal Devices to Patients With Quadriplegia

collectively sealed with a silicone elastomer. The wire bundle is potted to a printed circuit board with epoxy, the printed circuit board is inserted into the Patient Pedestal (percutaneous connector), and then the Patient Pedestal is filled with silicone elastomer. Two fine platinum reference wires are also attached to the Patient Pedestal. The Patient Pedestal is 19 mm wide at the skin interface. Other Name: NeuroPort Array Outcome Measures Go to Primary Outcome Measures : Patient control over the end (...) California Rancho Los Amigos National Rehabilitation Center Information provided by (Responsible Party): Richard A. Andersen, PhD, California Institute of Technology Study Details Study Description Go to Brief Summary: This research study is being done to develop a brain controlled medical device, called a brain-machine interface or BMI, that will provide people with a spinal cord injury some ability to control an external device such as a computer cursor or robotic limb by using their thoughts

2013 Clinical Trials

91. Providing Closed Loop Cortical Control of Extracorporeal Devices to Patients With Quadriplegia

First Posted : October 17, 2013 Last Update Posted : July 17, 2018 See Sponsor: Richard A. Andersen, PhD Collaborators: University of Southern California Rancho Los Amigos National Rehabilitation Center Information provided by (Responsible Party): Richard A. Andersen, PhD, California Institute of Technology Study Details Study Description Go to Brief Summary: This research study is being conducted to develop a brain controlled medical device, called a brain-machine interface. The device will provide (...) people with a spinal cord injury some ability to control an external device such as a computer cursor or robotic limb by using their thoughts along with sensory feedback. Development of a brain-machine interface is very difficult and currently only limited technology exists in this area of neuroscience. Other studies have shown that people with high spinal cord injury still have intact brain areas capable of planning movements and grasps, but are not able to execute the movement plans. The device

2013 Clinical Trials

92. Pacemaker

) An electronic device that is implanted in the body to monitor heart rate and rhythm. It gives the heart electrical stimulation when it does not beat normally. It runs on batteries and has long, thin wires that connect it to the heart. Definition (MSH) A device designed to stimulate, by electric impulses, contraction of the heart muscles. It may be temporary (external) or permanent (internal or internal-external). Concepts Medical Device ( T074 ) MSH SnomedCT 14106009 , 265848008 , 149206005 LNC LP31558-7 (...) cardioversion pads directly over Pacemaker Try to apply pads at least 10-15 cm away from the device X. Imaging: Chest XRay Indications May identify misplaced or damaged lead Identifies the Pacemaker type via a radiodense device stamp (requires a high penetration ) Interpretation - Normal Pacemaker wire configuration Most newer Pacemakers are dual lead (but some may have only a single lead to either atrium or ventricle) Pacemaker tip positioning - PA View (or AP View) Pacemaker leads should coss the midline

2015 FP Notebook

93. Are we studying and treating schizophrenia correctly? (PubMed)

Are we studying and treating schizophrenia correctly? New findings are rapidly revealing an increasingly detailed image of neural- and molecular-level dysfunction in schizophrenia, distributed throughout interconnected cortico-striato-pallido-thalamic circuitry. Some disturbances appear to reflect failures of early brain maturation, that become codified into dysfunctional circuit properties, resulting in a substantial loss of, or failure to develop, both cells and/or appropriate connectivity (...) across widely dispersed brain regions. These circuit disturbances are variable across individuals with schizophrenia, perhaps reflecting the interaction of multiple different risk genes and epigenetic events. Given these complex and variable hard-wired circuit disturbances, it is worth considering how new and emerging findings can be integrated into actionable treatment models. This paper suggests that future efforts towards developing more effective therapeutic approaches for the schizophrenias

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2011 Schizophrenia Research

94. Electroencephalography

on EEG control of a physical object with a robot. In October 2018, scientists connected the brains of three people to experiment with the process of thoughts sharing. Five groups of three people participated in the experiment using EEG. The success rate of the experiment was 81%. Medical use [ ] An EEG recording setup A routine clinical EEG recording typically lasts 20–30 minutes (plus preparation time) and usually involves recording from scalp electrodes. Routine EEG is typically used in clinical (...) layers of the brain (the cortex). Unlike and MRS, cannot identify specific locations in the brain at which various neurotransmitters, drugs, etc. can be found. Often takes a long time to connect a subject to EEG, as it requires precise placement of dozens of electrodes around the head and the use of various gels, saline solutions, and/or pastes to keep them in place (although a cap can be used). While the length of time differs dependent on the specific EEG device used, as a general rule it takes

