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123681. Effect of massive weight loss induced by bariatric surgery on serum levels of interleukin-18 and monocyte-chemoattractant-protein-1 in morbid obesity. (Abstract)

patients with morbid obesity before and after significant weight loss induced by bariatric surgery and their preoperative and postoperative associations with C-reactive protein (CRP) and IR-associated factors.High sensitivity assays were used to measure concentrations of fasting CRP, IL-18 and MCP-1. Differences between patients before and after bariatric surgery were analyzed by Student's paired t-test. To investigate the associations of the observed reductions of values, delta of parameters were (...) calculated and preoperative, postoperative and delta data were tested by univariate and multivariate linear regression.After a mean follow-up period of 26.5 months and a massive weight loss of 35 kg induced by bariatric surgery, circulating IL-18 levels decreased by 37% (P<0.001) and circulating MCP-1 levels by 47% (P<0.001). Multiple linear regression of delta values of IL-18 showed that only 2-hour glucose (P=0.008) remained independently and significantly associated with IL-18, whereas multiple linear

2006 Obesity Surgery

123682. Evaluation of gastric greater curvature invagination for weight loss in rats. (Abstract)

mean body weight of the invagination group became statistically less than the laparotomy and sham groups at 7 and 21 days. The mean weight of the peritesticular fat pad from the inv group was also significantly less than from the sham group but not different from the lap group.Gastric greater curvature invagination significantly decreases weight in rats. (...) Evaluation of gastric greater curvature invagination for weight loss in rats. Many bariatric endocopic or surgical procedures performed today reduce gastric capacity and/or induce an early sensation of satiety, alone or in combination with a distal enteric intervention. A form of prosthetic gastric wrap was used in the past for treating obesity with a high rate of reintervention. Nissen gastric fundoplication used in the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease induces a small

2006 Obesity Surgery

123683. Short-term changes in insulin resistance following weight loss surgery for morbid obesity: laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding versus laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. (Abstract)

90 days of surgery. Significant differences between groups were tested by ANOVA.There were no significant preoperative differences between groups. The 56 LAGB patients had a mean age of 42.5 years (25.7-63), BMI of 45.5 kg/m(2) (35-66) and preoperative HOMA IR of 4.1 (1.4-39.2). 75% of LAGB patients were female and 43% had T2DM. The 61 LRYGBP patients had a median age of 39.9 years (22.1-64.3), BMI of 45.0 kg/m(2) (36-62), and preoperative HOMA IR of 5.0 (0.6-56.5). 79% of LRYGBP patients were (...) women and 44.3% had T2DM. Median follow-up for LAGB patients was 45 days (18-90) and for LRYGBP patients 46 days (8-88 days). LAGB patients had a median of 14.8% excess weight loss (6.9%-37.0%) and LRYGB patients 24.2% (9.8%-51.4%). Postoperative HOMA IR was significantly less after LRYGBP, 2.2 (0.7-12.2), than LAGB, 2.6 (0.8-29.6), although change in HOMA IR was not significantly different. Change in HOMA IR for both groups did not vary with length of follow-up or weight loss but correlated best

2006 Obesity Surgery

123684. Pre-surgery binge eating status: effect on eating behavior and weight outcome after gastric bypass. (Abstract)

prior to surgery and again > or = 12 months after surgery.For BE, higher scores were found for both hunger and disinhibition prior to surgery. At a mean of 18 months after surgery, BE and NBE were indistinguishable on these subscales and there were no differences in weight lost.RYGBP surgery has an equally positive impact on eating behavior and weight loss for both BE and NBE. Within a multidisciplinary clinic, preoperative BE status does not appear to be a negative prognostic indicator for RYGBP (...) Pre-surgery binge eating status: effect on eating behavior and weight outcome after gastric bypass. The impact of pre-surgical binge eating on postoperative outcomes is poorly understood. Previous studies have found marked preoperative differences between binge eaters (BE) and non-binge eaters (NBE) in hunger and disinhibition using the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ). Short-term prospective data are mixed regarding whether these differences persist after surgery and if preoperative