2012 Wikipedia

95. Hearing aid

and a telephone are "compatible" when they can connect to each other in a way that produces clear, easily understood sound. The term "compatibility" is applied to all three types of telephones (wired, cordless, and mobile). There are two ways telephones and hearing aids can connect with each other: Acoustically: the sound from the phone's speaker is picked up by the hearing aid's microphone. Electromagnetically: the signal inside the phone's speaker is picked up by the hearing aid's "telecoil" or "T-coil (...) mall, at lectures, or during religious services. The voice is transmitted wirelessly to the hearing aids eliminating the effects of distance and . FM systems have shown to give the best speech understanding in noise of all available technologies. FM systems can also be hooked up to a TV or a stereo. 2.4 gigahertz Bluetooth connectivity is the most recent innovation in wireless interfacing for hearing instruments to audio sources such as TV streamers or Bluetooth enabled mobile phones. Current

2012 Wikipedia

96. Haptic communication

babies have been observed to have enormous difficulty surviving if they do not possess a sense of touch, even if they retain sight and hearing. Infants who can perceive through touch, even without sight and hearing, tend to fare much better. Similarly to infants, in chimpanzees the sense of touch is highly developed. As newborns they see and hear poorly but cling strongly to their mothers. conducted a controversial study involving and observed that monkeys reared with a "terry cloth mother", a wire (...) feeding apparatus wrapped in softer which provided a level of tactile stimulation and comfort, were considerably more emotionally stable as adults than those with a mere wire mother. For his experiment, he presented the infants with a clothed surrogate mother and a wire surrogate mother which held a bottle with food. It turns out that the rhesus monkeys spent most of their time with the terry cloth mother, over the wire surrogate with a bottle of food, which indicates that they preferred touch, warmth

2012 Wikipedia

97. Hip replacement

, piriformis and the short external rotators along with use of modern large diameter head balls reduces this risk. Lateral approach [ ] The lateral approach is also commonly used for hip replacement. The approach requires elevation of the hip abductors ( and ) to access the joint. The abductors may be lifted up by osteotomy of the greater trochanter and reapplying it afterwards using wires (as per Charnley), [ ] or may be divided at their tendinous portion, or through the functional tendon (as per Hardinge (...) of three parts: the acetabular cup, the femoral component, and the articular interface. Options exist for different people and indications. The evidence for a number of newer devices is not very good, including: ceramic-on-ceramic bearings, modular femoral necks, and uncemented monoblock cups. Correct selection of the prosthesis is important. Acetabular cup [ ] The acetabular cup is the component which is placed into the (hip socket). Cartilage and bone are removed from the acetabulum

2012 Wikipedia

98. Electronic health record

Electronic health record Electronic health record - Wikipedia Electronic health record From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Sample view of an electronic health record An electronic health record ( EHR ), or electronic medical record ( EMR ), is the systematized collection of patient and population electronically-stored health information in a digital format. These records can be shared across different settings. Records are shared through network-connected, enterprise-wide information systems (...) typically stem from human-machine interfaces or organization/system design." The Joint Commission cites as an example the MEDMARX database where of 176,409 medication error records for 2006, approximately 25 percent (43,372) involved some aspect of computer technology as at least one cause of the error. The (NHS) in the UK reports specific examples of potential and actual EHR-caused unintended consequences in their 2009 document on the management of clinical risk relating to the deployment and use

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2012 Wikipedia

99. Endocrine disruptor

varieties of . The endocrine system consists of that secrete , and that detect and react to the hormones. Hormones travel throughout the body and act as chemical messengers. Hormones interface with cells that contain matching receptors in or on their surfaces. The hormone binds with the receptor, much like a key would fit into a lock. The endocrine system regulates adjustments through slower internal processes, using hormones as messengers. The endocrine system secretes hormones in response (...) disruptor can elicit adverse effects at much lower doses than a toxicity, acting through a different mechanism. The timing of exposure is also critical. Most critical stages of development occur in utero, where the fertilized egg divides, rapidly developing every structure of a fully formed baby, including much of the wiring in the brain. Interfering with the hormonal communication in utero can have profound effects both structurally and toward brain development. Depending on the stage of reproductive

2012 Wikipedia

100. Wheelchair

as to whether scooters fall under the same equality legislation as wheelchairs. Single-arm drive wheelchairs [ ] One-arm or single arm drive enables a user to self-propel a manual wheelchair using only a single arm. The large wheel on the same side as the arm to be used is fitted with two concentric handrims, one of smaller diameter than the other. On most models the outer, smaller rim, is connected to the wheel on the opposite side by an inner concentric axle. When both handrims are grasped together (...) . The interface may consist of a conventional wheelchair joystick, a " " device or a touch-sensitive display. This differs from a conventional powerchair, in which the user exerts manual control over speed and direction without intervention by the wheelchair's control system. Smart wheelchairs are designed for a variety of user types. Some are designed for users with , such as , these typically apply collision-avoidance techniques to ensure that users do not accidentally select a drive command that results

2012 Wikipedia

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