2006 Obesity Surgery

123685. Weight reduction after an early version of the open gastric bypass for morbid obesity: results after 23 years. (Abstract)

population of 195 patients, we retrospectively analyzed the outcome of 98 patients (82 women, 16 men, mean age 32 years [range 17-54], mean weight 132 kg [range 65-200], mean BMI 46.6 kg/m2) operated on in Erlangen with mean follow-up 22.9 years (range 16.5-25.4). 3 different bariatric operations were performed: horizontal gastroplasty (HGP, n=18), stapled Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (S-RYGBP, n=14) and transected Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (T-RYGBP, n=66). BMI and percentage of excess weight loss (%EWL) were (...) Weight reduction after an early version of the open gastric bypass for morbid obesity: results after 23 years. While numerous promising short-term results of open gastric bypass for morbid obesity were published, the long-term outcome of earlier versions was somewhat disappointing. Thus, it was not until 1993 that this procedure was reintroduced with current modifications and now performed laparoscopically. Published long-term results of gastric bypass are still lacking.Out of an original

2006 Obesity Surgery

123686. Understanding patients' value of weight loss and expectations for bariatric surgery. (Abstract)

Understanding patients' value of weight loss and expectations for bariatric surgery. Few studies examine patients' expectations for bariatric surgery or the value patients place on weight loss.44 patients planning to undergo bariatric surgery were surveyed to examine patients' expectations and motivations for surgery. We also quantified how much patients valued different health and weight loss states using the standard gamble, an approach that estimates an outcome's value based on a patient's (...) willingness to risk death to achieve the outcome. Utilities ranging from 0 to 1.00 were calculated where 1.00 represented the most desired state.Mean age of the patients was 42.6 years, and mean body mass index was 47.1 kg/m(2). The majority were women (n=42) and white (n=29), and reported poor quality of life. Most patients considered surgery for health reasons. Patients expected to lose 38% of their total body weight and would be disappointed if they did not lose at least 24% of their body weight

2006 Obesity Surgery

123687. Long-term weight loss after bariatric surgery in patients visited at home outside the study environment. (Abstract)

gastroplasty or a gastric bypass between 1980 and 1997 were eligible. Body weight and height were measured. Patients filled out general and health status questionnaires (Nottingham Health Profile (NHP)).Responses were obtained from 236/313 subjects (75%) with a mean +/- SD age of 42.9 +/- 10.2 years and a mean current body weight of 100.3 +/- 20.7 kg. A maximum weight loss of 48.2 +/- 18.4 kg or 70.8 +/- 22.4% excess weight loss was obtained after 17 +/- 15 months, of which 32.1 +/- 22.6 kg or 45.2 (...) +/- 29.3%, respectively, was maintained at 8.2 +/- 4.5 years after the intervention. Males and females did not differ in weight loss. The type of operation had no influence. Age >50 years and a BMI >50 kg/m(2) were not related to a poor outcome, but a time lapse of >5 years since the operation resulted in a less well sustained weight loss. The subjective health status improved considerably, but less so with a smaller weight loss and longer lapse of time since the operation. Especially in females

2006 Obesity Surgery

123688. Effect of weight loss on P wave dispersion in obese subjects. (Abstract)

computer by a scanner and then magnified 400 times by Adobe Photoshop software (Adobe Systems, Mountain View, CA). P wave dispersion, which is also defined as the difference between the maximum P wave duration and the minimum P wave duration, was also calculated.After a 12-week weight loss program, BMI (p < 0.001), maximum P wave duration (p < 0.001), and P wave dispersion (p < 0.001) significantly decreased. The mean percentage of weight loss was 13% (10% to 20.3%). The decrease in the level of P wave (...) Effect of weight loss on P wave dispersion in obese subjects. The aim of this study was to investigate effect of loss weight on P wave dispersion in obese subjects.After a 12-week weight loss program (diet and medical therapy), a total of 30 (24 women and six men) obese subjects who had lost at least 10% of their original weight were included in the present study. All subjects underwent a routine standard 12-lead surface electrocardiogram. Electrocardiograms were transferred to a personal

2006 Obesity

123689. Dietary quality predicts adult weight gain: findings from the Framingham Offspring Study. (Abstract)

. A five-point diet quality index (DQI) was computed based on mean nutrient intake levels from each set of diet records. One DQI point was contributed for each of five nutrients if intake met Dietary Guidelines for total and saturated fat, cholesterol, sodium, and carbohydrate. Gender-specific generalized estimating equations pooled data across the two assessments to relate DQI to 8-year weight gain.Men and women with higher DQI scores gained less weight during follow-up (p < 0.05). Average gain over 8 (...) years was approximately 3 pounds among those with highest scores, compared with 5 to 8 pounds among those with lower scores. Smoking cessation was an important predictor of weight gain, accounting for about a 5- to 9-pound difference in weight gain.A high-quality diet, one that is consistent with the Dietary Guidelines, may help curb rising rates of obesity at the population level. Poor compliance with the Guidelines, rather than the guidelines themselves, is likely responsible for the weight gain

2006 Obesity

123690. Assessing weight-related quality of life in adolescents. (Full text)

Assessing weight-related quality of life in adolescents. The development of a new weight-related measure to assess quality of life in adolescents [Impact of Weight on Quality of Life (IWQOL)-Kids] is described.Using a literature search, clinical experience, and consultation with pediatric clinicians, 73 items were developed, pilot tested, and administered to 642 participants, 11 to 19 years old, recruited from weight loss programs/studies and community samples (mean z-BMI, 1.5; range, -1.2 (...) with strong correlations between IWQOL-Kids total score and the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (r = 0.76, p < 0.0001). Significant differences were found across BMI groups and between clinical and community samples, supporting the sensitivity of this measure. Participants in a weight loss camp demonstrated improved IWQOL-Kids scores, suggesting responsiveness of the IWQOL-Kids to weight loss/social support intervention.The present study provides preliminary evidence regarding the psychometric

2006 Obesity PubMed abstract

123691. Associations between long-term physical activity, waist circumference and weight gain: a 30-year longitudinal twin study. (Full text)

circumference at 30-year follow-up (2005) and change in weight from 1975 to 2005.In the 42 twin pairs discordant for physical activity at all time points during the 30-year period, the mean weight gain from 1975 through 2005 was 5.4 kg (95% confidence interval (CI) 2.0-8.9) less in the active compared to inactive co-twins (paired t-test, P=0.003). In 2005, the mean waist circumference was 8.4 cm (95% CI 4.0-12.7) less in the active compared with inactive co-twins (P<0.001). These trends were similar (...) for both monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs. Pairwise differences in weight gain and waist circumference were not seen in the 47 twin pairs, who were not consistently discordant for physical activity.Persistent participation in leisure-time physical activity is associated with decreased rate of weight gain and with a smaller waist circumference to a clinically significant extent even after partially controlling for genetic liability and childhood environment.

2008 International Journal of Obesity PubMed abstract

123692. A comparison of short-term appetite and energy intakes in normal weight and obese boys following glucose and whey-protein drinks. (Full text)

meal was measured 30 min (Experiment 1) or 60 min (Experiment 2) later.In Experiment 1, glucose suppressed FI (mean kJ+/-s.e.m.) in NW (3126+/-304) and OB boys (3116+/-286) compared with the control (NW, 4015+/-337 and OB, 3791+/-255). Whey protein suppressed FI in NW, but not in OB boys. Body weight, fat-mass and fat-free mass were positively associated with FI after all treatments in NW, but was not related to FI in OB boys. In Experiment 2, FI was suppressed by whey protein (2683+/-367) more (...) A comparison of short-term appetite and energy intakes in normal weight and obese boys following glucose and whey-protein drinks. To compare the effect of glucose and whey-protein preloads on satiety and food intake (FI) as affected by time to the next meal and body composition in normal weight (NW) and obese (OB) boys.Cross-sectional clinical intervention study of the effect of caloric preloads on FI control in boys.Seventeen NW (body mass index (BMI)=18.9+/-0.5 kg/m(2); age=12.2+/-0.3 years

2008 International Journal of Obesity PubMed abstract

123693. Do you see what I see? Weight status misperception and exposure to obesity among children and adolescents. (Full text)

people in their immediate environments. This study examined whether youth who are exposed to overweight parents and schoolmates were more likely to misperceive their own weight status.The Quebec Child and Adolescent Health and Social Survey was a provincially representative, school-based survey of children and adolescents conducted between January and May 1999.3665 children and adolescents (age 9, n=1267; age 13, n=1186; age 16, n=1212) from 178 schools. Mean body mass index (BMI) was 17.5, 20.6 (...) and 22.2 kg/m(2), respectively.The misperception score was calculated as the standardized difference between self-perception of weight status (Stunkard Body Rating Scale) and actual BMI (from measured height and weight). Exposure to obesity was based on parent and schoolmate BMI.Overweight and obese youth were significantly more likely to misperceive their weight compared with non-overweight youth (P<0.001). Multilevel modeling indicated that greater parent and schoolmate BMI were significantly

2008 International Journal of Obesity PubMed abstract

123694. Individual variability following 12 weeks of supervised exercise: identification and characterization of compensation for exercise-induced weight loss. (Full text)

as compensators (C) or noncompensators (NC) based on their actual weight loss (mean NC=6.3+/-3.2 kg and C=1.5+/- 2.5 kg) relative to their predicted weight loss. C and NC were characterized by their different metabolic and behavioural compensatory responses. Moderate changes in RMR occurred in C (-69.2+/-268.7 kcal day(-1)) and NC (14.2+/-242.7 kcal day(-1)). EI and average daily subjective hunger increased by 268.2+/-455.4 kcal day(-1) and 6.9+/-11.4 mm day(-1) in C, whereas EI decreased by 130+/-485 kcal (...) supervised conditions.Body weight, body composition, resting metabolic rate (RMR), total daily energy intake (EI) and subjective appetite sensations were measured at weeks 0 and 12.When all subjects' data were pooled, the mean reduction in body weight (3.7+/-3.6 kg) was significant (P<0.0001) and as predicted, which suggested no compensation for the increase in EE. However, further examination revealed a large individual variability in weight change (-14.7 to +1.7 kg). Subjects were identified

2008 International Journal of Obesity PubMed abstract

123695. The impact of weight reduction surgery on health-care costs in morbidly obese patients. (Abstract)

, gender and duration of follow-up. Patients having undergone bariatric surgery had significant reductions in mean percent initial excess weight loss (67.1%, P <0.001) and in percent change in initial body mass index (34.6%, P <0.001). Bariatric surgery patients had higher total costs for hospitalizations (per 1,000 patients) in the first year following cohort inception (surgery cohort = CDN 12,461,938 dollars; control cohort = CDN 3,609,680 dollars). At 5 years after cohort inception, average (...) cumulative costs for operated patients were CDN 19,516,667 dollars versus CDN 25,264,608 dollars, for an absolute difference of almost CDN 6,000,000 dollars per 1,000 patients.Weight-reduction surgery in morbidly obese patients produces effective weight loss and decreases long-term direct health-care costs. The initial costs of surgery can be amortized over 3.5 years.

2004 Obesity Surgery

123696. Personality of young adults born prematurely: the Helsinki study of very low birth weight adults. (Abstract)

Personality of young adults born prematurely: the Helsinki study of very low birth weight adults. Today, the first generations of very low birth weight (VLBW mean 21.4, SD 2.19) with VLBW (n = 158) with those of term-born controls (n (...) = 168) of same gender, age, and maternity hospital. The participants completed the Neo-Personality Inventory.Of the five main traits, the VLBW participants scored significantly higher in conscientiousness (MD .1, 95% CI .0 to .3; p < .03), agreeableness (MD .2, 95% CI .0 to .3; p < .001), and lower in openness to experience (MD -.1, 95% CI -.2 to .0; p < .02). In addition, the VLBW group differed from the controls with regard to facets of neuroticism (lower hostility and impulsivity, ps < .05

2008 Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry

123697. Weight gain over 5 years in 21,966 meat-eating, fish-eating, vegetarian, and vegan men and women in EPIC-Oxford. (Full text)

at baseline in 1994-1999 and at follow-up in 2000-2003; the median duration of follow-up was 5.3 years.A total of 21,966 men and women participating in Oxford arm of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition aged 20-69 years at baseline.The mean annual weight gain was 389 (SD 884) g in men and 398 (SD 892) g in women. The differences between meat-eaters, fish-eaters, vegetarians and vegans in age-adjusted mean BMI at follow-up were similar to those seen at baseline. Multivariable (...) -adjusted mean weight gain was somewhat smaller in vegans (284 g in men and 303 g in women, P<0.05 for both sexes) and fish-eaters (338 g, women only, P<0.001) compared with meat-eaters. Men and women who changed their diet in one or several steps in the direction meat-eater --> fish-eater --> vegetarian --> vegan showed the smallest mean annual weight gain of 242 (95% CI 133-351) and 301 (95% CI 238-365) g, respectively.During 5 years follow-up, the mean annual weight gain in a health-conscious cohort

2006 International Journal of Obesity PubMed abstract

123698. Long-term health and psychosocial outcomes from surgically induced weight loss: results obtained in patients not attending protocolled follow-up visits. (Full text)

%) agreed to participate. They maintained a mean (s.d.) loss of 32.1 (22.6) kg and 45.2 (29.3) % of excess weight, 8.2 (4.5) years after the operation, about two-third of the largest weight loss they achieved after 17 months postoperatively. The NHP and SCL-90-R conformed to norm values in males except for energy, sleep and emotional reactions. Females differed from norm values in every aspect and even women achieving a BMI<30 kg/m(2) did not catch up to norm values. Weight loss was inversely related (...) Long-term health and psychosocial outcomes from surgically induced weight loss: results obtained in patients not attending protocolled follow-up visits. Obesity management is focused at weight loss to obtain health, psychological and social benefits. Outcomes from controlled trials, however, do not reflect the everyday routine practice. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the results from surgically induced weight loss in patients devoid of a protocol-wise follow-up, who were visited

2007 International Journal of Obesity PubMed abstract

123699. Four-week pedometer-determined activity patterns in normal weight and overweight UK adults. (Full text)

, completed the study.Daily step counts were measured using a Yamax SW-200 pedometer, and were then recorded in an activity log. Comparisons were made between activity patterns occurring over different days of the week for the normal weight and overweight groups. Measurements of height, weight and percentage body fat, by bioelectrical impedance, were taken pre- and post-study.A consistent reduction in activity was observed on a Sunday in the overweight group, and mean daily step counts accumulated (...) on Sundays were significantly lower, by an average of 2221 steps/day, when compared with all other days of the week (all P<0.001). In comparison, no day-of-the-week effect was observed in the normal weight group. Mean step counts reported on each day of the week did not differ significantly between the two groups, with the exception of Sunday when the overweight group reported significantly fewer steps than the normal weight participants (8093 versus 10 538, P<0.001).Activity levels dropped dramatically

2007 International Journal of Obesity PubMed abstract

123700. Resting energy expenditure and fuel metabolism following laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding in severely obese women: relationships with excess weight lost. (Full text)

time: group A (6-12 months, n=39); group B (12-18 months, n=21); group C (>18 months, n=13). Metabolic parameters associated with the percentage of excess weight lost (EWL) 1 year after surgery were analyzed in univariate and multivariate regressions.Mean weight loss was 26.2+/-11.4 kg. Mean fat mass loss was 17.3+/-8.1 kg. All biological parameters associated with excess weight improved after surgery. Excess weight lost at 1 year was 45.9+/-17.1% in group A, 47.4+/-17.1% in group B and 51.4+/-18.5 (...) % in group C (P=NS). Resting metabolic rate/fat-free mass (FFM) slightly decreased (28.9+/-3.26 vs 30.3+/-2.8, P<0.00001) and RMR/body weight slightly increased (18.5+/-2.8 vs 17.3+/-1.9, P<0.00001) after surgery. Respiratory quotient (0.81+/-0.06 vs 0.82+/-0.05) and FFM-adjusted lipid oxidation (1.10+/-0.41 vs 1.05+/-0.33 mg/min/kg FFM) were not significantly modified after surgery. In multiple linear regression analysis, difference in RMR/body weight, difference in energy sparing, baseline BMI

2006 International Journal of Obesity PubMed abstract

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